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PUERTO BELLO-PUERTO RICO. PUERTO BEʻLLO, a small decayed seaport |--18° 30' N., long. 65° 39—67° 11' W. It is in town of the United States of Colombia, on the size somewhat less than Jamaica, being fully 100 northern shore of the Isthmus of Panama, and 40 miles from east to west, 40 miles from north to miles north of the town of that name. It is sur south, and closely resembling a rectangle in shape. rounded by mountains, has an excellent harbour, is The island is traversed from east to west by a very unhealthy, and has fallen into decay since the range of mountains, 1500 feet in average height, year 1739, when it was stormed by Admiral Vernon, though rising in one peak to 3678 feet above the during the war between England and Spain.

From the base of the mountains, rich alluvial PUERTO DE SA'NTA MARI'A (usually called tracts extend to the sea, and there are numerous EL PUERTO, the Port), a seaport of Spain, in the well-wooded and abundantly watered valleys. The modern province of Cadiz, stands at the mouth of

soil is remarkably fertile. The principal crops the Guadalete, in a most fertile district, on the Bay and cotton remarkable for its length of fibre,

are sugar, coffee, and tobacco of the finest quality, of Cadiz, 6 miles north-east of the city of that

Cattle and sheep are name, and 9 miles by railway south-west of Xeres. tenacity, and whiteness. Suspension bridges cross the Guadalete and the Rio extensively reared, of a quality superior to any de S. Pedro. The mouth of the Guadalete forms others in the West Indies. The imports consist of the harbour ; but the bar is dangerous and much cotton, woollen, linen, silk, and embroidered goods, neglected. P., a pleasant and well-built town, fruits, wines, &c.' The exports are sugar, tobacco,

metals, hardware, and provisions, as ale, porter, resembling Cadiz in its houses, and containing only coffee

, cotton, molasses, rum, hides, and cattle

. one long and handsome street, while the others are The chief ports are San Juan, commonly called narrow and ill paved, is the port for the shipment Puerto Rico, in the north-east, Ponce in the of Xeres wines. The wines are lodged in numerous

P. R. is bodegas, or wine-stores, lofty buildings built with south-west, and Mayaguez in the west. thick walls and narrow windows, in order to secure West Indies. Area, 3897

sq. m.; pop. 700,000, of

one of the coolest and healthiest places in the an even temperature inside. From this port about 1,530,000 gallons of Xeres wines are exported to whom the majority are whites, and of the coloured foreign lands, and about 26,000 gallons are trans- race not more than 35,000 are slaves. The island ported inland. The bull-fights which take place produces 100,000 tons of sugar yearly. The British here in May are among the most famous in the consul, in a recent report, estimates the whole country. Steamers ply three times a day between produce at 20,000,000 dollars, the exports (for this town and Cadiz, and P. supplies that city with 1868) at £2,500,000, and the imports at nearly the drinking-water at a cost of £10,000 a year. Pop. Great Britain, but owing to high differential duties

same amount. A great portion of the trade is with about 18,000.

and port charges, it is carried on in Spanish PUERTO PRINCIPÉ, SANTA MARIA DE, an bottoms. important inland town, in the east of the island of The libreta system, by which every labourer, Cuba, about 325 miles east-south-east of Havana, whether white or coloured, is obliged to shew from and 45 miles south-west of its port, Las Nuevitas, time to time that he is getting his living honestly, with which it is connected by railway. Pop. 30,000. is described as operating most beneficially. Every

PUERTO RICO, an island in the West Indies, labourer must, at the beginning of the month, belonging to Spain, is one of the Greater Antilles, present his libreta, or journal, for the preceding and lies west of Hayti or St Domingo, lat. 17° 55' | month, containing certificates from his employers


The same

of the number of days that he has worked; and to the removal of the honey, but have been used as
for all not thus accounted for, he must work an anæsthetic instead of chloroform.
upon the roads at sixpence a day—excepting, of properties belong also to other species. Some of
course, cases of ill health. In consequence of this, them, in a young state, are used in some countries
there is no necessity for the importation of coolies as food, and none of them is known to be poisonous.
or other labourers, the slave-trade is extinct, slavery PUFF-BIRD. See BARBET.
is dying out, the island is prosperous, and there is

PUFFENDORF, SAMUEL, son of a Lutheran a comparative absence of crime.

clergyman, was born in 1632 at Chemnitz, in PUFF-ADDER (Clotho arietans), a serpent of Saxony. He received the early part of his educathe family Viperidæ, having a short and broad flat tion at Grimma; whence he removed to the head, with scales so sharply keeled as to end in university of Leipzig. There he studied theology a kind of spine. It is one of the most venomous for several years. In 1656 he went to the university and dangerous serpents of South Africa. It attains of Jena, where he seems to have devoted himself a length of four or almost five feet, and is thick in at first chiefly to mathematics, and subsequently to proportion to its length, often as thick as a man's the study of the Law of Nature, as he, and others arm. Its head is very broad ; its tail suddenly who have treated on the same subject, have tapered; its colour brown, chequered with dark termed the law which regulates the duties of men

to one another, independent of the mutual obliga-
tion which is enforced by political government, or
by revelation of divine will. After quitting Jena,
he was appointed tutor to the son of the Swedish
ambassador at Copenhagen. Soon after he had
received this appointment, a rupture having taken
place between Denmark and Sweden, P. was detained
as a prisoner in the Danish capital. The power, of
his mind here shewed itself in a remarkable manner.
Deprived of books and of society, he threw himself
vigorously into meditating on what he had formerly
read in the treatise of Grotius, De Jure Belli et
Pacis, and in the writings of Hobbes on the
principles of general law. The result was the pro-
duction of the Elementa Jurisprudentice Universalis
-a work which was the foundation of its author's
fortune. It was dedicated to the Elector Palatine;

and by this prince, P. was appointed to the Pro-
Puff-adder (Clotho arietans).

fessorship of the Law of Nature and Nations at the
university of Heidelberg. He now gave his atten-

tion to the tissue of absurdities which existed in the brown and white; a reddish band between the constitution of the Germanic Empire. As was to eyes ; the under parts paler than the upper. Its have been expected, the work (De Statu Reipublicae movements are generally slow, but it turns very Germanicae, 1667), in which he exposed the defects quickly if approached from behind. It usually of the system, raised a storm of controversy. creeps partially immersed in the sand of the South Austria was especially furious. P. had taken care African deserts, its head alone being completely to publish it under a pseudonym—that of Severinus raised above ground. When irritated, it puffs out a Mozambano, but still, to avoid the possible conthe upper part of its body, whence its name. The

sequences, he accepted an invitation from Charles P. is easily killed by the oil, or even by the XI. of Sweden, in 1670, to become Professor of the juice of tobacco. Its poison is used by the Bosjes- Law of Nations at Lund. During his residence mans for their arrows.-South Africa produces there, he published the work on which his fame several other species of Clotho, similar in their now principally rests, De Jure Nature et Gentium. habits to the P., and almost equally dangerous. He then removed to Stockholm, where the king PUFFBALL (Lycoperdon), a Linnæan genus of

of Sweden made him his historiographer, with the Fungi, now divided into many genera, belonging dignity of a counsellor of state. In his official to the section Gasteromycetes, and to the tribe character, he published a very uninteresting history Trichospermi. They mostly grow on the ground, of Sweden, from the expedition of Gustavus Adoland are roundish, generally without a stem, at first phus into Germany to the death of Queen Christine. firm and fleshy, but afterwards powdery within ; In 1688, the Elector of Brandenburg invited him to the powder consisting of the spores, among which Berlin to write the history of his life and reign. P. are many fine filaments, loosely filling the interior of accepted the invitation, and executed the required the peridium, or external membrane. The peridium work in 19 dreary volumes. His intention was to finally bursts at the top, to allow the escape of the him at Berlin in 1694. P. lacked the genius to

have returned to Stockholm, but death overtook spores, which issue from it as very fine dust. Some of the species are common everywhere. Most of render the subjects on which he wrote generally them affect rather dry soils, and some are found interesting, but his intellectual power was neveronly in heaths and sandy soils. The most common theless very considerable, and it appears to have British species is L. gemmatum, generally from one

throughout been honestly exercised and with to two and a half inches in diameter, with a warty dorfii in the Memoirs of the Academy of Stockholm,

unflagging industry.-See Jenisch's Vita Pufenand mealy surface. The largest British species, the

1802. GIANT P. (L. giganteum), is often many feet in circumference, and filled with a loathsome pulpy PU'FFIN (Fratercula), a genus of birds of the mass, when young; but in its mature state, its Auk (q. v.) family, Alcado, having the bill shorter contents are so dry and spongy that they have often than the head, very much compressed, its height at been used for stanching wounds. Their fumes, the base equal to its length, the ridge of the upper when burned, have not only the power of stupifying mandible as high as the top of the head, both bees, for which they are sometimes used, in order I mandibles arched, and transversely grooved. The

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