« הקודםהמשך »
conviction which results from the internal «3. That ttie grace conferred in bapand practical evidence of its truth. tism, and expressed in Scripture by a va-.
But this is not the whole extent of the riety of plırases and figures of speech, is evil; for unfortunately these exaggerated not, strictly speaking, a moral and pracdescriptions of human corruptions, whilst tical, but a mystical change; a change of they fail of acting upon the conscience, state and relative condition, accompanied have a powerful effect upon the passions with an earnest and promise of such spiriof the weak and unreflecting, and naturally, tual power, as may enable the recipient to serve to kindle and encourage the maladies continue in this state of salvation, and to of religious enthusiasm and self imposture. carry on that moral and practical change, For when men are taught that a sense of which the mystical change implies and their own atter and unmixed depravity is requires. the first, or rather the sole qualification “ 4. That this change, whose theory has for regeneration, they endeavour to throw been stated and described in the course of themselves into that posture of mind, wbich this treatise, was usually denominated res the lesson they have heard seems to re- generation by the whole body of the anquire. Hence they give themselves up to tient Christians, in strict accordance with certain vague and desultory feelings of un- Scriptural language. worthiness, which they mistake for reli “5. That in this head of doctrine our gious convictions, and establish within Church has kept close to the language and themselves a kind of factitious conscience, sentiments of Christian antiquity, distinwhich taxes them with utter depravity, guishing the sacramental grace from ilie and a determined hatred of God, whilst it qualifications which it requires, and the overlooks the specialties of sin; and calls effects which it is intended to prodace, them off from the task of self-inquiry, and and using the word regeneration in its arthe pursuit of self-knowledge. But the ticles and liturgy, to signify solely and sintransition from this state of mind to a state gly the grace conferred on Christians in directly opposite to it, is easy and natural. baptism, For he who can persuade himself that he is “6. That the Scriptures uniformly conexactly such a creature as these views of template the moral and practical change of original sin represent, will find no difficulty
the human sonl as effected through the in persuading himself, that he has expe
medium of moral instruments, and never rienced that mystical change and revolution suppose that spiritual habits, are formed in of soul, on which the corresponding theory another manner, or follow another order of regeneration insists. Such in fact is the than such habits as are purely and excluhistory of the most prevalent kinds of en sively moral. thusiasm: and it plainly confirms an ob “7. That it is of importance to observe servation, made in a former part of this this distinction between mystical and motreatise, that the speculative errors of di ral changes, because the notion of a moral vines naturally slide into practical errors change effected in a mystical manner, is at and fanaticism, when they fall into the variance with the reason of the thing, the hands of the weak, the passionate, and the experience of mankind, and the drift and injudicious.” P. 254.
purposes of all true religion, and in course
weakens the internal evidences of the The chief points of doctrine, Christian revelation, which it was the author's intention to 8. That consequently the theory
which exhibit, and which he has succeeded contemplates regeneration as an infusion in establishing in this general view
or implantation of habits, or as a turning of regeneration in baptisnı, are,
point from evil to good, attended with an
entire change of mind, or a radical change 1. That 'in Scriptiire, baptism is con. of the parts and faculties of the soul, is not sidered as the coinmencement of a new only incousistent with the reasonable and period, as an' wra of the religions life, from moral constitution of man, but contradic. whence the Christian dates a new state of tory to the nature and parposes of revealed spiritual existence, carrying with it new religion ;
and that it is built op metaprivileges, capacities of action, and expec- physical positions, which will not bear the tations; or in other words, a stale of sal- test of examination, and oy such exagge. vation.
rated views of man's sinfulness and de***,!« 2. That the sacrament of haptism is graded condition, as have no foundation in not only the symbol and seal, but the experience or Scripture, and involve conchannel and organ of that inward grace, of sequences injurious to the cause of truth, which it is in a strict and sacramental sepse and the interests of pure and unadulterated the outward and visible sign.
Christianity.” - P. 262.
was, to shew that the theory for characterized as its Thaand 'in abundance.
The only purpose, which it re- curity, presumption, self conceit, and the mained for Dr. Bethell to execute, other vices, which have been strangely
he wbich he contends corresponds and
They are owing to the want of that reharmonizes with the scheme of re
ligious education, which forms an imvealed religion. This purpose he portant part of our Christiani trial, where fully accomplishes, and his enquiry the interests of the young are intrusted, is concluded with a convincing and according to the known analogy of God's eloquent argument, that if the doc- natural and moral government, to the care trine of Regeneration in Baptism be of other persons, and their spiritual wel.
fare must necessarily be involved in the but fairly and candidly examined, good conduct and fidelity of their
parents it is not liable to the objections and instructors, without the continual inwhich are unjustly imputed to it. terference of miraculous canses. They
are occasioned by evil habits and bad "I am confident that no man who really examples, by the cares of this world and understands this doctrine, and is not pre the lusts of the flesh, by inattention to the judiced against il either by a strange mis
concerns of religion, and by an imperfect apprehension of its drift and nature, or by acquaintance with the nature of Chrisan attachment to some favourite hypothe- tianity, and of the privileges and obligasis, can discover in it any dangerous or tions of the baptismal covenant ; and not immoral tendency, or any aptness to pro- unfrequently by those practical notions of duce formality, security, presumption, or Regeneration, which are no uncommon self-conceit. With us, at least, in our fruits of a departure from orthodox opipublic formularies, it is guarded against nion. But I am persuaded, that he will eyery misconstruction, and intimately con
seldom, I may almost say, will never, vected with the probationary life, and the
within the sphere of his own duties, find necessity of religious exertion and grow.
them grounded on any misconstruction of ing holiness, Such, too, is the use to
this important doctrine." P. 278. which it is applied by the ministers of our Church in public and private, in The doctrine, which Dr. Bethell the school, the palpit, and all their paro has maintained, is primitive and chial instructions. A variety of practical apostolical; it is a doctrine of the lessons are built upon it in their ad
Church of England; plainly asserted dresses to parents and children, to the young, the old, the sinner, the penitent; in her Articles, and yet more plainly and the confirmed Christian; and it is recognized in the Offices of Bappressed on the memories and consciences tism; it is a doctrine, which cannot of their bearers as a motive to vigilance, be suppressed, it is a doctrine, which self-jealousy, resistance to temptation, re is brought from day to day into pentance, exertion, and perseverance public notice. It is, therefore, at They firmly believe, and thankfully acknow. all times, important that it should ledge, that the children, whom they have baptized, have been grafted into Christ's be rightly apprehended and underbody, and constituted and declared chil- stood; and it is yet more important, dren of God; and their labours are di- at the present moment, that correct rected to these points—that they may be notions should be entertained conireared and educated as spiritual and im- cerning it, when it is made the submortal creatures; that the children of God ject of a popular controversy; on may not become children of wrath, and which many are prepared to mischildren of the deyil; and that those Chris. tians, who bave fallen away from God's lead others, and many have been grace, and forfeited the hopes and pri- themselves misled, and when the vileges of their calling, may be renewed faithful minister will be anxions i to again to repentanc ·, and restored to the recal into the way of truth all such houschold and family of Christ.
as have erred and are deceived. " Whilst the Christian minister makes this inportant office he will derive this use and practical application of it, he cousiderable assistance from the laneed not fear to advocate a doctrine, srounded on the sore basis of Scriptoré bours of Dr. Bethell; and all, who witnessed by all antiquity, and unequivo- have not the means or the leisure cally asserted by our own Church. Se to consult the several treatises, which
insist úpon distinct parts of the The Church, indeed, was cleared of question, will find in this general what was called superstition, and a and comprehensive view all which is godly discipline was introduced into necessary to be known concerning the Universities ; but the people the doctrine of Regeneration in saw no other difference between Baptism, as it is laid down, in the their old and new guides, than in remains of Catholic antiquity, in the the rigour with which the latter en Holy Scriptures, and in the formu- forced their exactions, while they laries of the Church of England.. professed a more than ordinary ab
stractedness from the world.
Milton has drawn a lively pic
ture of the Assembly of Divines, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of who met at Westminster under the
the Right Red. Brian Walton, orders of Parliament, for the refor. D.D. Lord Bishop of Chester, mation of religion.
" The most Editor of the London Polyglot part of them,” says he, * were such Bible." With Notices of his Co as had preached and cried down, adjutors in that illustrious Work; with great shew of zeal, the avarice of the Cultivation of Oriental and pluralities of Bishops and PreLearning in this Country, pre
lates; that one cure of souls was a ceding, and during their Time; full employment for one spiritual and of the authorized English pastor, how able soever, if not a
Version of the Bible, to a pro charge above human strength. Yet jected Revision of which Dr. Wal- these conscientious men, before any lon and some of his Assistants in part of the work was done, for which the Polyglot were appointed. To they came together, (and that on the which is added Dr. Walton's own public salary,) wanted not boldness Vindication of the London Poly- to the ignominy and scandal of their glot. By the Rev. Henry John pastor-like profession, and espeTodd, M.A. F.S.A. Chaplain. in cially of their boasted reformation, Ordinary to his Majesty, and to seize into their hands, or not unRector of Settrington in the willingly to accept. (besides one, County of York. Two Volumes,
sometimes two, or more of the best 8vo. Rivingtons. 1821. livings,) collegiate masterships, in
the Universities, rich lectures in the THIS is a valuable addition to the
city, setting sail to all winds that stock of English biography and lite. might blow a gain into their covetous rary history; and it is one that will
bosoms.” The consequence of this exeite strong emotions in the mind of the candid reader, while it brings wards observes,
was, as the same great writer after
wards observes, that -- the people under his review the contrast be which had been kept warm awhile tween that zeal which is directed with the counterfeit zeal of the pul by learning, and that which flames pits, after a false heat, became more out with irregular fury in fanaticism. cold and obdurate than before, When the puritans had succecded some turning to lewdness, some to in overturning the episcopacy and fat Atheismi, put beside their old liturgy, these reformers, instead of religion, and foully scandalized in encouraging literature, decried it as what they expected should be new. being nothing better than heathenas - These were the men who supism;aby which artifice they readily planted, and reduced to beggary, found an excuse for appropriating to Usher, Taylor, Hammond, Pococke, their own private purposes the real and Walton, with a number of other, venues awhich the wisdom and pietyo ornaments of that age, wliose works, of former times had set apart for composed for the most part in pothey advancement of knowledge. verty and under oppression;" have
endeared their names to posterity, heads that were never right but by while their persecutors are men- accident. In an age
, tioned only to be despised. Driven lista nothing, therefore, is safe, and out of the church, and interdicted no authorities, however venerable, from even keeping school for a liveli-' can be depended upon. Homer is hood, these excellent confessors, a blind name for works written, instead of caballing and plotting or rather songs, composed by against their adversaries, devoted different persons of whom nothing themselves to the preservation of more is known, than that they ing learning and the defence of rational vented legends in verse, of about Christianity. Then that profound the same credibility and to the same scholar, John Pearson, besides his purpose as the puerilities ascribed invaluable “ Exposition of the to Ossian. With a still more dar. Creed,” compiled the body of ing flight one man has converted “ Sacred Critics,” of which im- the Jewish history, Pentateuch and mense treasure of erudition his last all, into an astronomical enigma ; biographer has taken not the least while another with the same faci. notice, though he has given an lity, and he too a priest and an elaborate account of the abridgment affected believer in Christianity, has of it by Matthew Pool, as an ori- traced these same revered records ginal work.
to a set of old ballads. We hope that the example so At length, as if the climax of ablaudably set by Mr. Todd in rescu- surdities and paradoxical assurance, ing the memorials of Bishop Wal. wanted the utmost excess of auda. ton, will have the effect of stimulat- city to impose upon public creduing some one equally able and lity, we are told that no scholar till equally liberal to do similar justice the present day ever understood the to that Prelate's illustrious suc- original construction of the Hebrew cessor, Bishop, Pearson. Never language; and, consequently, that were works of this description more all the world, the Jewish rabbies needful than at the present moment, not excepted, have hitherto been in when by a large portion of the com- darkness respecting the real meanmunity spiritual illumination is ac- ing of the Scriptures. This, to be counted of greater importance than sure, is paying a fine compliment to human learning; while others in a the human understanding; but it is of vain conceit of their own knowledge, far more serious import as affecting affect to treat the attainments and the honour of the Divine Being: for labours of former times with con, in what light cao these books be tempt. Hence, it is that the coun- considered as his revelation to man try is overrun with enthusiastic kind, when it required the superior teachers, who, destitute of even a sagacity of an English cobler to competent acquaintance with their interpret them correctly for the first mother tongue, take upon them, by time after the lapse of above twenty virtue of a sixpenny license, to ex centuries from the completion of plain to the ignorant multitude those the Sacred Canon? . Yet we have recondite mysteries of religion, lived to see noble and royal patronwhich as even an apostle allowed are age lavished, no doubt without pres
hard to be understood.” Thus vious examination, upon this most also is literature insulted by empi- impudent species of quackery, the rics, who, claiming an extraordinary very pretensions of which are at: insight into the native principles of variance with the common sense of the ancient languages, condemu mankind : and if admitted, must at without mercy or modesty, all for once destroy the validity of the mer scholiasts, lexicographers, and whole Bible, grammarians, as ignorant block. Were we to measure the danger
by the power of the instrument, we became an object of persecution to should have no hesitation in saying, the zealots of reformation; " and that it would be the wisest course
once when sought for by a party of to treat presumptuous ignorance horse sent in pursuit of him, he was with silent contempt, for who forced to shelter himself in a broom “ would break a fly upon a wheel?” field. In this state of distress he But when we reflect upon the ad- fled to Oxford, then a royal garrivantages which infidels have al- son, and while at that famous Uniways taken of the rash emendations versity he planned the Polyglot of the Sacred Text, proposed by Bible, an undertaking only adapted, even learned and well-meaning cri as any one would have supposed, to tics; we must copfess that every a season of prosperity, and impossithing, however trivial it may be, ble to be carried into execution withwhich has a tendency to increase out the invigorating beams of royal scepticism, alarms our fears. Though patronage. Yet did this 'stupendo truth cannot suffer either by the ma ous concern begin when the Church lice of enemies, or the indiscretion was under a cloud, and when her of fools, it is the duty of all who ministers were reduced to abject have the ability to remove such ob- poverty. Walton, and his learned stacles as may from time to time be colleagues, when they associated thrown in the way of its progress by this Herculean labour, were living eraft or ignorance.
in a state of casual dependence upon It is to the influence of this im- the charity of their friends; and the perative obligation that we are in- only mark of favour experienced by debted for the publication which them from the men in power, was has drawn from us, perhaps with that of obtaining the paper from somewhat of too much prolixity, Holland, free of duty. But lest any these remarks. We should, howe should be disposed to make a merit ever, be worse than the Traditores of this grant on the part of the of old, who tiinidly gave up the usurpers, let it be considered that Scriptures when demanded of them, those zealots had already deprived did we not, as occasion offers, ex- Walton and his principal coadjupress a honest indignation against tors, not only of their preferments, those who would fain substitute a but their temporal estates; so that new Bible of their own manufac- such liberality was like that of the ture, for that which we have been sheep-stealer, who to quiet his conled to venerate from our infancy. science, gave away the trotters to
To vindicate that Sacred Volume, the poor for God's sake. and its translators, is a commend In 1652 the proposals for the able undertaking; and the task has Polyglot were first issued ; and been well performed in the present though by the battle of Worcester work, which exhibits such a lumin- the hopes of the royalists were laid ous view of oriental learning in in the dust, the love of learning was England in the sixteenth and seven- not abated, and before the end of teenth centuries, as must effectually that year near four thousand pounds put to shame those who imagine were subscribed for the encourage. that till this enlightened period, in ment of the work. hoc chartarum sæculo, all was twi. As the Prospectus is a literary light.
relie of great curiosity, and affords Little additional information is a clear view of this important unhere given of Dr. Walton's personal dertaking, it will we doubt not prove history; but it appears that in pro- acceptable to our readers. portion as his learning and virtues made him beloved by the loyal and of the Bible in the Original Hebrew, Sa
“ A Brief Description of an Edition orthodox, he on the same account maritan, and Greek, with the most uncient