« הקודםהמשך »
tion may be your limit, and peace and the wealth of the nation is your may be within your walls as long as design; remember, I pray, what you are there, and in all the land for warranty you have to expect all this ; ever after. But remember, that no less than the words of our Blessed since the honour and service of his Saviour, but it is upon these terms, majesty, and the peace and prospe.' Seek ye first the kingdom of God, rity of the church, the perpetuity and the righteousness thereof, and of our fundamental laws, public jus- all these things shall be added to tice, and the honour of all legal au- you. Amen.” thority, the advancement of trade,
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
A Letter to Henry Brougham, Esq. cated the plan against the objec
M.P. on certain Clauses in the tions of the Dissenters. Dr. ButEducation Bills now before Par ler has turned his attention to those liament. By S. Butler, D. D. clauses which interfere with gramF.A.S. Head Master of Shrews mar schools, and as far as those bury School. 24 pp. Longman. clauses are concerned, has most 1820.
completely done his work; and Mr. A Letter to a Member of Parlia- Lloyd has recapitulated and forment, shewing, (in these Days of cibly urged the dangerous conseInfidelity and Sedition,) the se
that may be expected from rious and dangerous Defects of separating the national education the British and Foreign School, from the national religion. But all and of Mr. Brougham's Biủ these pamphlets put together, do (now pending) for the general not amount to any thing like an Education of the Poor.
adequate discussion of the Bills. Richard Lloyd, A. M. Rector of As the time is now approaching in St. Dunstan in the West. 56 pp. tion will be resumed, we shall en
which the consideration of the
deavour to supply a part of the deThe great plan of parochial educa- ficiency of which we complain. tion submitted to the House of In the first Numbers of this work, we Commons by Mr. Brougham, was ventured to censure the proceedings allowed, at his own suggestion, to of the Education Committee and stand over to another Session, that its Chairman, and we remind the it might be fully understood and dis- reader of this circumstance for the cussed by the country at large. But purpose of observing that the questhe circumstances of the times ap. iion then under agitation was very pear to have thwarted his design. different from that upon which we For no question of equal importance are now to decide. The Universities which had been for six months be- and public schools are specially exfore the country, was ever known to empted from the provisions of the undergo so little examination or de new Bills; the claims of the clergy bate. The Edinburgh Review, in- have been unequivocally admitted deed, has published an improved, ample, if not speedy, justice has and we presume, an authorized edi. been rendered to their exertions and tion of the speech with which the merits; and the prejudices of the measure was introduced by, Mr. - dissenter have not been admitted as Brougham, and has further vindi. unanswerable arguments or as es
tablished laws. This being the tions and friends. His sister, Viscase, Mr. Brougham is entitled to countess Ranelagh, in the letter expect the same treatment as the printed in the first volume of this author of any other great legislative Journal, p. 231, informs her corresmeasure. He must naturally be pre- pondent, that they were consulting judiced in favour of his own plan; respecting the education of children, and he is guilty of that species of and says, “ that, if at the beginniog trimming which endeavours to ren- of the late profession of reformation, der a system palatable to two oppo- viz. in 1640, they had fallen to that site parties, by making civil speeches, practice, and paid as many school, and submitting in trifles, to both; masters as they had done military but we are bound to give him credit officers, listing regiments of chilfor an intention to do good, and to dren to be trained up in the nurture assume that all the pains which he and admonition of the Lord, instead has bestowed upon the subject of of so many thousands of poor men education, are not merely to be set to be sacrificed to the passions and down to the cravings of ambition, lusts of their rulers, they had by or to the dictates of a liberal, that that time reaped better fruits of is, an anti-christian philosophy. Be- their labours ihan disappointment, lieving therefore, that he is anxious division, poverty, shame, and con. to improve the lower orders of his fusion.” It is probable that charity fellow.subjects, without transgress- schools had their origin from this ing against the general spirit of the source, and they were condacted, institutions of his country, we pro- for many years, with great liberality ceed to offer our remarks upon the and success, Documents which we system which he advocates,
have already quoted, (Christian ReIn the first place, we are perfectly membrancer, vol. ii. p. 591.) shew ready to admit that the non-exist- that in 1709, the number of children ence of parochial schools, is a de- under education in London and its fect in the existing laws of our immediate vicinity, amounted to country. At the time of the Re- 3412, and that the sum of money formation, it was certainly intended collected in that year for their supto establish such schools ; but the port, exceeded £6000. There were lawgivers seem to have thought that also, at the same time, 227 places in it was sufficient to point out the au- England, comprehending all the thority under which schoolmasters principal provincial towns, in which should act, and the lessons which schools had been established upon a they should be bound to teach; and similar principle. And it is certain without making any specific provi- that, at this period, the system was sion for their maintenance, they left still in its infancy, and that the numtheir remuneration to the persons bers continued to increase during who should be instructed (see the many successive years. We ascet77th, 781h, and 79th canons.) It is tain this fact, as well from the early uncertain how soon the insufficiency reports of the Society for promoting of this system was discovered, but Christian Knowledge, as from a cir. it appears to have been generally cumstance which has been alluded perceived and acknowledged, about to in the Edinburgh Review, and the time of the Revolution, and to which applies, in a very remarkable have paved the way for the founda- manner, to existing circumstances. tion of the Charity Schools which the famous, or rather infamous, were set up in London at the be- author of the Fable of the Bees, givning of the last century. The published a gross libel against the origin of these schools we have in a Charity Schools and their supportgood measure traced up to the cele- ers; and the attack was renewed brated Robert Boyle, and his rela- by an anonymous writer in the Brit.
ish Journal, No. 39. which was pub. Dr. Mandeville and his colleagues lished on the 15th June, 1723. The disliked; they stated (Defence, Middlesex Grand Jury presented p. 40.) that " they would not conthis work in the following month, demn every thing of that nature, stating, that, besides blasphemously for under a proper regulation, somereflecting on God and religion in thing like it may be commendable." general, it particularly vilified and -" That is, I suppose,” says Mr. traduced the members of the Church Hendley,“ if the children were unof England for their piety in con: der such masters and mistresses as tributing to erect and maintain should be obliged to teach them no Charity Schools, and it also repre- other formulary of faith than the sented these schools as impious se- Independent Whig or Freethinker, minaries, set up to deceive the pub- and no other system of morality than lic, introduce popery, and carry on the Fable of the Bees, then it might the Pretender's interest. They fur- be commendable enough; then many ther “ think themselves bound to good things should be spoken of it, observe the insolent and reproach- and many assisting hands lent to the ful manner in which the two Uni- support of it! For this would soon eersities are treated,” and they quo effect their hellish design, viz. the the following passages from the libel destruction of the Christian reliwhich they present. “The Univer- gion, and promotion of the kingdom sities have debauched the principles of Satan.” of our nobility and gentry;" "lands This remarkable passage, or we and revenues are given to saucy, as- might almost say, prediction, acpiring, and lazy Ecclesiastics;" * the quaints us with the real reason of founding and endowing Universities, the failure of the Charity Schools : Colleges, and Free-schools, carries thé their success would have given too appearance of promoting sciences, much power to the Clergy, and too learning, and true religion, and yet much strength to the Church; and they have been made use of to pro- therefore they were virulently slanmote the kingdom of anti-Christ, to dered by the intidel; and were negdebauch the principles of the nobi- lected by a government which was lity and gentry, deprave their under- not unreasonably jealous of the Clerstandings, advance learned ignorance, gy of that day, and which preferred load their heads with airy chimeras, the security of the House of Hanand fairy distinctions, fill states with over to the general education of the desperate beggars, and divines of people. The Charity Schools were fortune, who must force a trade for thus suffered to continue under prisubsistence, and become the cudgel vate regulation and support, and or tools of power and faction.” they so far diminished the crying These extracts are made from a copy wants of the uneducated poor, as to of the original presentment, which make people contented with what is given as an Appendix to “ A De- had been done, and to silence every fence of the Charity Schools, by demand for a legislative proviW. Hendley, Lecturer of St. Mary, sion. Moreover, the conductors of Islington," published in 1725. The the schools, were unintentionally controversy clearly establishes the guilty of some capital errors. They importance which was then attached clothed, and in many
instances, to the subject, and that the schools boarded and apprenticed, a favoured were in an advancing, not in a declin- few, instead of teaching all. They ing state. It also enables us to as- patronized, perhaps even invented, certain why they were not ultimately workhouses, which are now universuccessful. It was not the educa- sally acknowledged to be productive tion of the poor, as the Edinburgh of far more evil than good. And reviewer would make us believe, that thus they gradually lost sight of REMEMBRANCÉR, No. 26.
their original object, and adopted forget, what, to our minds is deci another in its place.
sive of the question, that experience maintain therefore, with the most is directly opposed to such as would sovereign contempt for sectarian entrust public education to volunsneers, that the earliest and most tary contributions. Happily, out persevering friends to general edu- Governors and our Clergy are not left cation, always have been, and are to such an uncertain support. Our to be found in the bosom of the schools for the poor have been hiChurch, we admit that their first therto confided to it, and it has not great effort failed; and now that sufficed. It has accomplished, and the public mind is again alive to the it can aceomplish much for a seasubject, when the French revolution sun; but when the first ardour is has produced a similar effect to our relased, and the first judicious conown civil wars, by opening the eyes ductors have quitted the scene, miof a nation and a government which nor points will always be pursued had been asleep for a century, now with an undue degree of interest; that no jealousy can exist between and a part, and only a small part of the Crown and the Clergy, and their the whole, will be carried into effect. merits are admitted, and their ex This is the very result which reason ertions eulogized, even by Mr. would lead us to anticipate ; which Brougham, we shall sincerely grieve, we all expect upon other subjects; if advantage be not taken of these and which history actually describes circumstances, to pass a Bill of the as having formerly occurred. Theory same character and title as that and practice are both on one side ; which is now brought forward. and we are not bold enough to ap
Iu delivering this opinion, we are peal from their joint decision. compelled reluctantly to differ from
We agree, therefore, with Mr. many of the warmest friends to edu- Brougham as to the expediency of cation and to the Church. Persons, a legislative enactment; and shall whose sentiments are entitled to the be very glad to find that the Edinmost respectful consideration, have burgh reviewer was authorized to maintained, that it is best to let declare that Parliament'is ready to matters take their course. Charity pass a Bill upon the subject. But has been represented as a sort of should this assertion prove incorsensitive plant, which will curl up rect, should the reviewer turn out its leaves and wither at the ap as ignorant of the inclinations of proach of a government debenture, Parliament, as he is of the sentior a parochial assessment. And ments of the Clergy, there will still upon the strength of this single ar- be no necessity to despair of future gument, and of a few hacknied quo- success. And while we agree with tations from writers upon political Mr. Brougham upon the justice and economy, which have been stripped wisdom of parliamentary interferof their borrowed plumes by the ence, we are so satisfied that he is Edinburgh Review, the whole ques- mistaken in his estimate of its urtion of the Education Bill is set at gency, that it is a matter of perfect rest in a moment. No attention is indifference to us whether a Bill be paid to the very obvious fact, that carried now or five years hence ; after Parliament has made the most indeed, except upon the principle of liberal provision, there will still be striking while the iron is hot, we ample room for the exertions of the believe that the more distant day benevolent. They forget, that if would be the safer and most effecCharity be coy and retiring, she is tual. Mr. Brougham contends that also as capricious as others of her there are only 7,500,000 people in
either bestow her England, who enjoy the benefits of smiles upon some new favourite, or education ; and that as the populawithhold them altogether. They tion amounts to 9,500,000, the dif
ference between these two sums will without any education, and three millions represent the present number of un- without the only effectual education, educated persons.
The following namely, that obtained at day schools. Let extract from the Edinburgh Review
us shortly compare this with the state of gives the result of Mr. Brougham’s is supposed to be well attended to.”
other countries, where popular education calculations, in a more concise, and, Edinb. Rev. No. 67, p. 227. we presume, a more authentic form,
We consent to take the figures as than any of the reports of his speech they are given in this extract, but in the House of Commons.
we cannot admit that they prove « The result of the tables may now be Mr. Brougham's case.
He takes shortly referred to, as establishing beyond the number of children in day-schools all controversy, the want of education which now exists. The endowed schools
at 600,000, and adds 50,000 for the in England teach about 165,000 children;
children of the upper and middling the upendowed day schools 478,000. But classes who are taught at home or this includes 53,000 tanght at the dame at boarding schools. It seems to schools, where infants are generally sent be admitted that this last number is before they are of an age to go to school, too small; but still it is used in the or to learn almost any thing. It includes subsequent calculation. That it is also the lace and straw schools of the midland counties, where we much fear little have no manner of doubt; and our
too small by at least one half we that is useful is in general learnt. If, then, we deduct for these schools, we shall have opinion is confirmed by a subsequent about 590,000 children taught at day observation in the Review, respectschools; and we must add about 10,000 ing the comparative state of educafor deficient returns, several parishes hav- tion in Middlesex and in the northing made none. To this number of
ern counties. It is in the former 600,000 are to be added the children be and other populous districts that longing to persons in the upper and middle classes of society who educate their child the deficiency appears; and it is in dren, particularly daughters, at home or them precisely that we find that at boarding schools
, not noticed in the prodigious number of boarding Tables, though frequently in the Digest. schools and day schools, which it Mr. Brougham, from the population re is almost out of the power of a Clerturns, considered 50,000 as a proper allowance for this class, but if any thing, too schools, the free-school, if there
gyman to investigate. The charity small; and the next addition made was incontestably much too large, except that happen to be one, and perhaps one he was desirous of rather understating than or two conspicuous boarding schools overstating the deficiency. He allowed, may be accurately registered; but of the 452,000 taught at Sunday schools, if Mr. Brougham really believes that 100,000 as attending those institutions be- he has procured a return of all the yond the numbers included in the column boarding schools which surround the a greater proportion than seven-ninths of metropolis, and of all the day the Sanday scholars attend week-day schools, and evening schools, and schools. The grand total of children edu- night schools, which swarm in its cated in any way, even in the scanty mea- allies, be is a more credulous man sure dealt out by Sunday schools, is thus than we could have imagined. We only 750,000. Now the lowest estimate of shall take the liberty, therefore, of the means of education for any country, requires that there should be schools for assuming the number of children one-tenth of the population; but from the educated in boarding schools, or Digest it clearly appears that a larger pro- at home, to be at least 100,000, portion is requisite, especially if we in. and will proceed to point out a more elude the means for all classes, high as well important error. The Sunday schools as low. Mr. Brougham reckons rather contain 452,000, of whom Mr. more than one-ninth; but taking one. Brougham asserts that seven-ninths tenth as the scale, it thus appears that attend week-day schools also: and, there are only the means of educating seven millions and a half of the people of therefore, ought not to be reckoned. England, leaving no less than two millions We are not furnished with the data