« הקודםהמשך »
testimonial for a curate, who removes tó pared to shew that under the preanother diocese, he bears' testimony to the tence of an examination, he has credit of the subscribers, not to the ortho- really required subscription to new doxy of the curate, whom he does not exa
articles of faith. His adversaries mine. At least, such an examination, on such occasions, is very unusual. And' tes have asserted that this is the fact; timony to the credit of the subscribers, in but they have not condescended to mere matters of opinion, can amount to furnish us with proof; and we are nothing more than this, that they would at liberty therefore to take leave of not assert what they believed to be false. this part of the subject by putting But as they may be mistaken in their be
a short and simple question to Mr. lief, and no counter-signature can warrant
Will their infallibility, an examination by the
Wilson and his coadjutors. Bishop who is to grant the licence, is no
an incumbent of their religious senmark of disrespect either to the clergy timents employ a curate of the who subscribe the testimonial, or to the Bishop of Peterborough's religious Bishop who countersigns it. Nor must we sentiments or of ours? If such a forget, that their testimony to doctrine, is person should be strongly recommere negative testimony : it goes only as mended to them, will they not anfar as they know. Surely then, when a Bishop is required to declare that be fully swer, have they not answered again confides in the sound doctrine of a curate,
• The young man is unhe may be permitted, without offence to objectionable in point of learning any one, to satisfy himself, that he does and morals, but his views are not not make this solemn declaration, without scriptural; he is not qualified to good reason. When a candidate applies teach the Gospel, for he does not for holy orders, he brings to the Bishop a understand it; we dare not entrust similar testimonial; and if he comes from the souls of our people to his care? another diocese, a similar counter-signature from the Bishop of that diocese. But even
That is to say, he may subscribe with such a testimonial, and such a counter
the Articles as readily and as consignature, he cannot be ordained without scientiously as any Calvinist in the examination. Yet no one is offended with country, and still fail to convince such examination, and no one questions a Calvinistic incumbent of his comthe power of a Bishop to reject a candidate, if, with all his testimonials, he is
Why then should the
petence. found deficient, either in learning or doc
mere act of subscription convince trine. But the capon requires an exami- the Bishop of the diocese ? and if nation, as well as on the licensing of co- the Bishop be unconvinced, is he rates, as on conferring holy orders. For not legally and morally at liberty to the licensing of curates is not mere matter of form; it is attended with a serious re From this tedious investigation of sponsibility : and if a curate is licensed, the legality, we now proceed to the who delivers doctrines inconsistent with those of the Established Church, the Bi- theological part of the question, of shop who grauts the licence, is answerable which our view must necessarily for the propagation of those doctrines. be superficial and cursory, since It is true, that Bishops may be mistaken, “Episcopal Innovation" alone would as well as the inferior clergy: bat in acts involve us in all the sophistry and for wbich they are themselves responsible, mysticism of the doctrine of Calvin. they must exercise their own judgment to the best of their own ability." Charge, into nine chapters, concerning, 1.
The Bishop's Questions are divided p. 24-26, note.
Redemption by Jesus Christ : II. The result of the whole is this; Original Sin: III. Free.Will: IV. that a Bishop has an undoubted Justitication, 1. in reference to everright to examine, not only before lasting salvation ; 2. in reference to ordination, but also before he in- its cause; 3. in reference to the stitutes to a benefice, or licenses to time when it takes place : V. Evera curacy; and it is absurd to im- lasting Salvation : 'VI. Predestinapute any illegal act to the Bishop of tion : VII. Regeneration : VIII. RePeterborough, unless we are pre- novation: IX. The Holy Trinity.
The Questions are in number stood for 250 years without a formal eighty-seven : and hence it is in- recognition of these fundamental ferred that the Bishop has added doctrines, without publicly professto the Articles, as if each Article ing Redemption as the foundation, comprised but one single undivided and everlasting Salvation as the end proposition, or as if in an examina- and object of our faith and hope. tion, founded upon the Articles, one Is it thus that the genuine sons of question only could be asked upon the Church undertake her defence, one article.
by proclaiming her deficiency in the “ of the nine chapters in which these most essential articles ? And is it questions are contained, five are on the thus that they maintain that the same subjects, which the Church of Eng. Articles should be subscribed in land has defined in her Thirty-nine Ar- their “ plain and full meaning,” in tieles : viz. Original Sin, Free Will, Justi. their « literal and grammatical fication, Predestination, and the Holy sense ?” The Layman has not sufTrinity. On the other four chapters, viz. fered Mr. Wilson's temerity to escape Redemption by Jesus Christ, everlasting Salvation, Regeneration or the New Birth, without the detection and the reand Renovation, the Church of England proof which deserves : and he has no Articles. It is evident then, that will probably be persuaded to read bis Lordship considers the Thirty-nine again the formularies of our Church, Articles defective as to their number and before he ventures to repeat the subjects: and not only so, but deficient assertion, that upon such and such in clearness and perspicuity. If he does dot, why does he make additional Articles ? doctrines " the Church has no artiAnd wliy does be bring forward subjects, cles.". The second and the thirtyin a new form and manner, which she has first Article treat of Redemption : already defined? His Lordship evidently the seventh Article proposes everthinks that the Thirty-nine Articles, as lasting Life to mankind by Christ; they are at present constructed, are in the eighth Article recognizes the sufficient for the purposes for which they three Creeds, of which the Athawere intended : and therefore attempts in his vine chapters, to supply their de- nasian Creed distinctly speaks of ficiency both in number and clearness
. what is necessary to everlasting But if his Lordship's Articles, which are
Salvation ;" the seventeenth speaks on the same subjects as some of the of bringing men by Christ to ever. Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of lasting Salvation ; and the eighEngland, agree with them, then I would teenth in its very title or beading is contend they are altogether unnecessary: and if they differ from them, then I would The ninth Article treats of Rege
“ Of attaining eternal Salvation.” hope, that he himself would admit, that they ought to be rejected. And as to the neration in two separate clauses, in additional Articles, when did the Church one of which unctis in the Latin of England authorize and empower Bishop Articles is translated by baptized in Marsh to make them? When did Convo- the English, and the doctrine is cation employ him upon a work of such further laid down in the fifteenth importance and magnitude ? And what and twenty-fourth Articles? Is Mr. sight or authority has be to impose them Wilson's subterfuge in the pretence, upon others." P. 14.
that the Church has no Articles exIt is in this style and spirit that pressly headed or entitled “ Of Mr. Wilson introduces his “ Re- Redemption by Jesus Christ, &c. ?" marks upon the Bishop of Peter. Even this pretence will fail bin in borough's Eighty-four Questions :” respect of eternal Salvation, the and it was reserved for his ingenuity title of the eighteenth Article, to discover that “, the Church of It is worthy of remark, that Mr. England has no articles" upon Re- Budd, in his Sermon, p. 39, requires demption by Jesus Christ, everlast- the exhibition, in the sermons and ing Salvation, Regeneration, and ministry of the clergy, of three great Renovation, and that a church has fundamental doctrines, namely,
p. 30, 31.
“The total ruin of man by sin, with not rather conclude from the very circumout any spark' of goodness in him; the stance, that on the part of God the gift is restoration of man, simply by faith in a free, he may annex to the offer, whatever crucified Saviour, by which he is rein- conditions he thinks proper to prestated in the divine favour ; and the rege- scribe?” neration of man's nature, not merely by the ontward sign, but by the reception of
The introduction of the word the thing signified, the renewing of bis terms, or conditions, calls forth the soul in holiness, by the operation of the old exception: Holy Ghost. Whatever may become of the other doctrines of grace, in our calcu « Now terms of redemption' is an unlation, can it be said, that the Gospel of scriptural phrase; there is no such word as grace is preached, when these three at
terms in the Scripture; much less cao we least are not implicitly, and pointedly, and find the phrase, · terms of redemption.' perseveringly insisted on?" P. 39.
But not to insist upon this, it is clear, that
redemplion is confounded with everlasting And the author of Episcopal Inno- salvation, in the fifth Question; whereas, vation agrees with him :
according to the title of the chapter, and
the first Question, it ought to have been « If any bold but buman depravity, na confined and referred solely to the death tive inability, regeneration by the Holy of Christ. I merely give this as a proof Spirit, faith as the gift of God, and justifi- of inaccuracy and ambiguity." Wilson, cation by faith alone-he has our friendship, our approbation, and our prayers.” P. xv.
There is neither inaccuracy nor
ambiguity in the Bishop's language; Thus regeneration, one of those and so far from its being clear, that doctrines, without insisting upon Redemption is confounded with which, the Gospel of grace is not everlasting salvation, in the fifth preached; and which he that hold- Question, they are expressly and eth, is entitled to the friendship, particularly distinguished. We have approbation, and prayers of his bre- been redeemed freely by the grace thren ; is, nevertheless, one of the of God, without rendering, or havdoctrines, upon which Mr. Wilson ing it in our power to render, any pronounces, that the Church has no Articles. Such disagreement will our redemption : but to this redemp
thing, as the price and purchase of appear in punerous instances in the
tion, gratuitous upon his part,
God present controversy.
hath annexed certain terms or conThe Bishop's first chapter is uponditions, upon which, not for which, “ Redemption by Jesus Christ.”
he hath made us accepted, and acWe recite the fourth and fifth ques. ceptable. To object that terms is tions, adding two questions from the not a scriptural phrase, is as puerile sixth chapter, which remove every
as it would be to object, that the doubt concerning the Bishop's mean- Greek Testament is not written in ing.
English, or that the Bible is not a i 4. If then Christ died for all men, modern system of theology: but the and God is willing that all men should be Bishop's argument, and the terms saved; must not they who fail of salva.
upon which he insists, are found tion, fail through their own fault?
2 Cor. v. 13; in which the Apostle “ 5. Does it not then behove us to inquire into the terms of our redemption, affirms, that Christ “ died for all ; that we may learn to do what is necessary
that they which live, should not on our parts, towards the obtaining of henceforth live unto themselves, but everlasting salvation ?
unto him who died for them, and * C. v. 9.11. Is not then the perform- rose again.” These words, in moance of good works a condition of everlast- dern language, would be called the ing salvation, though not of justification? « 12. Are conditions of salvation in
terms of our redemption: and the
upon compatible with the doctrine, that salva layman shows the coincidence tion is the free gift of God? or must we this subject, in the language of Bi.
shop Marsh, with that of Bishop absolute or entire depravity? Or is the Burnet; whom Mr. Wilson, upon effect only such, that we are very far gone another occasion, approves,
from original righteousness, and of our
own nature inclined to evil? strongly as Mr. Budd, in his Ap
“ 3. Has not the freqnent repetition of pendix, condemns. Mr. Wilson pur. the doctrine, that we are not only far gone sues his argument:
from righteousness, bat are nothing better “ Bat by terms of redemption,' his
than a mass of mere .corruption and depra. lordship most probably means terms of vity, a tendency to destroy all sense of everlasting salvation ; and it will be most virtue or moral goodness ?" readily granted to him, that without holi. It is not a very liberal or ingenu, ness both of heart and life, a man cannot ous remark of Mr. Wilson, obtain everlasting salvation; but even then his holiness does not MERIT it." Wilson,
“ I fear his lordship's intention is, as far p. 32.
as in him lies, to lower the doctrine below
the standard which our Church has adoptThere is nothing in the Bishop's ed; for if not, why, in the third question, language, no inaccuracy or ambi- does he leave out the important word guity, which justifies this imputa- "very, and put in only 'far gone from tion; nothing which a plain man righteousness? This excites my fears and may not, if he will both understand suspicions, that his lordship wishes to lower
the doctrine below our authorized stand. and approve. Even terms of ever
ard." Wilson, p. 33. lasting salvation, the phrase which Mr. Wilson seems disposed to ap The Bishop in his first question, prove, is not, according to his own quotes the words of the Article, and conception, a scriptural expression; by that quotation annuls the infernor does it, according to the author ence from the omission of the word of Episcopal Innovation, contain a very in the 3rd question : it would sounder or more wholesome doc be as conclusive reasoning to ask ; trine.
Why, if he did mean to lower the “ We fear not to say then, in answer to
doctrine, did he not omit the word this extraordinary qnestion,” (cap. v. qu. in the first question. The author of 12.) “ that conditions of salvation,” in his the legality of the questions, prelordship's meaning of conditions, are at tends, that the Bishop “aims his terly incompatible with the doctrine, weapons against a quaint and reprethat salvation is the free gift of God.' It
hensible mode of expression,” and would indeed mix the two dispensations of Law and Gospel, and destroy the proper
adds in a note, that character of both.
“ After the most minute inquiry it does “ Conditions, moreover, are absolutely not appear that the expression of men inconsistent with the DESIGN of God, in bring a mass of corruption,' in cooseoor justification and salvation.
quence of the fall is used by any of the Oar Church stamps this system of clergy, so that his Lordship's motive in works with the brand of infamy." Episc. introducing it seems to be grounded on a Ingov. p. 62.
misapprehension.” P. 27. There is a long paragraph in p. The Bishop may however have 61, which introduces the answer to read what escaped the minute in. the Bishop's question : the editors quiry of this writer, that Mr. Scott, of the Christian Guardian may be in his Remarks on the Refutation of thankful for our forbearance, in not Calvinism, p. 12, asserts that “ the circulating, in unknown quarters, Calvinists do indeed maintain, that this extraordinary specimen of theo. fallen man is an unmixed, incorrigilogical buffoonery.
ble mass of pollution and depravity," The Bishop's second chapter is so that the Bishop's only misappre. on Original Sin : the first and third bension consists in mistaking polluquestions are:
tion and depravity for corruption. “ 1. Did the fall of Adam produce such This quaint and reprehensible
mode an effect on his posterity, that maukind of expression' is, however, so far became a mass of mere corruption, or of from exciting the censure of Mr.
Wilson, and the author of Episcopal justification from everlasting salvation. Ionovation, that they proceed to
For though a critic may make some disvindicate it by the citation of pa- that the Church frequently makes none.
tinction between them, it is remarkable, rallel passages from the Homilies. Not only does the Church unite justificaThe doctrine might have been safely cation and salvation, and make them conleft to the general and indefinite ex sequent links in the same chain, and everpressions of the ninth article, with more mention them in the same copnection, out deviating into extremities which but in some cases she absolutely identifies bave no warrant of sacred authority, and considers them as one and the same or referring to texts which apply to thing.". P. 27.
“ First, we shall prove that they are particular cases, and not to the ge
NOT SEPARATED but UNITED, and afterneral condition of mankind.
wards shew that they are OBTAINED in the The Bishop's third chapter is on Free-will. This is a doctrine upou “ Justification and salvation are by our which modern Calvinists do not or
Church united. In the Catechism, she dinarily insist so earnestly as upon speaks of the same character as being at other points of the controversy: it of God, and an inheritor of the kingdom of
the same time a member of Christ, a child is nevertheless discussed at very con heaven.' In the baptismal office she prays siderable length by Mr. Budd, Mr.
to God for the baptized,' that he will Wilson, and the author of Episcopal grant them remission of their sins, the Iunovation.
blessing of eternal life, and make them The Bishop, by an uncommon, and partakers of his everlasting kingdom.' as it appears to us, an erroneous in Query, will not bis Lordship call this tauterpretation of 2 Cor. iii. 17. brings
tology?'” P. 29.
“ Justification and salvation are IDENthat text to bear upon the subject TIFIED.” Ibid. of Free-will; and affords Mr. Wil “ The Church never separates, but always son an opportunity of escaping from unites them.” P. 29. the real question, and of enjoying
On the extract from the Catean easy but unimportant triumph. The Bishop's first question upon ment, it is obvious to remark, that
chism, and the accompanying comjustification is :
although the same character or per“ Does not the Church of England dis son is at the same time a member of tinguish justification from everlasting sal- Christ, and an inheritor of the kingvation?"
dom of heaven, these characters or Mr. Wilson approves of this dis- titles do also refer to different periods tinction; but he chooses to suppose of time. A Christian in virtue of that the Bishop has endeavoured to his baptism, is made a member of prove its reality, not by the ques- Christ, and is actually in possession tions themselves, which afford a of Church-membership: he is also distinct and unanswerable argu- in virtue of his baptism an inheritor, ment, but by a note affixed to one of but he is not actually in possession them, which is an elucidation, not a of his inheritance of the kingdom of proof. We notice the circumstance heaven, for the heir in possession on two accounts ; first, because it ceases to be an heir: the same disshews the weakness of Mr. Wilson's tinction is made by the apostle, that cause; and secondly, because it we being or having been justified, may serve, when contrasted with dirawbertes might be made yawuuta the following sentences from Epis- heirs according to the hope of etercopal Innovation to prove the in- nal life. There is an obliquity and consistency of the Bishop's adver- perverseness in the quotation from saries.
the baptismal office, which is not
often paralleled, never surpassed. “ His Lordship could not have undertaken a more difficult task, thau to prove, “ She prays for the baptized, that he that tbe Church of England distinguishes will grant them remission of their sins, the