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young, I know, and not very wise; I cannot me, my young friend, and don't concern your. who would not endure the presence of Miss do great things ; but I can do what I see is self about matters too high for you. You'll Hawkesby's friend the governess. to be done." (The little Joanna was wiser find Anita quite enough to manage.”

The waning summer changed to autumn, than she knew.) “ The poor grandmamma “ Thank you, aunt," said Anita.

and autumn gave place to winter, and winter was never unkind to me, and she is all alone. are a wise woman in your predictions; you yielded to spring, and spring grew into sumI can try to be a comfort to her, and begin always said I never should be Mrs. Basil mer again. And all this time there was little to live for something." Redmond.”

perceptible alteration in the condition of the “Is there nothing else you can accom- “Well, well,” said Miss Hawkesby, “I poor paralytic; but in Joanna what a wonplish in your zeal to do good, Joanna ?” said always knew you must sooner or later ac- drous change was wrought! What a calm he, eageriy. “Can you not plead mine and knowledge my wisdom. And so, you'll see, and star-like beauty shone in that thin, brown your sister's cause ? Joanna, you must talk I'll put the right woman in the right place face of hers, thinner now, and paler, for lack to my mother; you must talk to your aunt; when I engage a governess for our Joanna." of that freedom of the garden, the one great you are in high favor now, and you ought to So, Miss Hawkesby, before she returned boon that inspired ber gratitude to the grandbe willing to atone for the mischief you did to the world where she knew everybody, con- mamma, who moaned and whimpered when

soled herself for the forfeiture of Joanna, by her tender little ministrant left ber, and “People should be married respectably installing one of those numerous acquaint- smiled and feebly stretched out her almost at home," said this proper young maiden. as duenna ; and Joanna, under this useless hands in welcome when she came “ But I will talk to Pamela and to my aunt, lady's protecting presence, quietly settled again. In all this, Joanna found a heavenly if you think it would make Anita happy." down to her new life, not a sad one by any joy the garden could never yield, even in the “I'm not so very sure about that,” said

For, though Mrs. Basil rever left time of apple-blooms. Anita, mockingly.—“Joanna, you wretched ber room again while she lived, she so far And Arthur Hendall, who in the beginJittle marplot! I might have married a poor recovered as to be able to occupy the wheeled- ning paid short duty-visits at long intervals, man from disinterested affection ; but now chair that Arthur sent her, and to prattle came oftener at last, and staid longer, in this wicked world, with Aurelia Caruthers at mildly about the little interests that Joanna, spite of that watchful dragon, the governess, their head, will brand me as a mercenary by dint of birds, flowers, pictures, and fancy. Miss Hawkesby's friend, who, if the truth be creature-why, don't you know how ardently work, contrived to create for her. Her mind told, entertained rather a motherly weakness she espouses Sam Ruffner's cause?”

had received an irreparable shock; she had for Arthur, and favored him above every“I shouldn't mind Aurelia Caruthers,” no recollection of what had befallen her; but body else. For, if Middleborough gossip said Joaona, loftily. And then she went to she seemed, in some confused way, to identi- may be believed, Joanna was not without talk to Pamela and her aunt; and, of course, fy Joanna with Arthur, and ber only fear was abundant temptation to abandon her self-imshe carried her point.

that Miss Hawkesby would come and take posed service. Sam Ruffner, learning (from But when Miss Hawkesby, whose heart away the companion of her solitude.

his mother, probably, through Lydia Crane) was now ardently set upon having her long- Mrs. Stargold and her new-found relatives that Miss Hawkesby regarded this niece with neglected little niece to live with her, would went to a place near by, which they repaired peculiar favor, and that Mrs. Francis Henfain have persuaded Joanna to leave the care and made their permanent residence. The dall still kept up the insurance on her life, of Mrs. Basil to some more competent per- Ruffners departed precipitately for Westport. quickly recovered from the depression caused son, she received only the solemn answer, “I If they had wished to ignore Francis Hen- | by Anita's marriage, and, under pretense of must live for something.” Then Miss Hawkes. dall's widow and son, they must have found solicitude for his afflicted relative, came up by entreated Mrs. Stargold to reason with that the public sentiment of Middleborough, from Westport to pay his court to Joanna. Joanna ; but the consequence was, that Mrs. led by Mrs. Carl Tomkins, was too strong for Also Dr. Garnet, although Dame Rumor had Stargold became Joanna's champion.

them to resist. It was impossible, while that so long devoted him to Aurelia Caruthers, “None of you can understand this child all-pervading spirit claimed to inspire society offered to endow the judge's penniless grandas I do,” said she—“I, who have just tasted in our town, to deny that Mrs. Francis Hen- | daughter with his name and all bis worldly the supreme satisfaction of abjuring my own dall's remarkable character and extraordi- possessions ; and nervous little Mr. Leasom advantage for the sake of others. Joanna nary abilities amply entitled her to Fortune's prayed her to share his quiet life. must not be denied a like satisfaction, say I; favors. And this sentiment Mrs. Carl Tom- Time was when these conquests, inaswho can estimate the good it may do her? kins took occasion to propagate betimes, as much as they implied no badly-broken hearts, Joanna must have her way in this.” she went from house to bouse, a few days would have filled Joanna's soul with exulta. Mrs. Hendall and Miss Hawkesby she said, after the storm, asking contributions to an tion ; but now they were more a source of privately, “ It can last but a little while, and ice-cream supper to be given in connection trial than of triumph. “I shall never marwe must so arrange as to relieve the child of with the postponed tableaux, for the purpose ry," she declared ; but she afterward modi. all care and responsibility.” And so Joanna of reëstablishing the bridge on a sure and fied this assertion so far as to say to Artbur, had her way.

firm basis. Such an opportunity for a display “I shall never marry while tbe grandmamma It was arranged, then, upon consultation of public spirit was not to be neglected by a lives " - which amendment Arthur did not with Arthur Hendall, who had been sent for woman of Mrs. Carl Tomkins's capacity for permit her to forget when Mrs. Basil, in the in baste, that Mrs. Basil should have a com- business.

early autumn, was laid in the grave that so petent attendant and nurse. Tben Pamela's To this entertainment Joanna went; and surprised us by its shortness, proving that son wished to devote some of his unexpected she would not have been Joanna if she had the stately lady who carried the ivory-beaded wealth to Joanna's benefit. But in this, not keenly enjoyed the crowd, the excite- staff with so grand an air was, after all, a young-man-like, he bungled sadly. He owed ment, the dazzle, and blaze, and the perfec- woman of few inches. so much, he said, to the good old judge, that tion of her toilet, that Anita herself superin- “You say you must live for something, Joanna ought to be willing to let him afford tended; but these delights could not shake | Joanna,” said he, “and all this time you her the means of improving her education ; her purpose to remain with Mrs. Basil. And have been living for my aunt. So, by your whereupon old Miss Hawkesby took fire, and not even the glory of acting as first bride's. own showing, to live for something means indignantly declared that her niece should maid to Anita, attired in the white organdie | simply to live for somebody; and you may never be indebted to him for any such thing; and scarlet geraniums, could make her repent

as well live for me." that since Joanna was obstinately bent upon her choice to stay with the grandmamma And what did Miss Hawkesby say to this ? secluding herself at Basilwood, she, her aunt, until she should need her no more. Indeed, “Well, Joanna, I suppose I am old, as you should see that a fitting governess was in- nobody could supply her place to Mrs. Basil; reminded me more than a year ago; but I'm stalled to watch over the child. “Do not I and, though Mrs. Francis Hendall or Mrs. not in my dotage, and I'm not going to opknow everybody?” cried she.

Stargold came for a few moments every day, | pose any young woman so bent on having her there not numbers of impoverished women they had many other interests to absorb their own way.” among our best families who would be thank. time and attention, and Joanna, for the most And Mrs. Francis Hendall, a sort of ele. ful to occupy such a place ? Leave that to part, was left alone with her afflicted charge, | vated and modified Pamela : “I hope, Jo.


“ And are



anna, that you will consider the solemnity of not the season, and after an hour or two of vigthe step you are about to take, and not enter orous conversation we retired, disgusted, to the the holy estate of matrimony rashly nor from café, and put on native airs by stirring our ices motives of vanity.”

into our glasses of water, and smoking the long, “And I shall take care that you are mar- shapeless cigars. At last the patience of my ried respectably at home,” cries Anita. friend gave out, and he retired to sleep, leav

ing me to settle the affair as best I could.
This was the question, simple enongh too:

Given—the fair price, ten francs ; the price
A FOURTH OF JULY IN charged, twenty francs; the upholders of

high tariff, the numerous body of voluble SAN MARINO.

vetturini; the stickler for a fair recompense

and champion of travelers' rights, a simple LL Rimini slumbered as we rattled A

American citizen, with only a couple of score through the town early one dark morn- of oaths at command, and a very limited ing on the Fourth of July. It seemed as if vocabulary of the dialect of the district. I the city had slept for ages. To be sure, its had served out all my Neapolitan signs, I had grass-grown streets, terminating in broad exhausted my oaths, and had emphasized fields and richly - cultivated gardens, are them by constant and rapid repetition. The rarely disturbed by the rumble of wheels,


had driven me into the café, and it was and even the chief squares and broad

a drawn game. est thoroughfares are only alive on the occa- Shortly after my friend liad retired, a sion of a country fair or a market-day. Na- | smartly-dressed young fellow sat down at the ture seems to be gradually claiming its own, little table I partly occupied, took up a news. for the green fields creep farther and farther paper, read a little, and soon began to talk. through the tumble-down gates, and the am. After a few commonplaces exchanged bebitious weeds and grass hide the paving-tween us, he led off with stones for a long distance cityward. On the Is the signore a stranger ?” water-side the crumbling quays and neglected “He certainly is," I replied. walls induce the belief that the sea will “Excuse me, but is he a foreigner ? ” and finally reclaim its share of the heaped-up the questioner assumed a somewhat patronmonuments of pride and wealth that distin. | izing air. guished the town in its days of prosperity, “Pardon me, my friend," I said, with as and now mark it as one of the most interest- much dignity as I could command, having ing cities in Northern Italy. Pilgrims find, from the first put my examiner down as a in the stately old piazza Giulio Cesare, the commissionnaire, on account of the loudness rostrum from which Cæsar harangued the of his necktie and the cast-off foreign look of soldiers after crossing the neighboring Rubi- his garments; “ of course you know I am a con; and the more devout pay homage to the foreigner; you have heard me speak. Now, spot where St. Anthony preached to the fishes what have you to sell ? I don't want to buy So the town has its quota of interesting curi- any thing. Are you a guide ? I don't want osities, quite in proportion to its size. Com- to engage one-I know this country. Are you paratively few strangers, however, are drawn an hotel-runner? I have an hotel ; " and I an. thither by this brief list of unique attrac- swered my own questions in rapid succession. tions, and the stock sights are not important My chipper friend stroked his green neckenough to be generally considered worth tie, pulled his coat-English cut-together, “doing.” Perhaps the city seemed all the glanced at each shoulder, and replied, this more sleepy on the gray morning of which I time rather humbly, and with a your-servantwrite, because of the contrast with the even- sir air: ing previous. The excitement caused by the “But the signore forestiere speaks such arrival of two strangers out of season had perfect Italian” (the stock compliment), subsided by ten o'clock in the evening, and " that I did not—that is--perhaps his excelbefore that hour all the town-people, and, I lency might not be aware that the republic am almost ready to say, all their country rela- of San Marino is near by, and if bis excel. tives besides, were talking about us quietly leney would condescend to take a carriage to but earnestly. They spotted us at the rail- visit this great and wonderful place, I might way-station, of course, for didn't we be so bold as to offer him my humble and garments of the Venetian cut, and wasn't gratuitous assistance in procuring one;" and, our language, not to speak of the accent, he having here reached the perigee of humil. quite as mongrel as two years' residence ity, I was exbausted enough from my even. among the peasants in the different provinces ing's work to nibble at the bait he held out could make it? A promiscuous rabble had in spite of my well-founded distrust of comfollowed us up to the hotel, resolved to carry missionnaires. for us, against our will, our hand-bags and “ What will it cost?” umbrellas. But we triumphed, for we fought "Twenty francs and buona mano." commissionnaires and guides all these seasons, “ I'll give ten, and no buona mino." and weren't to be caught in Rimini.

“ Impossible." San Marino was to be the end of our pil- “ I'll give ten." grimage, and we spent the first part of the “O signore!” evening in trying to drive a sharp bargain “I'll give ten and no more." with the army of cabmen who stood ready “Perhaps we might find one for eighto take us to the republic nt daybreak the teen." next day. The “ring system "was in full oper- “I'll give ten"-fingers held up in dumbation, notwithstanding the fact that it was show.

“Perhaps for sixteen francs, signore."

Dumb-show on my part again, and expression of rigid determination on my face.

Possibly a very bad carriage for fourteen, signore."

Dumb-show repeated, with exaggerated grimaces on my part.

“ A wretched trap for twelve is not impossible, signore.”

Another show of hands, and the young man retired with great dismay before the expression of my countenance, expressing as he went the most polite regret at the small success of our bargaining.

As I expected, lie returned shortly to offer the carriage again for twelve francs.

“I'll give ten," and once more I added the dumb-show.

A second exit and a second return fol. lowed, and, convinced at last that the lowest was reached, I concluded to open negotiations on that basis.

“What commission do you get if I take the carriage?” I asked.

"Not a soldo, your excellency."
"You do this for charity, then ?"

“The driver is my brother" (the stock reply).

We settled about the horse, the wagon, the time, and all, not forgetting to stipulate that there should be no buona mano, or fee, and I went to bed with a mixed feeling of satisfaction at having concluded a bargain, and of disgust at myself for having employed a go-between. At four A. M. the next day the same smart young fellow, with his hat a bit more on one side, his green necktie in exactly the same folds as on the day before, and bis dainty cane twirling in his fingers, came into our room at the hotel, and announced that the team was in readiness.

We consulted a moment about the weather, for it was raining; concluded to risk its clearing up at noon; crawled into the damp carriage, bade good-by to our jaunty friend, and rai. tled off toward San Marino. That is bow we happened to be in the streets of Rimini at such an early hour on a rainy Fourth of July.

The country back of Rimini is rolling; the hills, for the most part covered with a profusion of trees and rich vegetation, rise higher and higher as they recede from the coast, until they culminate in the serrated peaks of the Apennines. At occasional intervals a sharp peak, crowned with a town or a ruined castle, rises far above the neighboring round summits, and carries the eye to the hazy mountain-tops in the horizon. The most prominent of all these isolated peaks is a long, irregular bluff, with steep, rocky preci. pices and three prominent summits. This is the citadel and town of San Marino, a land. mark along the coast for many leagues, distinctly visible far beyond Ravenna, and, from its peculiar form and remarkable height, is a noticeable feature of the landscape seen from the sea-shore or the mountain-tops.

As we left the town that rainy morning and wound along between the dripping hedgerows and over the soaked fields, we could see at every turn a great blue wall of rock, a dozen miles away, standing boldly out against the gray sky, its summit veiled by a long bank of dense clouds, and its cold, dark sides


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contrasting strongly with the hazy distance team was ready, gulped down a tumblerful when we learn that the casemates are now beyond and the yellow of the ripeoing har. of water and mistra, and we reluctantly fol. used as cells, and that the custodian is the vests at its base. From this distance the lowed him.

jailer of the republic. There were four path leading to the top was not visible, and Our amazement at finding a pair of stout prisoners in the cells, two convicted of petty the town itself was completely hidden by the gray oxen hitched in front of our borse may thests, and the others charged with slight rolling vapor. Only a delicate line across be imagined. We naturally railed at the misdemeanors. It seemed very much like the broad fields that lie at the foot of the idea of dragging a light, single-seated car- play-jail, for the prisoners stuck their beads precipices marked the way we were to take, riage with a heavy yoke of oxen and a through the square openings in their celland this seemed to have no origin, and to horse, we chaffed the driver about his ani. | doors, smoked their short pipes, and chatted lose itself in the accumulation at the base mals, and loudly scorned the steepness of the with each other and with the keeper in a of the great cliffs. After a brisk drive of an ascent in front of us. But, long before we very social way. The whole establishment hour, we crossed a little stone bridge, and reached the end of this last league, we found is on a diminutive scale quite in harmony our driver, who was not disposed to be over

to change our tune, for the road with the extent of the republic. The ramcommunicative, solemnly announced that we winds across the cornfields up, up, and al. bling old castle contains few rooms, and the were in the republic. We removed our hats, ways up-grades so steep that one climbs jailer and family inbabit a central apartrose in the carriage, and bowed to the land- them with great difficulty ; long, tedious bills ment very picturesquely arranged, through scape and to the bright sun just then strug. that flattered us with the impression that on which one passes to ascend the bell-toweb. gling through the clouds and dispelling the the summit must stand the great rock that We paid our respects to the bells, that the storm. The mighty, cloud-compelling rock was the goal of our pilgrimage.

Over an

keeper patted with a sort of fatherly tenderdisplayed now all its burden of turrets and hour of slow climbing, and suddenly we ness, and, shuddering at the immense elevaspires and roofs, and the flakes of broken found ourselves nearing the small village tion at which we found ourselves, forgot it clouds trailed slowly along the flanks of the called the Borgo Maggiore, at the foot of the all again in the contemplation of tbe grand far-off mountains. We saw that the welcome great, gray, damp cliffs now glistening in the extent of the view before us. The broad was a glorious one, yet were not too enthu- sunlight. Another moment, and we were in sea-line first strikes the eye, then the distant siastic, for we must think, in spite of our- the little; irregular, paved square, with the town of Ravenna away to the north. Below selves, that it was a conventional thing after hotel, the shops, and the market full of and toward the east are the roofs of Rimini, all, a job put up for the benefit of all travel- farmers bargaining for fish. On our way to and the single narrow road winds like a trail ers who are cursed with bad weather on their

the hotel we ran the gantlet of the cherry- over the hills. To the south are several way to the republic. It was such an every sellers and the fish-women, wbo imagined us city-crowned bills, among them Urbino, the day performance on the part of the sun to an easy prey, but we marched straight on up birthplace of Raphael; to the west, the sea come out pat just at the instant! A few mo- the picturesque stairway and into the great of mountain-tops, half-hidden by drifting ments later, and we halted in the little vil- kitchen with its immense fireplace and its clouds. Directly below us the fields lay like lage of Serravalle, the counterpart of all wealth of polished copper utensils. We or- a many-colored map, and broad, dark shadItalian villages, a single paved street, a daz- dered dinner and started to walk to the top ows of the clouds that hung below us moved zling extent of whitewashed walls, a tumble- of the cliffs by a broad, newly-constructed mojestically to the leeward. The extent and down inn, a few wine-shops, a Spaccio di To. | roadway, that winds to the summit in an easy variety of the prospect are most striking, bacco e Sale, and a public well. Our driver ascent.

and the foreground is the two isolated towers disappeared in an instant, and we sought to Fifteen minutes of brisk walking, each that cling to the top of seemingly inaccespass the time in the wine-shop opposite our turn in the path unfolding new landscapessible peaks to the south of the castle, and halting-place. A gray-bearded man stood in below us, and widening the magnificent ex- the roofs of the town to the north. In the doorway. An impulse to interview seized tent of the view, brought us to the cathedral these three peaks of the rock is seen the me, and I began :

and the post-office, and we began an design of the coat of arms of the republic“Good-morning, signore cittadino." ploration of the town. The summit of the three isolated towers.

He smiled at my choice of titles, and immense rock is very irregular in form, bav- As we were enjoying the grand land. asked me in return if I was also a citizen. ing a length of perhaps a quarter of a mile, scape, the breeze which played around the

“Yes ; of the United States of America." and a mean width of less than half this dis. lofty bell-tower bore suddenly the unmistak. The republican lifted his hat at the last

This is entirely covered with houses, | able odor of dinner. Without stopping to words with evident respect for the name of and the narrow, steep streets cross each oth- reason that it might be, after all, the jailer's the great republic, and his earnestness gave er at every angle, shoot under arches and Sunday meal and not our own, although the me quite a twinge at the recollection of the over dry bridges, and otherwise accommodate hotel was almost directly below us-nine somewhat mock reverence we had displayed themselves to the rough surfaces of the hundred feet, to be sure—we hastily bade

our entrance to the tiny country. We rock. Less than a thousand people inhabit i good-by to the keeper, shook hands with his needed no further introduction, and from this perch, about twenty-eight hundred feet pretty daughter, and made our best time to the moment we made known our nationality above the sea, and nine hundred feet above the hotel. we were received as friends by the veteran the village-Borgo Maggiore-below. In There was quite a little stir among the republican and all his family and neighbors, the town itself there is little to see. The people at the foot of the hotel-stairs as we who soon crowded the little wine - shop to church is a modern restoration of the fine approached. The crowd separated to allow listen to the conversation. It could not have old structure that once stood there. The us to pass, and all hats were deferentially been our imagination that invested these museum is interesting from the small num. doffed. It was plain that something was Italian republicans with a character at once ber of very simple relics and curiosities it

up. However, we did not stop to inquire, nobler, broader, and more manly than we contains; the collection of the celebrated nu. but went straight on to the kitchen again. found in their neighbors, for our later expe- mismatist, Bartolommeo Borghesi, well re- There we found a large table set for us and rienoe proved to us that the Sammarinese are pays a visit, but there is no structure of any the innkeeper's family. It dawned upon us distinct from the Italian subjects in just the architectural pretensions. The castle is the now that the driver had been announcing our degree and kind of attributes likely to be notable object of interest. It occupies the nationality and the day we celebrated, which engendered by their universal pride of coun. crest of an arid rock that overlooks the accounted for his intimate chatter with the try and institutions, by their self-reliance and town, and percbes with its bigb towers on the driver of the oxen on the way up-one of traditional freedom. Our conversation with very edge of the overhanging cliffs. From the family of the veteran of Serravalle. the veteran was very entertaining, and we its turrets you may drop a pebble nine hun. All around the smoke-stained walls hung were just beginning to find out that the fact dred feet into the fields below. A narrow branches of cherry-tree laded with rich, ripe of being a republican in the heart of a mon- pathway leads over the mossy ledges to the fruit; bits of green decorated the mantelarchy filled the fortunate individual with a great gate-way under a tower, and diligent shelf, and there was a freshly-scrubbed look sense of his position, when the driver popped ringing brings the keeper to open the oaken about every bit of furniture and the arsenal his head into the door, announced that the door. The romance is somewhat clouded

of copper pans on the shelves and the dress






The heaped-up dishes on the table sent he was the rector. The republic refused, and ous march through Romagna, moved by a up clouds of fragrant steam; bouquets of judges were sent by Hildebrand to inquire great veneration for the antique republic

, rich flowers mingled their odor with the scent into the cause of the refusal. The decision was and sent the illustrious Monge to present, in of the tomato and the rosemary, and we sat given in favor of the Sammarinese "because the name of the Frencb Republic, the most down to soup and fish, macaroni with toma- they were free, and of some certain superior- cordial protestations of esteem and respect, toes, risotto, beef and various vegetables, the ity and domination.” The persecutions of and to offer arms and munitions of war, and standard salad, and plenty of most excellent the popes, beginning with Bonifazio VIII., an extension of territory. The Sammarinese wine.

were resisted vi et armis, and the republic reasoned that an extension of territory was It was after the first tumblerful of wine gained so much territory during the strife dangerous, and declined to accept this part that the landlord, an intelligent man of forty that peace was granted them. In the middle of the generous offer. They did, however, years, coached us up on the history of the of the fifteenth century San Marino was un- accept the offer of the cannon, but never rerepublic, which he seemed to have at his der the protection and in alliance with the ceived them, through the oversight or for. tongue's end ; and when he did not find the princes of Urbino against the Malatesti. Lat-getfulness of the officers charged to deliver date or the name he desired he turned to his er allied in addition with Alphonse of Ara- them. The protection of Napoleon was of curly-headed daughter at his side—a girl of gon, King of Naples, they conquered the great assistance to the republic, but, when perhaps ten years—who supplied the want- Malatesti again. At the end of this century the Napoleonic power fell, and the old gor. ing word with school-girl promptitude. And they were in the height of their prosperity, ernments were restored, it was proved that this is the gist of the information our good having acquired all the territory they now the safety of the state lay in its very diminhost imparted, and the source of his knowl. own, and being friends with the Vatican and utive extent, and it was enabled to live on edge we never suspected until he produced, the Urbivi. In 1503 Cæsar Borgia, having unmolested until 1825, when a report was as a parting gift later in the day, a history of extended his power and conquests as far as circulated at the papal court of Leo XII. the republic, written by one of its citizens: Urbino, tried to lay his hands on the repub- that the republic was irreverent to the eccle

According to tradition, in the middle of lic, now without a protector. A commis- siastical power, and favorable to alliance the fifth century, a rock-cutter named Marino, sioner was sent to Venice to declare their with the enemies of the Vatican and of moa native of Arbe di Damatia, came to Rimini, readiness to become subject to the powerful | narchical governments. Antonio Onofri, mod. driven from his country by religious persecu- Venetian republic. But their declarations erator and regulator of state affairs, already tion, and established himself at the bill where were not listened to, and for a few months, distinguished by many services, went to Rome, dow stands San Marino, then known by the or until they shook off the yoke by a popular and succeeded in bringing back renewals of name of the Titan Rock. Little by little he uprising, they were under the rule of Cæsar the old conventions, and was in gratitude gathered around him a crowd of followers, Borgia.

named by the republic Padre della Patria. attracted by the simple earnestness of his During the pontificate of Paul III., in In July and August, 1849, the territory of life and his apparent holiness. The fame of 1542, they came near losing their liberty the republic was the theatre of some most the exile and his religious zeal attracted the from an attack and surprise by the troops exciting events. General Garibaldi, with his notice of the Bishop of Rimini, who called under Fabiano da Monte, nephew of the Car- legion, was entrapped by the Austrians at Marino to that city to assist in the promulga- dinal del Monte, but the invaders were beaten the frontiers of San Marino. He, with his tion of the true faith, and then made him a off. This century was marked also by a se- troops, sought the protection of the republic. deacon. But, tired of the bustle of the town, ries of internal disorders which severely The conditions of capitulation proposed by the rock-cutter soon returned to his cavern, tried the strength of the little republic. the Austrians, through the mediation of the and passed the remainder of his life in con- Having been for some time protected by the republic, were considered by Garibaldi to be verting and doing good. After his death he Dukes of Urbino, and the affairs of both too severe, and he, with a few followers, made was made a saint, and the Titan Rock as- parties prospering in consequence of the alsumed his name. This little community con- liance, the last duke, Francesco Maria II., Two years later the Austrian troops, sup. tinued to flourish, hidden away among the began to fear, toward the close of his child ported by the papal reserves, again made hills, unknown to the world, self-governing less life, that at his death the republic would their appearance before the republic, demandand self-sustaining, and the next we hear of be endangered by the jealousy of adjoining ing the delivery of certain enemies of the it is in the middle ages, as supporting a mon. powers. He accordingly encouraged the pontifical government who had taken refuge astery, and furnishing a general asylum for Sammarinese to send to Pope Clement VIII. in the territory. The council- general inthe persecuted. In the beginning, the rector to make a treaty with the Santa Sede. The vited the Austrians to enter and take the of the monastery was recognized as the head treaty was made and ratified, and, on the ex. persons sought. Thirty-two refugees were of the community; but, as the families in. tinction of the family of the Dukes of Ur- carried away. Two years after this event the creased in size, they adopted the usual form bino, the republic came under the protection government of Rome endeavored to induce of government in small societies--a council of the Vatican. Notwithstanding their now the Tuscan government to take possession composed of the heads of families. In the well-established position as an independent of the republic under pretext of establishing eleventh century, in common with other power, the Sammarinese were at this time order there, but, through the influence of the cities and communities, San Marino was for- continually in trouble among themselves. | French embassador to Rome, nothing cane tified, and at the same time the judicial Various petty factions showed their heads, of this attempt. After the war for the Ital. power was separated from the executive, the and personal ambitions of different schemers, ian independence, the republic, finding itself people liberated themselves altogether from encouraged by the ignorant devotion of their surrounded by the kingdom of Italy, sent emthe authority of the rector of the monastery, followers, frequently threatened to overturn bassadors to Victor Emmanuel, who concluded and transferred the supreme power from the the government. The education of the peo- a treaty of friendship and commerce, through heads of the families to a general council. ple could alone effect a cure for this state of which the Sammarinese received the solemu

In the obstinate strife of the following affairs, and just at the right moment the state recognition of all their old liberty, sovercentury, between the popes and the foreign was bappily made heir to a property of a cer- eignty, and independence, and the ameliorapowers, the commune of San Marino extend. tain Giacomo Beluzzi, who, in 1661, willed tion of their financial and commercial condied its territory by purchase and annexation. an estate to the republic to establish a laical tion. The money of San Marino now had, by The history for centuries after this becomes college. The enlightening influence of this virtue of this treaty, free circulation in the the record of various attempts on the part school struggled long with the general cor. kingdom of Italy. In 1864 the republic of the papal and other powers to get posses-ruption in both private and public stations, a coined fourteen thousand francs in copper, sion of the sturdy little republic. I give only corruption which was the result of the con- and in 1869 thirty thousand; since that time the most prominent events of this very inter- tinued misery of the people during their long there has been no new coinage, and it is with esting history:

struggles for liberty, and an element nursed difficulty, even in the limits of the republic, In 1291, Hildebrand, Bishop of Arezzo, by the great concourse of outlaws who Aed that a piece of the copper coin can be obdemanded taxes of the Sammarinese to supthe laws of other states.

tained. The postal convention with the port the government of Romagna, of which In 1797 Napoleon paused in his victori- | kingdom of Italy was signed in 1865, since

his escape.

which date the Italian postage-stamps have good grammar. The finale was long, and the his fathers when he was nineteen years old. been in use in the republic. The crowning farewell at the end of the dinner lasted for a Two years later he contracted, while in Engact of the Sammarinese which deserves half-hour, and we departed. It might enter land, a morganatic union with a young Eng. chronicling is their refusal, in 1868, to allow the head of one not acquainted with the Ital- lish lady of great beauty, Lady Charlotte the establishment of a casino and gambling. ian character to ask if we had scruples Colville. The only child of this union, the house in the territory. Although generous about calling for the bill. We certainly had Countess de Ciny, was that daughter with shares of the profits, a munificent cash bo- none, and a good, fair account was presented whom he afterward had such a long and nus, a railway, the annual maintenance of and cheerfully paid, of course. Business is scandalous lawsuit. On the 7th of Septem-two young men in the universities, and many business.

ber, 1830, the revolution broke out, which other advantages, were offered, the honest re- On the way down the hills, after leaving drove the adventurous prince from bis throne, publicans refused without hesitation all these Serravalle, the driver turned round in bis seat and thereafter began the wandering, eccenliberal proposals, and gave this final memo- and said:

tric life which ended at Geneva a few years rable proof of their uprightness and firm “Have your excellencies, signori republic ago. principle. cani, enjoyed the day?"

According to his French biographer, the The territory of the republic at the pres. “Most assuredly," we shouted in stage- duke had a great influence in conferring upon ent day has a circuit of about thirty miles, chorus.

France the doubtful blessing of the late emand has a population of seven thousand six “Then I hope signori republicani will give pire. One day, while Prince Louis Napoleon hundred. A council of sixty citizens, chosen me a franc for buona mano." And he pocket- was a prisoner at Ham, there came to him a for life, one third selected from the nobles, ed his franc.

messenger, bringing with him a paper, which one-third from the landholders, and one-third At the station our commissionnaire awaited he presented to the prince for bis signature. from the peasants, has the supreme power. us, passed the conventional compliments, and The prince sigued it, and the man departed, This council chooses every six months two then took the driver to one side. After an leaving behind bim as the price of that sig. consuls, or capitani reggenti, who are invested earnest discussion, we saw the driver pull out nature a package containing eight hundred with the executive power. A council of the franc we had just given him, and put it thousand francs—the golden key which was twelve is also selected by the council-general in the hand of the commissionnaire. The lat- to unlock for the captive his prison-doors. to judge the criminal and civil cases of the ter looked contented.

This man was M. Smith, chief treasurer to third grade, and to assist in contracts. A The driver turned around and deliberately the Duke of Brunswick, and the paper was a body of nine is also selected to attend to the

winked at us.

So we were all four satisfied treaty by which the two crownless exiles administration of the public expense. The a rare state of affairs to chronicle in the dia- pledged themselves, the one to reëstablish judicial power is intrusted to two foreigners, ry of a traveler in Italy.

the duke upon his throne, and to form, if one for the civil cases, the other for criminal

F. D. MILLET. possible, a united Germany, and the other to suits. This office is changed every triennial.

aid Prince Louis to gain his uncle's crown. The military force consists of the body of

After the escape of Louis Napoleon, he had gendarmes and the guard, numbering some THE LATE DUKE OF several long interviews with the duke in Loneighty members, destined to be the escort of


don, and then and there were their plans for honor to the capitani reggenti on public oc

future movements decided upon. But the casions, and the militia. Besides this force,

future emperor only half kept his word. He

THERE are but few persons who have re- did succeed, much against his will, in forming and sixty years is enrolled and liable to serve sided in Paris for any length of time a united Germany, but he never reinstated in case of need. The treasury of the state who do not remember the late Duke of the Duke of Brunswick in his paternal dois maintained by the profits of the sale of to- Brunswick, that painted, bewigged Lothario, minions. bacco and salt-a government monopoly all whose follies, eccentricities, and diamonds, After the coup d'état the duke installed over Italy—a slight tax on real estate, and a made him the talk of all Europe. A small bimself permanently in Paris. He purchased, small duty upon bread and provisions. The volume, recently published in Paris, gives on the Rue Beaujon, near the Arc de Trirevenues are about seven tbousand dollars a some strange and new details about this roy- omphe, the hotel which had formerly be. year.

al oddity, who, the reverse of Jupiter, passed longed to Lola Montez. There be caused to In the course of the long historical dis- away from this earth, quitting his beloved be erected the huge and curious structure cussion, of which the facts above written are Geneva in a shower of diamonds.

whicb, with its rose-colored walls and probut the most concise generalizations, it The duke was born in 1804. He was the fuse gilding, seemed the very realization of a dawned upon us gradually that the modest first child born to his parents, the Prince palace in a fairy tale. Into this marvelous fête we were enjoying was entirely in honor Frederick William, son and heir to the reign- building but few persons were allowed to of us two Americans, of the country we rep- ing Duke of Brunswick, and the Princess Ma- penetrate. To effect a surreptitious entrance resented, and of the day we were celebrating. rie Wilhelmina of Baden, sister to the then was almost an impossibility. The walls surThe dessert was brought on, and before we Empress of Russia and to the Queen of Swe- rounding the house were of immense height, were half through with it the preoccupation den. A sinister omen marked the rejoic- and were covered by gilded spikes, with all of the landlord gave us reason to suspect ings in honor of his birth. The first cannon- of which an electric apparatus was so conthat something was yet to come. He en-shot fired on that occasion carried off the head nected that if one of them were touched a deavored to conceal his anxiety, but we could of an artillery-man. The duke's youth was chime of electric bells was instantly set in see him glance at the door whenever there a stormy and an adventurous one. His grand-motion. To gain entrance, the would-be viswas a sound in the passage - way. Sure father was killed at the battle of Jena, being itor must come provided with a pass-word, a enough, as we rose to touch glasses to the blinded by a ball wbich put out both of his letter of introduction, or some potent and prosperity of both republics, the great smoke- eyes, and he was borne from the field only to unmistakable reason for being admitted. stained door opened, and a servant entered die a few days later of his wounds; and the Once within the walls, he was introduced bearing a great, fat bouquet, and followed by ducal family were driven from their domin- into an elevator lined with blue satin, which two musicians, who tooted with all their might ions. His father fell at the battle of Water- bore him gently to the antechamber of the the “March of Garibaldi," The bouquet | loo, and the young and throneless duke was duke's apartments. The bedroom of this ecwas deposited on the table with great so- consigned to the guardianship of his uncle centric gentleman was made entirely of iron lemnity, and we saw that it was the shield | by marriage, George IV. But the nephew | -walls, ceiling, and floor, alike. It was, in of the United States done in red and white of Queen Caroline was not likely to remain fact, an immense iron cage, wherein the ex. pinks and bluebells, with the letters “ July 4, on yood terms with that lady's royal bus- sovereign, thanks to a dozen complicated 184" in gilt paper. This was a courteous band, and they soon quarreled after the good pieces of machinery, could bid defiance to observance of our holiday which we had not old fashion of guardians and wards all the the thieves and assassins, the fear of which counted upon, and the speeches that fol- world over. The negotiations of Prince Met- poisoned his existence. At one side of this lowed were laden with more gratitude than ternich restored our hero to the throne of | apartment, and only to be opened with its

every citizen between the ages of eighteen | The

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