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attain these objects any affinity with posed; and tells us that the names a bold and presumptuous con- of J. Taylor, Hammond, Mac, fidence: it is a certainty perfectly knight, and Doddridge, will serve compatible with the pious and lowly for a sufficient specimen of the auconfession that whatever is good in thority by which the same opinion him—whatever is virtuous in inten- is upheld. Referring your readers tion or upright in action has been to the above-mentioned very exthe fruit of divine grace “ prevent- cellent essay, I take leave to ading him that he might have a good duce some of the observations and will, and working with him when he quotations given by that very learnhad that good will,”—it is a cer. ed expositor, Dr. Whitby, on the fainty perfectly compatible with chapter in question; for 1 conceive continued and uninterrupted de- that the old and commonly received pendence on the same grace, “with opinion cannot be too widely difout which the frailty of man's na- fused at a time when all sorts of ture cannot always stands upright:" new fangled doctrines are indusbut still it is a certainty, the natu- triously spread by the opponents to ral result and the first reward of our Church Establishment; and confirmed babits of virtue, which especially because it will appear have by this time rendered inde. that St. Augustine himself (howfnitely small the probability of ever afterwards he perverted the lapse into sin, and which have thus plain sense of the Apostle) for a commenced on earth that change long time entertained the former which is soon to be perfected in sentiments ; as will appear in its heaven, of the hope into the full place after quoted. fruition of blessedness.
Dr. Whitby, in a note upon the 0. 25th verse of the chapter, says,
AUTOs ryw," (the same man)
whom he had before spoken, not I SCRIPTURE CRITICISM. Paul, now writing this Epistle. To the Editor of the Remembrancer.
" It hath been a controversy
since St. Austin's time, whether Sir,
St. Paul here speaketh in his own I was much pleased with the essay person, or in the person of a regeupon the seventh chapter of st. nerate man, or only in the person of Paul's Epistle to the Romans (de- a Jew conflicting with the motions nominated Scripture Criticism) con- of his lusts only by the assistance · tained in the Christian Reinem- of the letter of the Law, without brancer for November, 1819, which the aids and powerful assistance of supports, by the authority of that the Holy Spirit; which is as great eminent divine, the late Bishop an instance of the force of prejuBull, the sense most commonly put dice, and the heat of opposition to (previous to the time of St. Augus- pervert the plainest truths, as can tine) upon the latter end of that haply be produced; for I think, chapfer, i. e. " that St. Paul is nothing can be more evident and there speaking in the person of an unquestionably true than this,-that Doconverted Jew and not in his own the Apostle doth not here speak of person," (as contended by Calvinis. himself, or in the state he was then tical commentators.)
in; but (as the antient commentaThe author of the above essay tors do interpret him,) by himself has given a judicious and well ar he represents man in common, and ranged abstract of Bishop Bull's saith not, as he might have done, arguments on this point, together You that are under the law are with answers to the several objec- carnal ;' but representing what betions thereto, methodically disa longed to them in his own person,
and so taking off the harshness, Returning back to the commonly and mollifying the invidiousness of received sense of the before menthe sentence, by speaking of it in tioned chapter, (viz.) that St. Paul his own person, he saith, ' I am does not there speak of or in his carnal, sold under sin.' So Photius
own person, but in the person of an and Ecumenius. Theodoret also unconverted Jew, Dr. Whitby says doth inform us that the Apostle that Arminius, Hammond, Bull, and here introduceth (v. 14.) ' A man Kettlewell have made it manifest; before grace, overcome by his pas. First, That it is usual with the sions; for he calls him carnal who Apostle to speak of those things had not yet obtained the assistance that might be (otherwise) offensive of the Holy Spirit.' And again, or ungrateful, in his own name ; (v. 23.) he adds, “That the Apos- when indeed they belong not to tle having discoursed all these him, but to other men: as in these things to shew what we were be. words from Rom. iii. 7. “ If the fore grace, and what we were made truth of God hath more abounded after grace, and as it were taking through my lie, why am I also upon himself the person of those judged as a sinner," i. e. not I Paul, who before grace were vanquished but I who make this objection. So by sin, lie groans and laments, as a Gal. ii. 16, 17, 1 Cor. iv. 6. “ These man set in the midst of bis enemies, things I have in a figure transferred enslaved and constrained to serve, to myself and Apollos for your and seeing no help; and thus he sakes," 1 Cor. vi. 12, 13; ii. 10, 22, shews the Law [to be] unable to 30.; Eph. ii. 3.; 1 Thess. iv. 17. help us.' And so Origen also, fre And secondly, That such things quently in his Commentary on the are in this chapter said of the perplace. And Saint Austin (this is son spoken of, as can by no means the remarkable fact above alluded agree to St. Paul or to any regeto] saith expressly and frequently, nerate person. • Describitur homo sub lege positus To which may be added, ante gratiam. In another work, 1. That had St. Paul spoken here • Quo loco videtur mihi Apostolus of himself, considered in the state transfigurasse in se bominem sub in which he was at the inditing of lege positum ;' and in another place, this Epistle, he must have contra• Loquitur adhuc ex persona homi- dicted what he had said of himself nis sub lege constituti nondum sub in the Epistles to the Thessalonians gratia.'"
and Corinthians, which were writ There is upon the note on verse before this Epistle (vide 1 Thess. 22. a very enlarged and satisfactory ii. 10. 2 Cor. i. 12. 1 Cor. iv. 4. argument on the words, Kata toy 1 Cor. ix. 27. there quoted.) Now, sow arbganov, shewing that it is plain can the man who is carnal, and the inward man, cannot there sig- sold under sin, who hath no power nify the new man. But as it would in him to do any good, who finds a be going over the same ground that law in his members warring against the author of the essay has done in the law of his mind, and bringing treating of this matter, to give the bim into captivity to the law of sin, passage in Dr. Whitby's words, I which is in his members, call God shall forbear doing so; but I can and the Church to witness to his not help observing that the obser- holy and unblameable life? Can vations and quotations of Dr. Whit- he boast of keeping under his fleshly by are not exactly the same which body, and bringing that into subjec that writer bas produced from Dr. tion, which by his own confession, Bull; but are additional and very bringeth him into captivity? Can convincing passages to the saine he, who does, not what he would
in his mind and conscience do, but
purport and effect,
what he hates; not the good which optimi-i, e. trium priorum secuhe would, but the evil which he lorum Christiani, buuc locum sicut would not, do; can he, I say, re oportet, intellexerint, dictante illo joice in the testimony of his con. spiritu per quem vita illorum regescience? Can he honestly declare, batur.' he knows nothing by himself, for
OBSERVATOR. which his conscience can condemn East Retford, him?
6th Nov. 1820. 2. How oft doth the Apostle propose himself for a pattern to the churches unto whom he writes, requiring them to be followers of To the Editor of the Remembrancer. him, as he was also of Christ, 1 Cor. xi. 1.; and after quoting
Sir, Philip iv. 8. the good commentator The name of Mr. Sumner is so says,--this would become the most well and deservedly known by his absurd, if not blasphemous exhor- several valuable publications, and tation, if it was suitable to the his last Sermon on the “ Encouragemind of the Apostle, according to ments of the Christian Minister," the Calvinistic exposition.
presents a view of these so inte3. With what indignation doth he resting and instructive, that I feel reject the accusations of them who very unwilling to find fault, where looked upon
him as walking after there is so much that deserves comthe flesh, and how severely doth hemendation and praise. The higher, threaten them, how peremptorily however, a writer stands in the pubdoth he reject their scandalous im- lic estimation, the more important putation ? declaring that ' though is it, that his errors, if errors, he walked in the desh, yet did he should be detected. In the Sermon not walk according to the flesh,' above mentioned, there is the fol2 Cor. x. 2, 3.
lowing passage : 4. This exposition of the seventh “ The sinner, acknowledging his chapter, makes it entirely to confute guilt, finds the necessity of applying the chapter which immediately goes to Him, who underwent the chasbefore, and follows after ; and it tisement of our peace,' and of gives an invincible strength to the being clothed in a righteousness objections he endeavours to answer which will bear the piercing scruin the sixth chapter. The first ob- tiny of Omniscience, and of seekjection there begins by way of en. ing that · holiness without which quiry, What do we say then, shall
no man shall see the Lord.' we continue in sin
that grace may If Mr. S. means by this righabound? His second, Shall we sin teousness, the imputed righteousbecause we are not under the law
ness of Christ, in which the sinner but under grace? (ver. 15.) God is hereafter 10 be clothed, I would forbid! saith he, that it should be beg to submit to his consideration, thus with any Christian ;-and yet, the following excellent passage from according to this exposition, it was Bishop Bull's Sermon on the Difthus with himself, one of the best ferent Degrees of Bliss in Heaven.” of Christians.
Vol. i. p. 189. 8vo. Dr. Whitby goes on with equal
They thus argue,” says the strength and clearness, from other Bishop (speaking of those who held quotations and deductions, to shew
a contrary opinion from himself on the fallacy and absurdity of this the subject,) “ The future glory exposition, and concludes in the remarkable words of Grotius on verse 19,
* See Phil. iii, 9. « Deo laus sit quod
of the saints is the purchase of the objection; there is nothing more Christ's righteousness, which is alike certain, than that the future glory of imputed to all true believers, and the saints is the purchase of Christ's they have an equal share therein, righteousness. But how? By the and consequently they shall share meritorious obedience of Christ in equally in the future glory.
bis life and death, a covenant of “ I answer, the doctrine of the grace, mercy, and life eternal was imputed righteousness of Christ, as procured, ratified and established it hath been too commonly taught between God and the sinful sons of and understood, hath been a fruit- men; the condition of the covenant ful mother of many pernicious and is faith working by love,' or a dangerous errors in divinity. In the faith fruitful of good works. And objection, it is supposed, that the there is also sufficient grace prorighteousness of Christ is so im- mised to all that shall heartily seek puted to every believer, that it be- it, for the performance of that concomes formally his righteousness, dition. It is from the covenant of and that upon the sole account infinite mercy in Christ Jesus alone, thereof he hath a right to the future that our imperfect good works have glory. And if this were true, if any ordination to so excellent a re. Christ's righteousness were thus ward as the future glory; and it is our's, that righteousness, being the the mercy, the rich mercy, the most perfect righteousness, votbing royal bounty and liberality of God, less could answer it than the highest expressed in the same covenant, reward in heaven; and so indeed that assigns to greater degrees of it would necessarily follow, that grace here, greater degrees of the future glory of all the saints glory hereafter. This is the plain should be alike and equal. But truth.” the supposition hath no foundation If, on the other hand, Mr. S. inin Scripture, yea, it is plainly false. tends that Christian righteousness, And that it is so, if we had no other which all in its several degrees, acargument, the very doctrine we are cording to the proportion of their now upon, were sufficient to evince. faith, and the use of God's grace, We have proved, by very plain may attain unto; that righteousness texts of Scripture, that there will springing out of a true and lively be a disparity of rewards in the faith in the Lord Jesus Christ; life to come, according to the dis- which, albeit that it deserveth not parity of men's graces and good heaven, yet through the perfect works in this life; and from hence righteousness, and atoning blood of we may safely conclude, that the Christ, that effectual seal of the doctrine of those who teach that covenant of grace, shall obtain heathe perfect righteousness of Christ ven; or, in the excellent words of St. is formally the righteousness of Paul, “ make us meet to be parevery believer, and that thereupon takers of the inheritance of the saints he hath a right to the highest re. in light;" I think his words are liable ward in heaven, is certainly false. to misconstruction, and I could wish Nay, indeed, if that doctrine of he had expressed himself more fully. theirs were true, a consequence I can easily conceive how our righwould follow, which cannot be ut teousness, imperfect as it is, may be tered without trembling, that every freely accepted for Christ's sake by saint shall be equal to Christ in Infinite Mercy;'but not how it ever glory; Christ's righteousness being can be so perfect, as to bear “ the his, and so he having a right to
right to piercing scrutiny of Omniscience." whatsoever that righteousness de. There is a passage given by Mr. served.
Todd, out of the “ Necessary Eru“ But to answer more directly to dition of a Christian Man," under
the article of good works, which is fication, and so be made able and much in point.
meet to walk in the very pure ser“ And these works be of two, vice of God with a clear conscience, sorts: for some be such as men, , and to bring forth the foresaid works truly justified, and so continuing, . of righteousness in Christ, which he do work in charity, of a pure heart, cannot do afore he be justified. and a good conscience, and an un
I am, &c. feigned faith. Which works, although
Oct. 16, 1820. they be of themselves unworthy, unperfect, and unsufficient; yet foras P.S. There is a note in the Family much as they be done in the faith of Bible, from Archbishop Sharp, on Christ, and by the virtue and merits Phil. iii. 9. (referred 10 by Mr. Sumof his passion, their imperfectness is ner), which is well worthy of consisupplied; the merciful goodness of deration; though I could have wished God accepteth them, as an observa, to prevent all possibility of mistake, tion and fulfilling of his law; and that the last sentence had ran thus. they be the very service of God.”
“ And as it, (that is, this Christian Nay, the writer, whoever he was, righteousness), is his gift, so he will (and there is good reason for sup own it, and reward it, for the sake of posing that it was Cranmer himself, the meritorious obedience of Christ the father of the English church), in his life and death, at the last goes on to use this strong expression, day.” “And be meritorious towards attain, ing of everlasting life."
We have not one word here about the imputed righteousness of Christ, To the Editor of the Remembrancer. in which the sinner is to be clothed; but we have of that righteousness of Sir, Christ, for the sake of which the im- Having accidentally perused the perfect righteousness of man, when Vindication of Archbishop Wake done in faith, shall be accepted, and against Dr. Lant Carpenter, by your obtain for him everlasting life. Nay, Oxford correspondent T. published in the very next paragraph, we have in page 519 of the Christian Rethe case of the sinner, as supposed membrancer, for September last, I by Mr. Sumner, thus stated : cannot, though fully agreeing with
“ When a sinner, hearing or re the writer in many points, avoid exmembering the law of God, is moved pressing my dissent from some of by grace to be contrite and sorry for the assertions he has thought fit to his offences; and beginpeth to lament make. his estate, and to fall to prayer and In speaking of prayers addressed other good deeds, seeking to avoid to the Son, as the second person in the indignation of God, and to be the Trinity, the writer enumerates reconciled to bis favour, these works the Te Deum as one of these; which come of grace; but yet the man is opinion, be further remarks, is connot to be accounted a justified man, firmed by tradition, and will be evibut he is yet in seeking remission of dent to any one reading the Greek his sins and his justification, which or Latin. With respect to the parthe anguish, of his own conscience ticular tradition on this subject, it telleth him that he yet wanteth; but might be improper for me to offer he is in a good way: and by these any observation, as I candidly conmeans doth enter into justification, fess that I do not recollect to have and if he do proceed, and with met with it: but having referred to hearty devotion seek for further the Greek and Latin versions of the grace, he shall be assured of remise Te Deum, I must believe that your sion of his sins, and attain his justi correspondent lies under some un.