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in these passages. Reid and Mr. haps, allow me a page or two more, Stewart say exactly the same. on that point in which you suppose How prudence can be a test of what me to disagree with the doctrines is obligatory, though all obligation held by Mr. Stewart, on the supre. rest on conscience alone, is there. macy of the moral sense, or of confore a question which I am not pe- science. Mr. Stewart has proved culiarly concerned to solve. satisfactorily, that if we make “ vir.
The just solution of it, however, tue a mere matter of prudence,” will not be difficult to any person we must conclude, that “the diswho takes duly into his considera- belief of a future state absolves from tion, that conscience, as has already all moral obligation, excepting in so been shown, is far from being a far as we find virtue to be conducive mere instinct or sentiment; but is, to our present interest; and that a on the contrary, an inquiring, and, being independently and completely as has been somewhere justly ob- happy cannot have any moral perserved, a very pragmatical faculty. ceptions, or any moral attributes *.”. It is the specific obligation of con. He thus effectually disproves the no. science itself which accompanies us
tion that virtue is a mere, matter of , through the whole inquiry, which prudence. And with this doctrine conscience urges us to make. It of his I agree entirely; for though is the voice of conscience which I hold that to prove the tendency to obliges us to follow that rule which,' future happiness infers at once the on a sincere inquiry, may seem to obligation of those acts in which that, us the most entitled to preference. tendency is found, this is not, as has And if it appear, on such inquiry, been explained sufficiently, because that to act prudently, in the sense prudence alone constitutes obligawhich prudence bears in my trea., tion, but because an enlarged and tise, is the sort of action to which liberal prudence, or a wise regard conscience gives preference, we may for our happiness in a future state, speak summarily' of the obligation is always an accurate measure of obof prudence, or say that the pru. ligation: because the sense of oblidence is the test or measure of the gation goes along with us in all the obligation ; though we still hold that decisions which this prudence can the force of the obligation resides in make. the conscience, or in the moral sense With regard to the case of a man itself. And this, you will observe, who is ignorant of a future state, or is implied in Butler's argument, as
who disbelieves it, and who is also above quoted from the analogy: for, subject to the additional misfortune where he speaks of the obligation of apprehending that the practice, of prudence in the same manner in which I have spoken of it, he proves * Outlines of Moral Philosophy, p. 149. the obligation by an appeal to the It may here, perhaps, be worthy of notice,
that in thus speaking of “ a being independFrom what has been said, it must' cutly and completely happy,” Mr. Stewart be suthiciently evident, that a man
must mean such a being as mun, supposing may be under a real obligation to ble of an independent and complete hap.'
man, for the sake of the argument, capdpursue a thing, though merely for piness. The “ being" here spoken of canhis own benefit. And this is the not mean God, because we cannot, withlast of those positions which I had out gross paralogism and impiety, think of to establish, in order to remove the transferring to God moral qualities, which, objections which you have made to for aught we know, may be peculiar to tlie the principles contained in my trea- especially, it is to be observed, that we
And in the present instance,
can no more attribute to God the sense of I am sorry to intrude longer on obligation, than that of regard for his oven your patience : yet you will, per interest or benefit.
of what is commonly called virtue, no longer a moral agent, is no will, on the whole, be productive to longer capable of either virtue or him of unhappiness; it is certain vice, is not a subject of exhortation that, however calamitous the igno- or reasoning, but is to be regarded rance in which such a man may have only as an ideot, or a brute. And, been bred, or however perverted the if such men are, do we not so reopinions he may have formed, he gard them? still cannot be quite insensible to all But it
may still be asked, whetber the claims which God or man may the tendency of an act to promote, have on him, to all the lessons which on the whole, the true happiness of nature, or reason, or authority, may the agent, be the true measure of have conspired to fix in his mind; obligation, even for those persons and which he cannot, if he would, who are in these unhappy circumeradicate. Such a man, therefore, stances; who are either ignorant of, has still a conscience, however im. or who disbelieve in, a future state ; perfect and ill-informed it may be: and who think that virtue tends to and although his duty and his inter present unhappiness? Can the proper est must seem to him incongruous; measure of the obligations of such although his only alternative, (as is persons be a measure which they said by Dr. Reid, who refers, I be- must believe to be inaccurate: or is lieve, the remark to Lord Shaftes. it possible that we can have one bury), is, whether he will choose to measure for them, and another meabe a knave or a fool; it assuredly sure for the Christian? If the meacannot be required of the believer sures are different in the two cases, in a future state, that he should be what becomes of that paramount able to reconcile in the mind of the criterion, which I suppose that pruinfidel, that incongruity between dence may in all cases afford ? duty and interest, from which it is Now it is plain, that our first buhis own happiness to have escaped, siness, with the persons whose case solely, or chiefly, by means of his I have been here describing, is to own belief, and which he always remove their ignorance or error. To holds, that the truth of that belief hold out to them the good conseis either the sole or the best means quences of virtue, before they can of reconciling
be prepared to see or acknowledge If, indeed, any man on a serious them, would manifestly be but a inquiry into the reasonableness of waste of labour. I must here, his moral convictions, after consi- therefore, say plainly at once, that dering what are his own true inter- I refuse to argue on any
preests, what the probable end of his mises as the non-existence of a fubeing;
ture state, or the supposition that
virtue can, on the whole, be, by any “Wky formed at all, and wherefore as contingency, productive of unhaphe is ?”
piness. We have already seen, that After weighing all claims made' though the doctrine of a future
him by the law of God, by state may serve to all men, sua si public opinion, by the principle bona norint, as a complete and acof benevolence, and every other curate guide through all intricacies principle which he can consult ; if of moral practice or theory, it does any man, after maturely and sin-' not follow that ignorance or disbecerely weighing all these claims, can lief of the doctrine will either exhonestly decide that there is no jus- punge the sense of obligation, or tice in any of them, and shall ac acquit the conscience of him wbo tually succeed in stilling them all ; acts in opposition to it. Nor yet it does follow, from the principles I does it follow that, in the absence have advanced, that such a man is of this guide, any other is, or ought'
to be, provided. For this is the the straightness of the measure I true guide, and of course every have proposed. For though, to men other is, of necessity, either false without the light of revelation, a or defective.
future state may have appeared ever With this doctrine, accordingly, so doubtful, we can hardly suppose my treatise sets out *, and with a that any competent reasoner on the reference to one of the most pene- duties or the expectations of the hutrating of reasoners for the follow man race can have failed either to ing most just remark, which I should imagine, or to admit, the possibility have quoted at length had the case of such a state. But it has been often seemed less clear. "The doctrine of proved that the possibility of a futhe immortality of the soul is of so ture state, although we know that the much importance to us, and touches mere possibility would, practically, us so nearly, that any indifference be but little attended to, yet infers, on about it argues the certain loss of every principle of calculation, pre
all mental sensibility. All our ac- cisely the same rules of conduct, ta
tions and all our thoughts ought to which the full assurance of it entake such different turns, cord. ables us to deduce. ingly as we may or may not entertain
I am, Sir, a reasonable expectation of a future Your most obedient humble servant, state, that it is impossible to stir rationally a single step, unless we
John PENROSE. * keep this object in view 7." Without Bracebridge, June 7, 1821.
this doctrine, indeed, there can be nothing but confusion in all specu. lations both on prudence and virtue. Human life is a mere maze
ON LAY BAPTISM. without it-a maze altogether with- To the Editor of the Remembrancer. out a clue. To the question, therefore, whe
ther the tendency of virtue to pro- . In the account of Southey's Life of
If I understand the Reviewer persons who cannot see it. I do not rigbtly, he applies the word “ bigot". suppose, however, that in any re to Wesley, because he did not allow gion, or in any age, there ever was the validity of Dissenters baptisms. any man capable of moral reason, He asserts that some few of the ing, (and moral science addresses High-church party have been bigots such
persons' only), who might not for the same reason; and, that the competent, though only, perbaps great majority of learning and authrough a dim medium, to discern thority has been uniformly free from
this bigotry in allowing the validity * Human Motives, p. 2. 8.
of lay baptism. + Pascal, Pensées, p. 3.
I was sorry, Mr. Editor, and did
4,28 Apply not expect to see in the pages of the, tiye Christianity against the corrupQuarterly, such a passage as this. tions of the papist, who by most Hitherto I have been in the babit of protestapts has hitherto been consiplacing full confidence in this Jour- dered the bigot; but with whom it nal for the correctness of its staten seens, the reviewer is in this case, ments and facts, its general ortho, pleased to symbolize. moj doxy on such subjects, and its The Reviewer further asserts friendly aspect towards the Esta- that ibe great majority of learning blished Church. These lines, ad- and authority has been uniformly, of mitted, certainly in an unguarded the other side that is, admitting moment, as they were wholly un with the papist, the validity of Laya provoked, and not at all necessary baptism. If learning and authority , to the subject, have all the appear- indeed, are to be taken in the bulk, ance of the wanton Nourish of some it must be granted. The Church of low church-pen, vastly desirous of Rome is very extensive, and has rupning at tilt with some antagon- always had much learning to boast: ist. Being of sentiments not exactly she has also enjoyed in her day, similar to those of the Reviewer, very considerable authority, At you may suppose that I do not feel home he will have all that party,(or quite satisfied with him. What more rather, that legion of parties,) which of bigotry is there in denying the will include not only those members validity of Dissenters baptisms, than of the establishment, who, upon in admitting it? This is only call this subject, fall in with the papists, ing names at best; for a man does but almost all the various religious not become a bigot, because he parties and sects which
h separate holds certain opinions ; but because from the Church, calling themselves he holds them with unreasonable protestant dissenters. All this learnprejudice, and improper warmth ; ing, and authority, cannot be debut this is continually done by the nied him. But that he will have a low-church, as well as the high- great majority of sound Christian church party, and frequently in a scholars and learned ecclesiastical temper discreditable to any party: historians on the low-church side, but the Reviewer attempts to fix the bolding the validity of lay-baptistsm, charge of bigotry upon the latter, must be utterly denied. not upon account of their unrea I have no intention of troubling sonable prejudice, but upon account you further upon the subject, than of their holding certain opinions, merely to enter my protest against which do not meet his approbation; this assertion, made with more háste which, to say no worse of it, is a vul- and less circumspection : than is garism, a little beneath the Quar- usual with that respectable Joutual; terly Critic.
an assertion, which, if not corrected, Again he says, “ that there al- will unfortunately now go forth into ways have been some few of the the world, under its sanction. I high-church party, who have denied would likewise apprize those readthe validity of Dissenters baptism." ers, who like myself
, have felt the Certes, the Reviewer is not at honie fullest confidence in its discretion here. He plainly has not been in and sound principles, that in this in habits of familiarity with this party, stanice, it has a little forgotten itelse would be not have said that a self
, rand, (unwittingly no doubt,) few,” but that “all” who are gene has indirectly charged the Church rally distinguished, by certain writ- of Pugland herselt, with bigotry; sers by this name have maintained for that our national Church holds the decessity of a Christian Minister, opinions uponbaptism, which the to make a valid sacramentorand in Reviewer is pleased to stigmatize as so doing they have supported primi- high-church bigotry, is sufficiently
plain to any one, who will take the former only deliver their private pains fairly to examine her offices, opinion. If it be asked, whether and other public documents. “The baptism, when performed by an unChurch," says Wheatly, (one of the ordained person, be in the sense of mnost learned and correct ritualists our Church valid and effectual, I that ever lived) “ provides that
“ provides that answer, that according to the best none but a minister, or one duly or judgement we can form from her dained, presume to intermeddle in public acts and offices, it is not. it (baptism,) well knowing that the
Our Church, by prohibitpersons by whom baptism is to be ing all from intermeddling in bapadministered, are plainly as positive tism, but a lawful minister, plainly a part of the institution, as any thing hints, that when baptism is admielse relating to that ordinance; and nistered by any other, it conveys no consequently that the power of ad. benefit or advantage to the child, ministering it, must belong to those but only brings upon those who preonly whom Christ hath authorised tend to administer it, the guilt of by the institution. 'Tis true, there usurping a sacred office, and conseare some few of the primitive writers quently that persons so pretendedly who allow laymen to baptize in case baptized (if they live to be sensible of necessity : But there are more and of their state and condition,) are to earlier of the Fathers who disallow apply to their lawful minister or that practice: and upon mature de. bishop for that holy sacrament, of liberation of the several passages it which they only received a profanawill generally be found, that these tion before."---(See Ministration of latter, for the most part, speak the Private Baptism.)
S, T, judgment of the Church, whilst the June pih, 1821.
REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS,
A General View of the Doctrine of all the heresies which have been Regeneration in Baptism. By
successively introduced in opposiChristopher Bethell, D.D. Dean
tion to this great mystery can be of Chichester. pp. 282. Riving- satisfactorily ascertained. The errors
of the Church of Rome can be tous, 1821.
traced with the saine precision ; There is a strong presumption in they are not in the Scriptures: they favour of the truth of any doctrine, are not in the writings of the primiof which it can be shewn that it bas tive fathers, or in the decrees of the been held in all places, in all ages, first councils : they are the invenand by all sound members of the tions of
ages and of persons wf uo Catholic Church; and there is strong authority in the Church. reason to suspect the authenticity But there is no doctrine of which of any doctrine, when it is possible the pedigree can be more clearly to fix the æra, at which it began to deduced, than that of regeneration, be published in the world, and be both as the name and the doctrine fore which it was unknown. This are concerned. It is not doubtful history of doctrines forms an in. at what period the Calvinistic docportant argument in the controversy trine was first asserted, or in what with the Unitarians, and in the con order the various modifications of troversy with the Church of Rome. the doctrine have been engrafted on The doctrine of the Trinity was the original dogma of the Reformer Dever unknown, and the origin of of Geneva. Before that period it REMEMBRANCER, No. 31.