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scattered over a plain and intellid duce the pure faith and discipline gible volume, are the only support of the Church of England, the neof his creed. And upon the strength cessity of the case has palliated of them he is ready to contend for the iytrusion of more questionable that fatal necessity which leads forms of Christianity, and every straight to Atheism; ready to ade variety of sectarian prejudice has mit that Christianity is at variance been tolerated and cherished, and with consciousness and common approved. Before the dismemberscnse, ready to throw discredit ment of our transatlantic empite; upon all our holy mysteries, and to the office of a bishop was unknowa furnish the enemies of inspiration in America, and after the declara with the surest means of counter. tion of American Independence, acting it. We do not question the the episcopacy was not continued sincerity from which this conduct without considerable difficulty and proceeds, but we do question the delay. Consecration however was judgment, the humility, and the at length obtained, both from the wisdom.

English and Scotch bishops, and the Episcopal Church in America now flourishes in the

midst of sectarism, infidelity, and A View of the Principles and Forms indifference under the able superin

of the Church of Scotland as by tendence of its own bishops. In Law established, addressed to the the West Indies there is no bishop, Presbyterian Congregation of St. and the rites of an Episcopal John, New Brunswick. Ву

Church are but partially and imperGeorge Burns, D.D. Minister of fectly administered : and the proSt. Andrew's Church, in the City ceedings of the Bishop of Calcutta, of St. John. 1817.

which promise by their consolidatRemarks on Dr. Burns's View of ing energy to realize the best hopes

the Principles and Forms of the of those, in whose judicious zeal Presbyterian Kirk as by Law the Indian episcopate originated, established in Scotland. By the leave too much room to regret, the Rev. James Milne, Fredericton, long delay of this measure, which New Brunswick. 1818.

in real importance and use surLetter addressed to the Rev. James passes all the ecclesiastical proceedMilne, A.M. in consequence of

ings of modern times. his Remarks on Dr. Burns's View

Indifference to Christian truth, of the Principles and Forms of and more especially to its forms, the Church of Scotland, as by may generally be expected in the Law established. By the Author mixed population of a foreign setof that Work. 1818.

tlement, whose absence from their

proper home is occasioned by moThe state of religion in the colonies tives in which religion has no conof Great Britain is a topic of pain- cern, and frequently commences at ful and melancholy reflection. The a period of life when religion has wide extent of our colonial posses- obtained but little influence on the sions affords a singular opportunity, understanding. Under such circumif it has not been providentially stances, men might be brought to designed for the express purpose, conform with any one order of reliof settling in foreign parts the doc. gion, but they are perplexed and trine and worship of the Christian unable to decide, if they have the Church in its best and most effi. choice of more than one. Some cient form. It cannot be denied, will withdraw themselves from every that this important office has been congregation, and others as readily neglected, and while no adequate attach themselves to any wbich may attempts have been made to intro- open its doors to receive them: but

if after a lapse of time, a ministry blished. The desire was natural; claiming a purer origin and a higher the object was important, and not authority, should offer itself to their liable to exception, and it would be attention, ton many will be disposed well if the rule of faith and discito resist its claims, and oppose its pline subscribed by any dissenting establishment If it is not neces- congregation could be distinctly exsary, why is it offered! And if it hibited to the members of that con, is necessary, why was it not offered gregation, and the public at large. at an earlier period? These will be it would then be known what the the obvious questions of those who sectaries do and do not profess to have grown-up in long ignorance of believe: the path of the controverthe true pature of ecclesiastical sialist would be levelled, and the polity, and in inattention to the means of protection and precaution forms of public worship: and what be rendered more easy and more will not be the jealousies of those, efficient. The method which Dr. whose minds have been imbued with Burns pursued was to address his different opinions, whose affections hearers from the pulpit, and after have been engaged to other pastors some revision to commit his sentiand teachers, and who have been ments to the press. This method armed with prejudices against the was as unexceptionable as the osChurch, which is the last to solicit tensible purpose and design; but it their attention. The feelings of is not easy to maintain one set of those, in whose minds any traces religious opinions, without reflectof religion have been retained are ing, or seeming to reflect upon those rendered hostile to episcopacy, which are opposed to them; and it while others who think lightly of is certainly not possible to take a religion have pleasure in observing plausible view of the grounds of the antipathies of those who call Presbyterianism, without some una themselves Christians, and the sur founded insinuations against the rounding heathen, doubting first of sounder arguments of episcopacy. the form of Christianity, which they Dr. Burns's attempt therefore chalought to embrace, are led to doubi, lenged the notice of Mr. Milne, the whether it is necessary to embrace Episcopal minister and missionary any, and whether all may not be at Fredericton, who, with an extent disputed and rejected. In this re and accuracy of information, which spect the Romish Church has an that remote station could hardly be advantage above all Protestant expected, refuted various misrepreChurches: she has but one mode sentations of the principles and his. of faith to recommend, and in her tory of episcopacy, by which Dr. sedulous policy she provides, that if Burns had laboured to sustain the no choice be granted, no dispute cause of Presbyterian purity. This shall be excited, and no want shall provoked a rejoinder from Dr. be felt.

Burns, and called into action variThese reflections have been called ous passions, which the general forth by a perusal of the pamphlets, temper of his original argument had of which the titles are prefixed, not betrayed, and when he could and which were published in the not defend his positions, or refute State of New Brunswick. The the reasonings of his adversary, he 4* minister of St. Andrew's church, became angry, and threatened if he in the city of St. John," upon his had the means of reference to show arrival in the province, appears to the force of an attack upon epishave been desirous of instructing copacy, and gave utterance to varithe Presbyterian congregations in ous exceptions against the Church the principles and forms of the of England, for which he professed Church of Scotland as by law estato entertain profound and unqua

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lified respect. Mr. Milne adhered of religion will end in eternal peace. to his resolution of waking no reply, This argument is well known in the and perhaps a reply was not neces dissenting districts, and it has its sary, if there were none in the effects, especially when it is comcolony, by whom the last word, bined with the want of Church would not be judged the best argu- room, and when the service of the ment in the controversy. It is pa. conventicle is assimilated with cer, tural to suppose, that many would tain modifications to the service of be gratified with a controversy, of the Church. Our acquaintance with the importance of which they could this popular argument had not, form no just conception, and in the however, prepared us to learn, that results of which they had no inte. the Church of England and the rest or concern, but the


of Church of Scotland form but one which they would attach themselves Church, distinguished only by their to the different parties in the disa form of government, a trite lighter pute, until the pretence of organiz. than the air, when it suits the coning one congregation, threw the venience of a writer so to represent whole religion of the province into it, but at all other times, a fountain distraction and confusion. We have and occasion of the bitterest acrithe happiness of believing that the mony and reproach, irritation has subsided, and that tranquillity has been restored.

“ Amid the war of contending passions, It is far from our intention to systems, and opinions, it is consolatory to

think that a Christian Church has been disturb this tranquillity, nor is it established and maintained in the United necessary to cross the Atlantic in Kingdoin of Great Britain and Ireland. I pursuit of controversy, or to enlarge speak only of one Christian Church, be the stores of pure theology : but cause I view the ecclesiastical constitutions. the cause of episcopacy is every

of England and Scotland as forming one where interesting, and a cursory

Church--associated under one head-in attention to this distant controversy

every view co-ordinate- maintained by the may show by what means the foun

same state-equally pure in principle and

efficient in operation." Burns's View, p.3. dations of prelacy are undermined, and give an insight into the state of The only ground of this union religion in our colonies, and into and co-ordinacy of the Churches of the opinions which foreigners and England and Scotland, is that they colonists entertain of the ecclesias are both established: the Church tical policy which is pursued in the of England is established by law in remote possessions and dependen- England; the Church of Scotland cies of the empire.

is established by law in Scotland, In former times it was the com The consistent Dissenters who obmon argument of the Dissenters at ject to the civil establishment of home, that the Church of England the Church of England, cannot ap. was but partially reformed, and prove the civil establishment of the they justified their separation on Church of Scotland: but it is ne the pretence that the Church of vertheless established. The commu. England differed from other re- pion of the Church, which rests formed Churches, and held not upon no better foundation than that what they conceived to be the truth of a civil establishment, is entirely A more specious argument has arisen of a local nature, and, in the preseut of late, and the Dissenter invites case, the river Tweed is its boun proselytes to the conventicle, not on dary and definition; so that the the ground of any difference, but members of the Church of England on the more delusive plea, that it is and the members of the Church of all the same, that ihere is no differ.Scotland are Churchimen or Disseueuce, and that all the various forius ters according to the bauk of the

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river on which they may chance to the first, and the Catholics the sestand: if that river should changé cond claim to establishment. its course tlie boundaries of com But it is pretended, that the comunion and dissent would be con- ordinacy of the Church of Scotland tracted or enlarged; or if it should is recognised, not only by the law, cease to flow, they might be thrown but by the canons and constitutions into inextricable confusion. Such of the Church of England. is the unity of the Church, which depends on a legal establishment is recognized by the Church of England,

" This union in every thing but forms within a limited district.

for in Canon 55, which was framed in Measured by this criterion, the 1604, when the Church of Scotland had Church of Scotland, as by law es assumed a presbyterian form, her clergy tablished, cannot be extended be were commanded to pray for the Churches yond the Tweed. Whatever may

of England, Scotland, and Ireland, as parts be its constitutional connection with

of Christ's holy Catholic Church, which is the Church of Scotland, the Presby. View, p. 3, 4.

dispersed throughout the world.Burns's terian kirk in London Wall is, in England, unquestionably a Dissent

It is a specious but not an insuing congregation, and in no respect perable argument: Mr. Milne reco-ordinate with the Church of

plies: England. Neither is the Church of Scotland established in any of the

“ Canon 53 of the Church of England, colonies, in which the civil esta- which commands her clergy to pray for blishment of religion must depend, Ireland, as part of Christ's holy Catholic

the Churches of England, Scotland, and not on the laws of England or of Church, which is dispersed throughout the Scotland, but on the terms agreed world, is no such recognition of the Kirk upon on the first settlement or sur

as Dr. Burns supposes. Presbyterian render of those colonies. The parity was introduced into Scotland and Church of Rome, as well as the established in that kingdom as the scriptuChurch of England, is established ral and primitive form of Church governin Canada, and it is not pretended ment, in opposition to episcopacy, which

was declared to be anti-christian and unthat the Church of Scotland is lawful. But would the Church of Engestablished in any of the colonies; land, in Canon 55, recognize persons holdand when, on the ground of civil ing such opinions, and acting upon them, establishment, she claims co-ordi as a part of Christ's holy Catholic Church, nacy with the Church of England, which is dispersed throughont the world, she must be content, upon the same

when, in Canon 7, she orders them to be ground, to partake of co-ordinacy excommanicated ipso facto, and so conti

pue until they repent and publicly rewith the Church of Rome. The

voke sach' their wicked errors?' The rea. Church of Scotland has no more

son of a child must perceive that the anclaim to establishinent in the colo swer ought to be in the negative. The nies of Great Britain, than any sect truth is, that when the Canon in qnestion which is not established in Great was framed, King James was seated on the

throne of Elizabeth, and, as before his acBritain, or than it has to claim

cession to that throne he had revived the establishment in the states of the

pame and office of bishop in Scotland, be Union in virtue of its establishment

was now pursuing the measures deemed in Scotland. The colonists are de- prudent for the introduction and establishluded, if they are led to infer an ment of a true and regular episcopacy, establishment of Presbytery abroad noť says Bishop Guthry, without the from an establishment of Presby- consent and furtherance of many of the

wisest among the ministry.' In this Canon tery at home : and if such a claim should, at any time, be preferred, chargeable with the inconsistency and folly

the Church of England is, therefore, not on the argument of numbers, it of contradicting her own doctrine, and should be remembered, that upon undermining her own constitution, by sethis argument the Heathens have cognizing the presbyterian parity of Scot

land, or any thing peculiar to it and cha and other writers of the same class racteristic of it." P. 8.

are refuted, and when the force of This statement, to which Dr. their inferences from the Scriptures, Burns makes no reply beyond a and of their researches into the vague charge of misrepresentation, history of the primitive Church are is confirmed by all the prefatory repelied, it will be time to rely on canons, wisich distinctly recognize the assertions of other divines, and the authority of bishops and the to have doubts of the apostolical supremacy of the king, and pro, origin and authority of prelacy. nounce sentence of excommunica. But the foreign Churches are not tion on all who dispute these doc- governed by Bishops, and the doctrines. Even in the form of bidding trine of the foreign Churches has prayer, as well as in the first canon, been approved by English Divines, the title of the king, as supreme and therefore the want of Episcogovernor, in these his realms, and pacy is immaterial. It is evident, all other his dominions and coun from the tendency of their own tries, over all persons in all causes, writings, that the testimony of ap. as well ecclesiastical as temporal," probation which Bishop Hall, and is distinctly and unequivocally as- Archbishop Wake, bore to the con serted and maintained. It certainly tinental Church, respected their cannot be the intention of the doctrine, and not their discipline Church, in this ecclesiastical re and constitution. Some of the cognition of the Church of Scotland, Protestant Churches, as in Denmark to give countenance to Presbyte and Sweden, are still governed by rianism, or to depreciate the divine Bishops: others, as in Prussia and and apostolical right of Episcopacy. Saxony, are placed under the cou

Another argument for the co trol of Superintendants, which is in ordinacy of the Churches of Eng- fact an illegitimate Episcopacy; and land and Scotland, is collected from most of the foreign Protestants have the incautious language of some admitted, that the want of Episcodivines in speaking of the origin of pacy is not a merit but a defect, ecclesiastical polity. These are no originating in the hard necessity of more than private sentiments, hav- the times of the Reformation. It ing no authority to contradict the was the anxious effort of Dr. Grabe, express declarations of the Church at the beginning of the last century, herself in her offices of ordination

to remove these anomalies, and to and consecration; they are a vir- supply these deficiencies by the tual attack upon the doctrine of revival of a pure Episcopacy in the the Church, and a gratuitous con Churches of the continent, and the cession to the Dissenters, of which sentiments of Calvin, are known to they will not fail to avail themselves; have been so friendly to the prealthough they are happily too gene-lacy of this country, that he proral and superficial to be compared nounced those who opposed it, to with the precise and elaborate ar be worthy of every anathema, nullo guments of those theologians who non anathemate dignos. The want have examined the question in all of Episcopal discipline, is an un its parts. The easy confidence with seemly blemish in the Churches of which it is asserted and believed, the continent; but is this blemish that Christ left no form, or of recent origin and limited extent, permanent form and exemplary mo to be compared with the prevalence del of ecclesiastical government, has

of Episcopacy, universally through been again and again exposed and the fifteen centuries before the Res refuted by Bilson, Hooker, Leslie, formation, and widely since the RePotter, Brett, Skinner, and Dau- formation through all the settle beny. When the reasonings of these ments of the Romish Church, through



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