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as black as we have been painted. The iter- while sensitive and suspected virtue shall be wisdom, but upon the art of putting them. ation of the proverb saps our resolution- overwhelmed with confusion and mortifica. The farther they are remored from obvious emasculates our will. It makes us believe that tion.

truth, if they be adroitly couched, the more any and every effort to struggle against mis. Belief in the proverb wrongs innocence likely they are to be accepted. A spice of representation is vain-is wasted exertion. incalculably by causing it to be mistaken for ill-nature is prone to preserve them, and renWe grow morose and cynical. We are dig. guilt, and at the same time acquits this of its der them appetizing to the public palate. We gusted with ourselves, and feel malevolent offense. If we wish to detect guilt, we must like to repeat what we know is faise when toward the world—for at that particular time discard the maxim, or interpret it by contra- the falsehood is glossed by the embalming we remember only the fools and scoundrels in riety; for, wherever we contront indubitable, epigram, the consciousness that the thing it—and in such mood the tempter, in the clearly-established guilt, we shall be likely to bas been said before freeing us from accounshape of the proverb, finds us, and fits us to find it gazing as calmly and defiantly at us tability for its promulgation. his purpose.

as does the Sphinx at the sands of the sur- Hardly a maxim or proverb exists in our He who seriously quotes the maxim is rounding desert.

own or any other language that may not be dishonest at heart, seeble in principle, cow- “People like to be deceived." How often taken to pieces before its atom of truth, if any, ardly of nature. He may not have stained we hear this! Perbaps they do ; but what can be found. The proverbs of the French himself as yet; but you may be sure he is kind of people are they? They must be pe- and Spanish are the wittiest and the falsest; biding his occasion. And, when that comes, culiar, since they are never the people we those of the Germans and Scandinavians the he will plunge his arms elbow-deep into the meet. Everybody will bear witness that his dullest and the truest. No current saying immoral dye, to be certain that ill-fame shall or her acquaintances hate to be, and are an- but is contradicted by another-as, “ Two of a not color him below his desert. gry at being, deceived. They that are fond

trade never agree;

"“ Birds of a feather flock Beware of the surprises of the heart " of deception are plainly those unknown, ab- together ;” “In a multitude of counselors —a sentimental caution which originated, stract folk, who are sure to be punished for there is safety;” “Too many cooks spoil perhaps, with Lamartine—has been made to the sins we commit, and whom we love to re- the broth ;” and so on through every variety discharge duty it was never intended for. It gard metaphysically as the victims of vague- of affirmation and denial, of inconsistency is employe<l now to suppress all generous im-ly-violated justice.

and contrariety. pulses, all emotional affection, all spontane- The trite aphorism in its truth or false. All sorts of sustainment for all sorts of con. ity of action. In this age and country, hood is of small consequence. Its mischief duct, every kind of encouragement for every heart is too muc inclin to wait upon the is in its instigation to deceive. Most of us rtue and every vice, may be gathered from dictates of the mind. The intense matter- have sufficient tendency in that direction proverbs. Entirely devoid of argument, they of-fact latter half of the nineteenth century without any verbal stimulant or honeyed are regarded and quoted as arguments; dehas so cramped and choked sensibility that sophistry. The phrase is a trick put upon us fiant of logic, they accomplislı what logic its emanations are satirically labeled “Gush," wherewith to trick our fellows. It is a cun-cannot. Properly considered, they are helps and uniformly ridiculed. We need rather to ning device to mollify our consciousness of to language, ornaments to conversation, delitry to evoke surprises of the heart, in this doing wrong. Not merely this, it proclaims cate punctures for pretense, of inestimable period of premeditation and calculation; to as a benevolence what is manifestly a mean- value to society. But considered, as tbey cultivate in that greatly-neglected organ the ness on our part; and we are so willing to usually are, as strengtheners of position, excapacity to be amazed.

appear duped when we are not-our faults cusers of conduct, palliators of offense, they Wirrmth and outgo of the heart are ever being in question—that we appeal to maxims are inestimably pernicious. They teach the beneficial while they rest under the cool shad. to prove the unprovable. If the conscience same lesson and the same truth which the ow of the judgment. Affection never hurts smarts, a timely proverb is hunted up to declaration does—that a stoutly-maintained reason half so much as reason burts affec-draw out the sting. The sting may stick; lie is infinitely better than a poorly-defended tion; and admonitions to bold the feelings in but the prescription is paraded, and the cure truth. abeyance are unnecessary, wbile the feelings is inferred.

JUNIUS HENRI BROWNE. tend to stagnation from misuse. It is the “ A little learning is a dangerous thing." coll and over-cautious people who tell us to Thousands echo this without remembering guard against our hearts, with vague intima- or knowing that it is a line of Pope, probably

TO-DAY. tions that they have suffered from the ab. made with no higher intent than to fit the sence of sentimental vigilance. Their faces corresponding rhyme of the couplet. It has and antecedents contradict their hints, and become an aphorism, a proverb, because it ONLY

NLY from day to day, should incline us to do the very thing they | has a taking air and sounds well-reason

The life of a wise man runs. proscribe. Persons persistently complaining enough for the currency of half our popular

What matter if seasons far away that their hearts ge: the better of them al. sayings. A little learning may be dangerous, Have gloom or have double suns? most invariably get and keep the better of but it is far better than no learning, which is their hearts, and have withal a marvelously danger itself. The corollary is, that igno. We climb the unreal path, easy conquest.

rance is comparatively free from peril, which And stray from the roadway here; “ Guilt is always timid” is one of the is ten times as false as the original proposi. We swim the rivers of wrath, phrases that must have been coined in the tion.

And tunnel the hills of fear. mint of ignorance. The student of human The greatest fallacy of this and many nature knows that guilt, and that of the maxims is in the necessary inference that is Our feet on the torrent's brink, deepest order, is very often so superlatively drawn. Their greatest mischief lies in their Our eyes on the clouds afar: audacious that it cannot be frightened or incompleteness, and in the fact that they are We fear the things we think, abashed.

generally accepted as complete. Any half Instead of the things that are. What is termed wickedness is very differ- truth, or partial falsehood, if felicitously exnt actually from the thing it is theoretically. pressed and aptly repeated, has fivefold the

Like a tide our work should rise, tis sincerely conscious of itself (the popular weight in controversy or conversation that a

Each later wave the best. lotion is that it is ever appalled by its own whole truth awkwardly worded has. He who

" To-day is a king in disguise,” mage), and when it is conscious it sees it. could make the proverbs of a nation would

To-day is the special test. elf at a remarkably propitious angle. Vice possess more influence than he who should 3 its own vindicator through the very per- write its history or frame its laws. They

Like a sawyer's work is life: 'ersity of judgment that allows it to exist. have been defined the wit of one and the

The present makes the flaw; ts continuance lends it a bardness and firm wisdom of many. They are oftener the fal.

And the only field for strife ess which neither disapproval nor denuncia. lacy of one and the inability to detect it of

Is the inch before the saw. ion can soften or shake. Guilt can and will the multitude. bok rebuking innocence steadily in the face, / Proverbs depend not for popularity upon

JOHN BOYLE O'REILLY.

PROPER

a noble and handsome bequest to that city , bestow, but by the suitable advice they give EDITOR'S TABLE. whose remarkable growth had been the real and the opportunities they afford; and these

force that produced his wealth. There is a all had just claims upon the millionaire's ROPERTY sometimes accumulates by library of considerable pretension founded bounty. Had Mr. Astor, however, withbed

the strenuous exertions of the owner, by the Astors, but the spirit that endowed every form of charity during his life and and sometimes as the result of means which the institution stopped half - way, and has in his will, yet used his wealth with some the owner had little share in producing. The permitted it to drag ou in a half-starved con- thing of an eye to the public good and with man who opens railroads, builds steamships, dition. Its funds have been so insufficient for public spirit; had he sometimes risked at establishes ferries, supplies the community the purchase of new books, that an Amer- investment that if successful would hare with conveniences, promotes the general ican student would find a larger collection of redounded to the city's good; had he eten 'prosperity in promoting his own, is fairly en. the books of bis own country in the British indirectly promoted the welfare, confort, or titled to all the rewards his sagacity and Museum than in the leading library of New æsthetic pleasures of the people--we should enterprise bring him. Even such a man, York! The endowment by Mr. Astor's will now utter no word of complaint. however, is under many obligations to the of two liundred thousand dollars will put it in community, and should realize that his for. a little better condition; but the people had a Last week we suggested that Oxford and tune has accumulated by the coöperation, right to expect that a liberal portion of the Cambridge should unite with Harvard and consent, and support of the people. How- wealth, held by Mr. Astor is a little more Yale in composing a dictionary which should ever sagaciously a man may direct the la- than a custodian, would be appropriated to be accepted as final and authoritative by te bors of others so as to secure their and his place the Astor Library in a foremost place people of both countries. We have since own best advantage, it is still true that his among the great libraries of the world. discovered that we therein committed pis. wealth is rendered possible solely by the en- The people of New York have long hoped i giarism upon ourselves, having once before ergies he is permitted to control. No man their millionaires would establish an art-gal. made the same suggestion, a circumstates can become rich save by the consent and as lery worthy of the city. We do not hesitate we had entirely forgotten. We don't know a result of the activities of the community. to say that it was distinctly Mr. Astor's that any good or evil is likely to arise fror While it is therefore true that the most coura- duty to have contributed liberally toward this self-repetition, for it is tolerably certen geous leader owes a measure of indebtedness this end. The Metropolitan Museum of Art that it is hopeless to look for the combies. to the world about him, how large and sig. is a worthy project. A few zealous gentlemen tion we have indicated, much as it may be do nal is the debt from him who has looked pas- have given largely and labored strenuously sired. Ancient Oxford and Cambridge are sively on and grown rich simply by having to establish this useful institution, but it is not fond of us enough to meet us on teras his wealth thrust upon him!

still greatly in want of funds. It would of equality. To the haughty exclusiveness The value of land deperds wholly upon have been a graceful and easy thing for Mr. England's aristocratic seats of learning, ou? neighborhood. An area that would be worth- Astor to have placed it on a footing of per- oldest and best colleges seem new and up less in the wilderness becomes priceless when manent prosperity.

start. But if the wise heads of the Isis and towns grow up within and around it. A Mr. Astor, it is said, counted his build- the Cam could not be induced to unite in great real-estate owner, like the late Mr. As. ings by the thousand. The stranger wander- lowship with those of the Charles and to tor, becomes enormously rich solely by the ing through the city, would naturally expect to City of Elms, at least a union of America fortuitous circumstances that surround him- find at least a few architectural piles erected | colleges for the purpose mentioned could te by the energies, industries, enterprises, and by the taste and munificence of the wealthi- formed. Harvard, Yale, Cornell, the it! achievements, of his neighbors. It is true est man in the country. With the excep- | versity of Virginia, and the University i. that no man, even under these conditions, tion of the Astor Library, there are none. Michigan, with such other colleges as c can accumulate wealth without prudence and No schools, no academies, no churches, no seem desirable, might unite for the purpm sagacity. It is easy to be improvident and public pleasure - grounds, bear his name. of forming for the American people a sise easy to make mistakes. But where fore. The wealth of this great millionaire is not of orthography and orthoepy that would be thought and self-denial deserve their re- even evidenced in useful or economic things. acceptable to and binding upon all sectii wards, it still remains true that a man who The best form of house for the laboring- of the country. has absorbed into himself an

man is one of the problems of the day. Mr. If it ever chance that a dictionary is? wealth, almost wholly because of the great Astor, with all his great resources, made no forth under auspices such as we have it activities of the people about him, holds his effort to solve it. No model tenements went cated, we hope the learned conventica e wealth under obligations that he has no mor- up under his inspiration ; no pretty and boldly grapple with the corruptions in fait al right to ignore. The wealth of the late tasteful rows of cottages were devised by his nunciation sanctioned by the existing da Mr. Astor was not won by him ; it was con- hand; no contribution whatever toward the tionaries. It is singular that the orthoeps ferred upon him. No agrarian or communis- solution of questions in the econcmy of home certain words is permitted by authoritř. tic principles must abridge rights of posses- ever came from him. He made no experi retain a vulgarity and slovenliness de sion; the safety of the community as a ments, acquired no experience, contributed the dictionaries and the masters so resolet. whole depends upon the maintenance of the no results, set no needed example even in the contend against when exhibited in och sacredness of property; but we may be sure domain of house-building, into which his ac

It is asserted that the main di that if men of property are determined to cumulating wealth ever steadily went.

ence between cultured and uncultured pers: deny public claims upon them, then the agra- Some forty thousand dollars have been left in the utterance of words is, that the force rian and communistic spirit will be sure to to charitable institutions. We are of those open their mouths and articulate distid, grow into formidable proportions.

who question the permanent good of alms- neither clipping their words por emothera The people of New York had a right to giving, and hence have no great regret that the sounds, while the uncultured fail to Das expect that one who, like the late Jír. Astor, Mr. Astor did not distribute a portion of his nice distinctions, slovenly bury one sé. had become enormously rich under the cir- wealth in this way. But there are institu. in another, and often fail to articulate :4 cumstances we have described, would leave tions which are charitable not by what they | letters altogether. But while educated pero

enormous

cases.

on.

ple are careful not to clip final consonants upon a headland of the shore, and watched thor of “Paris en Amérique" and “ Prince such as uttering singing as singin', or and as the vagaries and fantastic sports of the soft, Caviche" was not one of them. In the lectan', and not to confuse unaccented vowel. subtile, and undulating fog; bas not seen it ure-room and in society he ceaselessly plead. sounds, such as pronouncing innocent, inno- now come rolling in from the sea with swist ed the cause of our republic. He has always sint, they are not permitted only, but re- and steady course, first obscuring the hori- been foremost in any opportunity that has quired, to obscure and corrupt the sounds of zon, then swallowing up sail after sail that arisen to testify his friendship. He is one both vowels and consonants, in other words, dot the watery expanse ; next seizing upon of the most enthusiastic of those who desire being distinctly instructed to say agen for jutting points of land, sweeping along the to honor the old friendship between France again, agenst for against, enny for any, wimen sides of the cliffs, until suddenly it takes and America by erecting the colossal statue for women, gallus for gallows, bellus for bellows, possession of and blots out the whole surface of Liberty in New York Harbor. In a priextr'ordinary for extraordinary, off'n for often, of sea and land? But presently a blue space vate letter to an American he once wrote: cas'l for castle, Wooster for Worcester, and so breaks overhead; all at once a shadowy sail | “ It is no great merit of mine to have de

We make no pretensions to philological | looms through the mist; the fog lifts and fended the cause of the Union during the learning, but we believe we may venture to shows a stretch of calm sea; then as sud.

civil war.

I have followed the French tradi. say that the accepted pronunciation of the denly again, as if some prompter regulated i tion, and I remember having, in my youth, words we have enumerated has no support the rise and fall of this strange curtain, down heard General Lafayette talk of Washington but that of custom, and if we are right in falls the drapery of mist, and every thing is and of the brave insurgents who have left this we should be glad to know why custom hidden! These shiftings and changes make heirs worthy of them. If there are people is sanctioned in slovenly looseness in one set some striking pictures. At one moment the in France who have forgotten those noble of words and condemned for it in others! watchful student of the spectacle sees a sail memories, they are to be pitied; for it is the As the matter now stands, the man who without a hull, dark, shadowy, and mystic finest page in our history.” M. Laboulaye carelessly talks about an “innocint person " in its body, but with its upper line catch- is one of those moderate republicans who is sneered at as being vulgarly careless, and ing the sunlight and glittering white like constitute tbe soundest and best type of conif he should endeavor to be exact in the next the wing of some huge bird of the sea; in temporary French statesmanship. He is no word he uses, and utter often as it is spelled, an instant more the fog has seized upon the more visionary than to desire to see his he would once more encounter the sneers of sail, and enveloped it wholly, but the mantle country learn the political lessons derived the critic as being inelegantly precise. We is lifted beneath so as to reveal the dark form from our example; and in Europe there is no hope our hypothetical convention will con- of the hull. If there are points of wood. more intelligent and appreciative student of demn all these sanctioned corruptions of the ed headland jutting into the sea, one looks our Constitution and history. If republicandictionaries, and establish the broad prin- and sees them wholly obscured, but even ism in France at last endures, it will be in no ciple that culture and good taste exact dis- wbile he looks a long line of trees appears small degree owing to the purity and wisdom tinct articulation in all cases, no words being above a mass of drifting mist, looking like of such men as Laboulaye. entitled to privileges that all do not enjoy. forests hung in the heavens. Pictures like

these, forming and dissolving continually be- We are glad to see that a movement is on The selections that we gave last week fore our gaze, we have often watched from foot, organized by a number of ladies, defrom a somewhat fantastic article in Black- our shores; and hence we are forced to say signed to ameliorate the condition of shopwood on

“ Weather” showed that the writer that he must be strangely ignorant of the girls and sales-women, who are commonly repossesses not a little poetic sympathy with mystic sprite called Fog who heaps upon it quired to remain standing during the long some of the aspects of the sky and the at- such epithets' as those we have quoted. ten or twelve hours of their daily service. mosphere. But he does great injustice to fog, There is no better scenic artist on sea or We have more than once pointed out the which he calls the second-born child of the land than the fog on a summer day when cruelty of this requirement, and have insisted clouds. Rain has charming and snow superb the winds unsteadily come and go.

that, if the health of these young women is to qualities, but fog has nothing to redeem it, ac

be maintained, a change in the policy of their cording to this writer : “ It is stagnant, sul. Every American should be gratified at employers is indispensable. It is strange ky, and silent;" it is “ hopelessly objection the honor paid to Edouard Laboulaye in his that so obvious and necessary a thing has able, ugly, useless, stupid, and dirty.” It is election as a life-member of the newly.cre- to be enforced by organization, and that shopamazing how a writer who fairly delights “in ated French Senate. As long as he lives, we owners can be brought to a just and consid. richly-endowed but widely wayward Nature" shall have a friend always ready to defend erate conduct in this matter by the means should utter this wholly wrongful judgment and praise us in that to-be august body. If only of formulated public opinion. It would upon one of “the family of weather " that there is a sufficient leaven of such men in it, have been better, perhaps, had the moveto the observant eye bas, not less than its the Senate will be a very different assembly ment originated among the sales-women themkindred, its strange surprises, its picturesque from that of the Empire, for it will be the selves ; but, as this was not done, it is gratiaspects, its manifold beauties. Fog may be arena of independent and scholarly thought fying to know that some of our ladies have dirty in the cities when mixed with and stained and enlightened statesmanship, instead of a discovered the evil and are endeavoring to by smoke, and at times it is undoubtedly mere military and sacerdotal echo of an im- remedy it. stagnant, if not stupid; but no one who has perial will. It is well that we should not for- A similar movement has been organized watched the movements of fog, who has seen get or lose sight of those earnest and coura- in England, where, according to the London the endless number of dissolving views it geous men who, whether in France or Eng-journals, sales-women are subjected to a cruel forms, who has noted the striking and pictu- land, were our stout champions in days when thoughtlessness and exposed to a danger that resque ways in which the artist use it, the weight of authority as well as of num- we believe to be unknown here. “It is real. but must resent the unhandsome epithets bers in those countries was distinctly against ly painful,” says the Pal Mall Gazette, “ to the Blackwood writer bestows upon it. Who There were many, even among the witness the thoughtlessness of some ladies that has passed a summer vacation on the French republicans, who sympathized with who, in inclement weather, being themselves sea-shore has not at times stretched himself the purpose to break up the Union. The an. well wrapped up, summon to the doors of

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their carriages young women from the shops at last may never be touched, because it may however, would be comparatively slight if they honor with their patronage, and keep

be put down in an account against which set- contraction were gradual; and in any case

offs appear on the debtor and creditor sides; them standing in the cold, regardless of the

the hardsbip could scarcely be greater than coin then is not asked for, because its equiva

that which inflation inflicted upon creditors. consequences. The seeds of consumption and lent in property has been received. Every other fatal illnesses are probably often sown thing else — spoken words, shop - accounts,

Moreover, men, whether collected in nations bank-notes, checks, warrants-are nothing

or as individuals, cannot do wrong without in this manner, and much misery might be but title-deeds, evidence good at law to comi

suffering, and that suffering must be endured averted

the exercise of a very little con- pel the stipulated payments in coin, iť not if the wrong is to be made to sideration and common - sense.” If Ameri- voluntarily given. Without a court of law in can ladies are accustomed to summon sales

the background, they are only acknowledg- It would be difficult to find an exact lit

ments resting on honor, and may at any inowomen to their carriage-doors, regardless of

erary prototype for Mr. Stuart-Glennie's “Pil. ment prove to be empty writing. Coin pays, grim Memories." * It makes a threefold claim the inclemency of the weather, the fact has no form of paper does till what is written up

upon the reader's attention—as a record of not fallen under our observation. on it is fulfilled.”

travel, a summary of discussion with the late
The practical evils of an inconvertible Henry Thomas Buckle, and a philosophical
Literary.

paper currency are pointed out with great disquisition; and, through a single chapter,
force and clearness; and we have never seen perhaps, one is in some doubt whether the

so satisfactory an analysis of the famous author is going to turn out a tourist, a bi. ROFESSOR BONAMY PRICE'S “Cur

Bank Charter Act of 1844, which created the ographer, or a metaphysician. It does not rency and Banking " (New York : D.

modern Bank of England, as that contained take long to discover, however, that Mr. StuAppleton & Co.) forms an admirable comple- in Professor Price's second chapter. Nearly art-Glennie cares little for the travel-element ment to Professor Jevons's “Money and the half the volume is devoted to a consideration in his book. He is but slightly interested in Mechanism of Exchange," reviewed in the

of the question, “ What is a Bank ?” and, sight-seeing, his faculty of observation and JOURNAL a few weeks back. Taking up the though many of the propositions of the au- powers of description are small, and he is subject where Professor Jerons leaves off, thor on this subject differ widely from those interested in places and events only in so far Professor Price gives an admirably clear ex- commonly current, he seems to us to make as they supply food for his subjective mental planation of the theory or pbilosophy of cur- them good. His position is that a banker processes. Just as many persons go to the rency, the nature and function of money, the deals not in money but in debts ; that his Holy Land to refresh their faith and stimo. conditions with which it must comply in or- function is that of “a broker between two late religious feeling, so he went there to for. der to constitute good currency, the relative principals.” A farmer, for instance, sells his į tify his skepticism by seeing for himself that advantages and disadvantages of coin and

corn, and deposits the proceeds, in the shape in the very birthplace of three great reli. paper currency, and the difference between of checks and other acknowledgments of gious Nature looks with her usual calm indirconvertible and inconvertible paper. Though debt, with his banker. He draws against ference upon the faiths, illusions, and delu. the questions discussed are necessarily ab- this deposit for his current payments, but a sions of mankind. His travels are truly destruse and complicated, the aim has been to considerable time elapses before be draws it scribed as a pilgrimage ; but the pilgrim is reduce them to their simple elementary prin- ali out, and in the mean time the banker lends in search, not of the shrine and footsteps of ciples, and by his mere statement of these the balance to a tea-merchant who wants to the Master, but of the great landmarks in the the author brushes aside most of the difficul

buy teas, and gives deferred bills to the history of what he considers delusions. ties and incongruities which confuse the sub- banker at a discount for the right to draw The biographical element of the book is ject in the popular mind. His definition of

currency at once. In this transaction it is similarly slighted. One naturally expects money, for example, once thoroughly grasped, plain that the corn was simply exchanged for that a friend of Mr. Buckle’s, who shared bis will clear the mind at once of nearly all those the tea ; what the banker did was to furnish travels during several months of that last delusions which have wrought so much mis- the conditions or medium through which the fatal journey in the East, would add somechief in the world :

exchange could be effected : “ Thus the car. thing to our singularly meagre knowledge of " Coin, metallic coin, alone is true money,

dinal and final truth comes out, that one set the author of "The History of Civilization ;” and nothing else is, unless it be a commodity, of goods has been exchanged for another, but a newspaper obituary of average length as an ox, or a cow, or a piece of salt. There that goods have bought goods that the would contain every thing in the book reis a very decisive reason for this assertion.

banker las acted precisely like a sovereign lating to Mr. Buckle personally, and even Every kind of paper styled money carries on [or dollar), has been a tool, an instrument of this contributes scarcely any thing to wbat its face an order or promise to pay money ; exchange. He transfers purchasing power, was already known. Indeed, the author careand without that order or promise it would be

which he received in the form of a debt to fully guards himself against revealing any a worthless piece of paper, and nothing more. An order or promise to give a thing is not the

collect, and passes it on in the form of a thing new. Whatever he learned of the life, thing itself; the thing is absent. This settles

debt he creates. That purchasing power re- character, and opinions, of Mr. Buckle durthe matter absolutely : paper is not money.

sides in the goods sold, directly or indirectly, ing those months of intimate association, he It is idle to reply that the distinction is unim- by the banker's depositor. It is because the į regards as acquired in the confidence or portant--that the bank-note does the same depositor has sold corn that the banker is en- friendship, and he thinks it would be a bework as money, and that practically there is abled to authorize the merchant to buy ten." trayal of that confidence“ to report any opinpo harm in calling it money. I answer that One feature of the book which renders it ion whatever not found in published writings, the harm is immense for the understanding of

especially valuable to American readers is or not of such a nature as to have been excurrency. The vital fact is obscured that the

that the various questions are discussed with pressed freely, and without reserve, to othman who takes a gold-coin for his goods receives an actual piece of property, a metal as

particular reference to the present monetary eis.” Even the lengthy discussions, in which valuable as the thing he sells. He acquires

condition of the United States. Professor Mr. Buckle figures as interlocutor to the aunot a particle of substance with a check or a Price thinks that every consideration of thor, shed po light, for the part he plays is bank-note. If the check is dishonored or the honor and expediency requires that specie quite obviously that usually assigned to the bank breaks, he finds nothing in his hand payments shall be resumed at the earliest

other person of a dialogue in which the auagainst the wealth that he gave away. If possible moment, and that resumption neces- thor conducts the argument on both sides. checks and bank-notes are truo money, then sarily involves some form of contraction, as The few pages of reminiscences in the appenso are spoken words, for they can purchase

the currency of the country to-day is plainly dix, reprinted from the Atlantic Mouthly, are property, and bind the buyer at law just as strongly as a check. To tell a bookseller to

greater than its requirements. He is not in- of more real biograpbical value than all the

sensible to the clifficulties of the situation, put five pounds' worth of books to his account

rest of the book. commits the buyer to payment as completely though he thinks the inconvenience would

* Pilgrim Memories ; or. Travel and Discussion as a check. Coin is the substance, the reality come, not from a deficiency of currency, but

in the Birth-Countries of Christianity with the Late covenanted to be given for goods bought; confrom the fact that contraction would bear

Henry Thomas Buckle. By J. S. Stuart-Glennie, sequently coin alone is payment. The coin hard upou debtors, This inconvenience, M. A. New York: D. Appleton & Co.

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The explanation of all this is that “ Pil. tion of rules of choice gives the collection World;" Clive is the conventional version grim Memories" is not really either a record a rather unfamiliar air as compared with of Rochester, whose stern exterior and boorof travel or a biography of Buckle, but a most of its predecessors. At least half the ish manners cover a warm heart and the philosophical treatise in disguise. Mr. Stuart. pocms which have been included, as a matter most chivalrous instincts; and even pretty Glennie has conceived a new system of phi. of course, in all such collections are omitted; Miss Bellew is the familiar ingenué whose losophy, the central point of which is a dis- and many new ones are introduced which imperfections are more charming than other covery he believes himself to have made of bave never before been regarded as especially women's perfections. As to the plot, he the “ Ultimate Law of History," which, by adapted to children. The name of William must be but a novice in novel-reading who, explaining Nature and history and furnishing Blake, for example, has probably never found when he reads in the first chapter that Clive a New Ideal, shall supersede Christianity, its way into any previous collection of chil- speers at Miss Bellew's “gushing ways," and bring the period of transition, which be- dren's poetry, whereas Mr. Palgrave draws and that she thinks him a “stuck-up pig,” gan with the Reformation, to a close. For upon him more frequently than upon any does not hear the predestinate wedding-bells. the exposition and verification of this law he other single writer. It cannot be doubted It would probably surprise the author if has planned a series of works, of which that most children under fifteen will find it were told him, but the children are the 'Pilgrim Memories ” constitutes the proce- study requisite to the understanding of many most successful people in his book. These mium or preface-being designed to show the of the pieces included in the “Treasury;” are really natural and pleasing, and are so line of thought and discussion which led up but then this is true of all similar collec- simply because he has not conceived it neto the discovery of the law. The book, there- tions, and those who trust themselves to Mr. cessary to apply to them his over-elaborate fore, is to be regarded as a contribution to Palgrave's guidance will bave the satisfac- method. They brighten the story when. metaphysics (or science, as the author would tion of knowing that they will be introduced ever they enter it, and, if the other characclaim); and, as it would be manifestly unfair only to poetry of real merit and permanent ters were drawn as simply and unaffectedly, to base criticism upon a preface, we will value.

“Pretty Miss Bellew” would be a book as simply say that, while Mr. Stuart - Glennie In order to smooth the way of the child- satisfactory as it is clever. We say little proves himself an ingenious thinker who has ish reader as much as possible, Mr. Palgrave about the plot and other features of the grasped one or two salient ideas with great has provided copious foot-notes, explaining story, though Mr. Gift might well be praised clearness, he does not succeed in the present every unusual word, and all involved or for his skill in a sort of cumulative prework in arousing much enthusiasm for, or obscure phrases and allusions. Critical and Raphaelite word-painting. “Pretty Miss Bel. confidence in, his new philosophy. In fact, historical notes at the end furnish all the lew" is essentially a novel of character, and the raw material and preliminary processes additional information and guidance needed ; will accept judgment on no other or suborof thought can have but slight interest save and an index of writers, with one of first dinate grounds. for the thinker himself, and we find that the lines, renders the book easy to consult. As lending impression which “ Pilgrim Mem- to the arrangement of the pieces, no regular The tenth volume of the “Bric-à-Brac ories" leaves on our mind is that the author plan seems to have been followed, but differ- Series " (New York: Scribner, Armstrong & manifests a rather unphilosophical and not ent pieces are grouped together in such a Co.) contains "Personal Reminiscences by clearly accounted - for spirit of aggression way that by their mere juxtaposition they Constable and Gillies," being extracts from toward what he calls “ Christianism."

serve to explain each other, and to set off the the recently-published “Life and Literary

special merits of each. Finally, the collec- Correspondence of Archibald Constable," and IN “The Children's Treasury of English tion is not so large but that an intimate from the “Memoirs of a Literary Veteran,” Song" (New York: Macmillan & Co.), Mr. companionship can be established between published in 1851. Constable was a great Francis Turner Palgrave has made a collec- the young reader and all its contents.

publisher in the early years of the century, tion of poetry for the young as much supe

and has become more widely known than rior to any previous collection as bis “Golden The title is the prettiest thing about most publishers of his time by reason of his Treasury” is superior to the ordinary English Theo. Gift's “Pretty Miss Bellew” (Holt's intimate connection with Sir Walter Scott. anthologies. The selection is planned for “ Leisure Hour Series "). It is not without Gillies was an obscure author, long since children between nine or ten and fifteen or cleverness of a certain kind, and is free from forgotten, who wrote some verse and did a sixteen years of age, and, by thus excluding the most glaring faults of current fiction; good deal of miscellaneous literary work, from the constituency aimed at, infancy on but, for a story which is not dull, or vulgar, attaining a kind of reputation by means of the one hand and nearly-grown readers on or commonplace, it comes nearer being te- some translations from the German and Dan. the other, Mr. Palgrave has avoided the in- dious than any we have recently encountered. ish, whose literary treasures he was one of congruous mingling of nursery rhymes and For one thing, the author, who is the most the first to discover, Both of them were passionate or reflective poetry, and rendered conspicuous personage in the book, does not Scotchmen, they lived about the same time, it possible to apply a consistent standard of win our allegiance. We take Mr. Gift to be and each had a rather extensive acquaintchoice. Of the standard liere applied suita- a man (or is it a woman ?) who prides him.

ance among contemporary men of letters. bility to childhood is, of course, the principal self upon seeing further into a millstone Such of their reminiscences as Mr. Stod. feature, but, this quality secured, nothing has than most people; on detecting pride where dard has brought together deal almost exbeen admitted which, in the editor's opinion, humility was supposed to grovel, affectation clusively with authors, and the present vol. does not reach a high rank of poetical merit. in the very midst of frankness and uncon. ume, consequently, has a more distinctly lit“The standard of 'merit as poetry,'” as Mr. ventionality, and sham in the very detesta- erary flavor than any other in the series. Palgrave observes in his preface," has ex- tion of sham. He is perpetually discovering We cannot say, however, that we have cluded a certain number of popular favorites. some hitherto hidden phenomenon in an or- been either amused or edified by it in any But the standard of suitability to child- dinary character or situation; and on such considerable degree. Constable's reminishood,' as here understood, has excluded occasions button-holes the reader confiden- cences, naturally enough, refer almost exclumany more pieces : pictures of life as it seems tially, talks to him in the first person, and sively to his business dealings with authors, to middle age-poems colored by sentimen. generally in parenthesis, and condescendingly and the commercial aspect of authorship has talism or morbid melancholy, however at helps forward his lagging perceptions. Fol. never been a fascinating or agreeable one. tractive to readers no longer children—love lowing his cue, the reader feels continually The correspondence with William Godwin, as personal passion or regret (not love as the as if he were on the verge of some new rev. and a letter or two of Jeffrey's, are the only groundwork of action)-artificial or highly-elation in human nature; and yet, after all, portions of Constable's contributions that are allusive language-have, as a rule, been held Mr. Gift's “characters" are but the ordinary either fresh or suggestive. Gillies's remi. unfit. The aim has been to shun scenes and people of fiction, and his book an ordinary niscences are better ; but, even here, the sesentiments alien to the temper of average story about them. Lady Margaret, the weak, lection resembles most other collections of healthy childhood, and hence of greater in- self - sacrificing mother, is a familiar ac- bric-a-brae, in consisting of a few really trinsic difficulty than poems containing un- quaintance; Dick is a type of scapegrace choice bits mingled with a good deal of what usual words.” The somewhat rigid applica. I far better drawn in Trollope's “Way of the plain-spoken people would call trash.

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