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oblations of quarrelling and angry persons; it is like that of the high priests, in the case of Judas’s restitution of the money, - they would not put it into the treasury, because it was the price of blood. Now, because our blessed Master in his law hath handled all great angers and uncharitableness under the title of murder, the church thought it reasonable not to receive the offerings, that is, to reject from the communion all those persons that were in mutual feuds, enmities, and fierce angers. “ I wonder,” saith St. Cyprian", " what peace they can look for, that are at war with their brethren ?": —“These men may be compelled, by their injunction of severe fastings, to be reconciled ;" said Fabianus', the martyr. And, in the decree of P. Victor", it was expressly commanded, “ That they should be driven from the communion of all faithful people, who are not in peace, and have no charity to all their brethren.” This decree was renewed, and earnestly pressed in the council of Agatho”; that will not, by the grace of God working within them, Jay aside the hatred, and long suits, and dissensions, first let them be reproved by the priests of the city: but if they will not, at their reproof, lay aside their enmity, let them, by a most just excommunication, be driven from the congregations of the church." Which decree the church of England hath inserted into the second rubric, before her office of communion, of which I shall afterwards give account. But, for the present, we may consider, that it is infinitely reasonable, that he that needs, and comes for a great pardon, should not

“ They

Cap. 93. Concil. Carth. 4. Oblationes dissidentium fratrum, ncque in Sacrario, neque in Gazophylacio Episcopi recipiant.-

Nonquam mihi contingat turbatum ad pacis accedere sacrificium ; cum ira et disceptatione accedere ad sacrameutum, in quo Deus indubitanter est, reconcilians mundam sibi. Certe non recipitur munus, quodcunque meum quod defero ad altare, nisi ante placato fratre, qnem me forte læsisse memi. uero.-S. Bernard. de precept. et dispens.

* Quam sibi pacem promittunt inimici fratrum?

· Possunt tales acerrimis inediis macerari, donec reconcilientur.-Fabian. dist. 90. cap. si quis.

m Epist. 2. ad Afros.

* Placuit ut (sicut plerunque fit) quicnnque odio ant longinqua inter se lite dissenserint, et ad pacem revocari divina intentione nequiverint, a sacerdotibns civitatis primitus arguantur: qnod si inimicitias deponere perniciosa intentiove noluerint, de ecclesiæ cætu justissima excommunicatione pel. lantur.—Concil. Agath. cap. 31.


stick at the giving a little °; and he that desires to be liker God, and comes to be united to him, should do like him; that is, rejoice in remitting offences, rather than in punishing them. In this, as in all other things, we must follow God's example; for in this alone he else will follow ours. In imitating him, it is certain, we are innocent; and if in this be follows us, though we be wicked, yet he is holy; because revenge is his, and he alone is to pay it. If, therefore, we will forgive, he will; if we will not, neither will he: for he makes his spear as long, and his angers as lasting, as we do

But this duty, and the great reasonableness and necessity, I shall represent in the excellent words of the Talmudists”, recorded also by the famous Bensirach'; “ He that revengeth, shall find vengeance of the Lord, and he will surely keep his sins in remembrance. Forgive thy neighbour the hurt, that he hath done unto thee; so shall thy sins also be forgiven, when thou prayest. One man keepeth anger against another; and doth he seek healing from the Lord ? He showeth no mercy to any man that is like himself; and doth he ask forgiveness for his own sins? If he that is but flesh, nourish hatred, who will entreat for pardon of his sins ?

The duty is plain, and the reason urgent, and the commandment express, and the threatening terrible, and the promise excellent. There is in this no more to be said, but that we consider concerning the manner of reducing it to practice, in order to our preparation to a worthy communion: and consider the special cases of conscience relating to this great daty.

1. Therefore we are bound to forgive every man that offends us. For concerning every one of our brethren it is equally true, that he is an excellent creation, that he is thy

? Det ille veniam facile, cui venia est opns.

Ρ “Οστις ών έoικέναι βούλεται θεούς, αφιείς τιμωρίας χαιρέτι μάλλον, ή λαμβάγων. Libanius.

9 Si repetes, repetet; si durus es, ille rogantem

Abjiciet; fusas conteret atque preces.
In reliquis exempla tibi namque omnibus ille

Præbet; at hic sequitur quod prior ipse facis :
Utque solet speculum quas cepit reddere fornias,
Æqua ita lanx lanci dia futura tua est.

Antholog. Bill.
r Eccles. xxviii. 1, 2, 3.

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brother, that he is heir of the same hopes, born to the same inheritance, descended of the same father, nursed by the church, which is his mother and thine; that there is in him God's image, drawn by the same hand, described in the same lines; that there are in him many good things for which he can be loved, and many reasons in him for which he ought to be pardoned; God hath made many decrees for him, and the angels minister to him, and Christ died for him, and his soul is very precious in the eyes of God, and in heaven itself; the man whom thou hatest, is very considerable; and there, there are great desires for his temporal and eternal happiness ; and why shouldest thou despise, and why shouldest thou stand out against all this?

2. Not only every man, but every offence must be forgiven. The wise man says, “That for some things there will be no returning again :” a blow, indeed, or an evil word, may be pardoned; but for “ upbraiding and pride, and disclosing secrets, and a treacherous wound, every friend will depart, and never return again.” But he only tells how it will be, not what ought to be; what it is likely to be in matter of fact, not how it should be in case of conscience: and he means this of societies and civil friendships; but in religion we go higher, and even these also, and greater than these, must be pardoned, unless we would prescribe a limit to God's mercy, in the remission of our own sins. He will pardon every sin of ours, for the pardon of which we can rightly pray; but yet we must pray for it, and hope it upon no measures, but those of our forgiveness. “O Jupiter,” said the distressed prince', “ hear our prayers ; according to our piety look upon us ; and as we do, so give us help.” And there is no instance that can be considerable to the lessening or excusing of this duty. We must forgive, not only injuries in the matter of money; but in all errors and crimes whatsoever, in which any man can sin, and thou canst be offended.

s Ecclus. xxii. 22.

Jupiter omnipotens, precibus si ffccteris ullis,

Aspice nos ; hoc tantun ; et, si pietate meremur,

Da deinde auxilium.- Æneid. lib. ji. 689. # Dimittenda sunt debita, non pecuniæ solum, sed omnium causarum, culparum, criminum, quicquid liomo incurrere poterit; in his, tibi quuni incurrerit alter, ignosce.

3. Although, in these things, there is no difficulty, yet, in the intention and expressions of this duty, there is some. For if it be inquired what is meant by forgiving,-many men suppose it is nothing but saying, I forgive him with all my heart; and I pray God forgive him :' but this is but words, and we must have more material significations of it than so; because nothing can commute for the omission of the necessary parts of this duty. It is, therefore, necessary that we observe these measures.

1. Every man that hath received injuries, be they ever so great, must have a mind perfectly free from all intentions of revenge, in any instance whatsoever. For when the question is concerning forgiving him that did the wrong, every man can best answer his question, by placing himself in the seat of him that did the offence, and considering to what purposes, and by what significations, and in what degrees, and to what event of things himself would fain be pardoned, if he were in his case, and did repent the injury, and did desire* pardon. That is the measure and the rule; and we learn it from Chrysologus ", " Thou art a sinful man, and thou wouldest that God and man should always forgive thee. Do thou forgive always: so much, so often, so entirely, as thou wouldest be pardoned thyself, — so much, so often, and so entirely give pardon to thine enemy.” And this, together with the reason of it, is weil expressed in the Gospel of the Nazarenes; “ If thy brother sins against thee in words, and offers thee satisfaction seven times in a day, receive him. Simon, his disciple, saith unto him, “Seven times in a day?' The Lord answers, ' Yea, I say unto you, seventy times seven times, For even amongst the prophets also, after they were anointed with the Holy Ghost, there was found the word of sin, that is, they also offended in their tongues.'"

Against this there is no objection, but what is made by the foolish discourses of young men, fighters and malicious, who, by the evil manners of the world, are taught to call.

* Qui, ne tuberibus propriis offendat amicụm

Postulat, ignoscat verrucis illius; æquum est,
Peccatis veniam poscentem reddere rursus.

Horat. 1. Serm. 3,73. » Homo sinc peccato esse pon potes ; et vis semper tibi dimitti? dimitte semper. Quantum vis tibi dimitti, tantum dimitte. Quoties vis dimitu tibi, toties dimitte : imo quia vis totum dimitti tibi, totum dimitte.

revenge gallántry, and the pardoning of injuries to be púsillanimity and cowardice. For this devil that dwells in tombs, and cannot be bound with chains, prevails infinitely upon this account, amongst the more glorious part of mankind; but (as all other things are, which oppose the wisdom of God) is infinitely unreasonable, there being nothing in the world a greater testimony of impotency and effeminacy of spirit, than a desire of revenge. Who are so cruel as cowards ? and who so revengeful as the weakest and the most passionate women? Wise Chrysippus, and gentle Thales, and the good old man, who, being to drink his poison, refused to give any of it to his persecutar; these men did not think revenge a pleasure, or a worthy satisfaction?. For what man is so barbarons, as to recover his leprosy by sucking the life-blood from dying infants ? A good man would rather endure ten leprosies, than one such remedy. Such a thing is revenge, it pretends to cure a wound, but does it with an intolerable remedy. It was the song of Cyclopsa to his sheep,

“ Feed you upon

the tender herbs, - I mean to feed upon the flesh, and drink the blood of the Greeks:” this is a violence, not only to the laws and manners, but even to the very nature of men. Lions indeed, and tigers, do, with a strange curiosity, eye and observe him that struck them, and they fight with him above all the hunters; to strike again is the return of beasts; but to pardon him that smote, is the bravest amends, and the noblest way of doing right unto ourselves; whilst in the ways of a man, and the methods of God, we have conquered our enemy into a friend. But revenge is the disease of honour, and is as contrary to the wisdom and bravery of men, as dwelling in rivers, and wallowing in fires, is to their natural manner of living. And he who, out of pretence of valour, pursues revenge, is like to him, who, because fire

Ultio ;

quippe minnti
Semper et intirmi est animi, exiguique voluptas

continuo sic collige, quod vindicta
Nemo magis gandet quam fæmina :-
Chrysippus non dicet išlein, nec 'mite Thaletis
Ingeninm, dulcique senex vicinus Hymetto,
Qui partem acceptæ sæva inter vincla cientæ

Accusatori nollet dare. - Jucenal. xiii. 184. a Pascite vos hierbas, socios ego pascor Achivos.

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