« הקודםהמשך »
SECOND VOL U M E.
A History of the Apostles and Evangelists, Writers of the
New Testament. In three Volumes. Containing ge-
This book of Dr. Lardner, otherwise intitled the Supplement to the
General Denominations of the Collection of sacred Books, received by Christians.
1. Scripture. II. Bible. III. Canon. IV. Old and New Testament.
V. Instrument. VI. Digeft. VII. Gospel.
1. NE of the general denominations of sacred books
Scripture. is Scripture, or Scriptures, literally, and primarily fignifying writing. But by way of eminence and distinction the books in the highest esteem are called Scripture, or the Scriptures.
This word occurs often in the New Testament, in the Gospels, the Acts, and the Fpistles. Whereby we perceive, that in the time of our Saviour and his Apostles this word was in common use, denoting the books received by the Jewish People, as the rule of their faith. To them have been fince added by Christians the writings of Apostles and Evangelists, completing the collection of books, received by them as facred
Some of the places, where the word Scripture is used in the fingular number for the books of the Old Testament, are these. 2 Tim. iii. 16. Ail feripture is given by the inspiration of God. And Luke iv. 21. John 1. 22. Aas i. 16. viii. 32. 35. Rom. iv. 3. Gal. iii. 8. James ii. 18.23. 1 Pet. ii. 6. 2 Pet. i. 20. Scriptures, in the plural number, in these following, and many other places. Matth. xxi. 42. xxii. 29. xxvi. 54. Luke xxiv. 27. 32. 45. John v. 39. Acts xvii. 2. 11. xviii. 24. 28. 2 Tim. iii, 15; 2 Pet. iii. 16.
St. Peter applies this word to the books of the New, as well as of the Old Testament, to St. Paul's Epistles, in particular. 2 Pet. iii. 16. . as also in all his epistles .. which they that are unlearned, wrest, as they do also the cther scriptures, unte their own destruction. Plainly denoting, that
St. Paul's Epistles are Scriptures in the highest sense of the word. Bible.
II. Bible is another word, which has now been long in use
among Christians, denoting the whole collection of writings received by them, as of divine Authority.
The word, primarily, denotes book. But now is given to the writings of Prophets and Apostles by way of eminence. This collection is the Book, or Bible, the book of books, as superior in excellence to all other books. The word seems to be used in this sense by Chryfoftom in a palfage already (a) cited. “ I therefore exhort all of you to procure to your« Telves Bibles, Bobría. If you have nothing else, take care to have the “ New Testament, particularly, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Gof“ pels, for your constant instructors.” And Jerome says, “ That (b) the “ Scriptures being all writ by one Spirit, are called one book.” We likewise law formerly a paffage of Augustin, where he informs us, " That (c) “ some called all the canonical scriptures one book, on account of their « wonderful harmonie, and unity of design throughout.” And I then faid: “It is likely, that this way of speaking gradually brought in the general use of the word Bible, for the whole collection of the scriptures, or the books of the Old and New Testament."
In short, the ancient Christians were continually speaking of the Di. sine Oracles, and the Divine Books, and were much employed in reading them, as Chryfoftom directs in a passage, transcribed (d) below : where he recommends the reading the divine books daily, forenoon and afternoon. At length the whole collection was called the book, or the bible.
Dr. Heumann has an Epistle, or short Dissertation (e) concerning the origin of this name of our sacred collection of books. And for some while he was of opinion, that (1) it was so called, as being the most excellent of all books: in like manner as the Jews had before called their collection the Scriptures, by way of eminence. So Acts xviii. 24. and 28. But (s) afterwards he suspected, that the origin of this name was in
* Hac parte (quod bene notandum eft) Petrus canonizat, ut ita loquar, id eft, in canonem iacrarum scripturarum ascribit, atque canonicas facit epistolas Pauli. Dicens enim, ficut & ceteras fcripturas, utique fignificat, fe etiam illas in scripturarum numero habere. De facris autem scripturis eum loqui, in confeffo elt. El. in loc. (a) Vol. X. p. 349:
(6) The fame. p. 158. (c) The fame. Do 256. 4) Αλλά δεν ααία καιρόν επλήδειον ηγείσθαι προς την των πνευματικών λόγων διαλεξιν. ... Δυνησόμεθα και επί οικίας διατρίβονίες, και μετά την επιάσιν, και προ της έγιάσεως μετά χείρας λάβονίες τα θεία βιβλία την εξ αυλών καρπεσθαι ωφέλειαν. In i. Gen. hom. x. T. 4. p. 81. C. Bened, (?) De origine nominis Bibliorum. Heum. Poecile. Tom. i. p. 412. . . 415.
Sufpicari deiide capi, ideo Biblia dictum effe facrum codicem, quod tanquam liber omnium przeltantislimus xxi' itoxă, dictus fit à B.Cric. Sup. petias conjecturæ huic ferre videbatur illa appellatio, qua idem divinum opus vocari solet ai rempas. e. fr. Act. xviii. 24. 28. Idi ib. p. 413. (3) Ib p. 414