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and the days of Aurelian! Silk is now grown you should you but view and consider one tongue; while every one at all acquainted nigh as common as Wool, and become the of them, you would think his whole reign to

with Northern legend and poetry is familiar cloathing of those in the Kitchen as well as have been employed in building that alone.”

with the hallowed name of its earliest abbess, the Court; we wear it not only on our backs,

No wonder that Mr. Boffin liked to hear Saint Hilda, but of late years on our Legs and Feet, and tread on that which formerly was of the same Silas Wegg read the stories of the Roman Whitby still owns a few small coasting-resvalue as Gold itself. Yet that magnificent emperors ! Our modern romancers have a sels, and builds two or three fourth-class iron and expensive Prince, Henry the Eighth, wore sorry time of it when one dips into these ex- steamers per annum; but the town can no ordinarily Cloth Hose, except there came traordinary histories. Poor Howel gives uplouger be ranked even as a fifth-rate English from Spain by great chance a pair of silk

Justinian with this lamentation : “Behold stockins.

sea port. Newcastle-on-Tyne, Shields, Tyne. King Edward his son

was presented with a pair of Long Spanish Silk

what a precipice!” he says.

“ We are now

mouth, Sunderland, the Hartlepools, MiddlesStockins by Sir Thomas Greshan, his Mer- descending into low, mean, and narrow tracts, borough, and Hull, have grown into vast chant, and the Present was taken much no- and shall find the Empire but short, and our- ports; while Whitby, partly from a lack of tice of.

selves straightened, the farther we pass, lit- the natural features necessary to the forma“Queen Elizabeth, in the third year of her Reign, was presented, by Mrs. Montague,

tle of Action, and less of Performance. What- tion of a great harbor, partly from coustituher Silk woman, with a pair of black knit

ever thou wast, the Greatness of Empire, the tional apathy, has remained very much as Silk Stockins, and henceforth she never wore Glory of Majesty, the Power of Arms, the it was a century since. With every natural cloth any more. Nine and thirty years after Efficacy of Laws, the Renoun and Splendour advantage for a first-class watering-place, the was invented the wearing of Silk Stockins, of the Roman Name, in a manner died and same supineness bas permitted Scarborough Wast coats, and divers other things, by En

was buried with thee! 0 Justinian!" on the south, and Saltburn-by-the-Sea on the gines, or Steel looms, by William Lee, Master of Arts of St. John's College in Cam

The fate of a book, and of an author, is a north, within a few years to develop into fashbridge, a Native of Notingham, who taught | mystery which no philosopher can penetrate. ionable marine resorts; while Wbitby bas the Art in England and France, as his Ser- Here is one, written by a scholar under royal remained satisfied with its few lodging-houses vants in Spain, Venice, and Ireland; and his patronage, a perfect mine of good reading, and crescent on West Cliff. Owing, however, device so well took, that now in London his artificers are become a Company, having a

and of stories told in a most amusing and to the fact that this old town is the exclusive

Yet it is utterly forgotten, Hall and Master, like as other Societies. piquant manner.

seat of the jet-manufacture in Great Britain, But this were an unpardonable digression, while an unknown man, named Defoe, gets it always commands a respectable, if sparse, were it our custome to make the like." himself into jail, and writes an immortal ro- summer patronage; and its five miles of sandy

mance, which no one dares confess that he shore are eagerly scanned by tourists from No, old William Howel, not unpardonable,

Tour style

has not read; and another, named John Bun. but very valuable, and well said.

all parts of the United Kingdom for “ Saint yan, with a somewhat similar experience, Hilda's headless snakes," as the fossil Amis always readable, your spelling curious, im

produces the “Pilgrim's Progress ” for fu. | monites, common to the Oolite and Lias forperfect, and quaint. You avoid dullness--that

ture Macaulays to quote--one of the text- mations of the Yorkshire coast, are locally unpardonable sin-in whatever you say, and books of the world.

denominated. Then the jet-stores of the you deserve to have been better remembered.

We leave William Howel with regret, to town form an inexhaustible attraction to We must do our old friend the justice to

look at other books, in the same forgotten strangers. Ladies, especially, never weary say that, after filling forty pages with deand neglected library.

of inspecting and admiring the wondrous nunciations of Justinian, he does then give a

M. E. W. S.

window-displays of exquisitely-polished and slant at Procopius and his possible miscon

marvelously - cut articles of ornament and ceptions, and adds that “Sigonius, a man

virtu. Every season brings its change of diligent in searching out the truth, says that A STRANGE PENANCE.

fashion in the style of ornaments of jet. Ode he was a Prince, renouned both for War and

season it is gold-mounted, another it is used Peace, a famous restorer of the ancient Ro.

IKE most of the seaport towns on the as a setting for exquisite cameos ; while an. man Glory, and without doubt the last, as

east coast of England, Whitby can only other jet forms the bed wberein highly-polwell of the Good, as of the Valiant Empe

be seen to advantage when sailing into its ished specimens of Ammonite and Belemnile rours of the East."

harbor. As the vessel approaches the two artistically repose. So there is hope for poor Justinian after

fine piers that protect the shipping, the voy- The inhabitants of Whitby are truly sui all, particularly as his experience in building

ager sees before him a vast gully or ravine, gencris. Within the whole range of Great seems to have been what it has remained to

through which the muddy river Esk sluggish-i Britain there exists no such complacently the present day, the bill considerably larger ly flows, and, down the steep slopes on either self - satisfied and phlegmatic town.

There than he expected. Here is a reference to the

side of the river, a grotesque conglomeration are no absolutely indigent people in the place, famous church now called the Mosque of St.

of houses, of every variety of quaint, many. and the inhabitants uniformly speak with Sophia:

gabled architecture, that look as if they had drawling deliberation and supercilious pom“ His Buildings were vast and highly mag. been dumped at random from the heights posity of their town, their shipping, their nificent, and could not be the product of :0 above. On the right, crowning the height, abbey, their church, their piers, their beach, base and ignoble a Spirit as the Secret Historian makes his to have been, however it

he sees a score of streets and squares of their bathing - machines, their Royal Hotel, be very true, that great Spenders must be pretentious houses of the modern English their cattle-show, and their Eskdale-side Hergreat Scrapers, for nothing is more decietful watering-place type. On the left, perched mitage, as if each in its kind were unequaled than Building, wherein we see it commonly on a towering sea-cliff, the pensive beauty within her majesty's dominions. The cattle. happen, and even to wise Men themselves, of the desolate abbey rivets the eye, as it slow in September, indeed, is the momentous that the Expenses at length double and treble

stands in lofty isolation amid the touching event of the year, and it is customary to as the vilue of what they first designed. In- i deed he left infinite Monuments either of

associations of wellnigh eleven centuries. sociate, as far as practicable, all occurrences Piety or Magnificence, in this kind, and that

The ancient fane rears its majestic head with “last cattle-show," the cattle-shop first in Building new, or repairing old church- a stone's-throw from the edge of a beetling gone a year," as the case may be. To the es decayed. The Church called Sophia, built | precipice of two hundred and ninety feet. In curious visitor, however, by far the most inby him at Constantinople, was the mirror of

the clefts of the crag the sea - gull finds a teresting day in the Whitby calendar is Holy ail Ages. “The Height of it mounted up to Heaven, the Splendour of it was such as if it

home; and against its base, in calm, the Thursday, or “ Pancake Thursday," as Asreceived not light from the Sun, but had it North Sea billows leap with playful sportive. cension-day is generally termed in the rural in itself. The Roof was decked with Gold, ness, or, in tempest, fiercely hurl their thun- districts of England. On that day “the the Pavement beset with Pearl. The Silver ders. The picturesque and beautiful ruin Penny - Hedge penance is annually pero of the Choire alone mounted to four Myriads, recalls to the student the memory of Cæd- formed; and on the anniversary last year, and it was thought to have excelled the Temple of Solomon.' Besides he built every

mon the monk, who, within the ancient mon- May 14th, I journeyed to Whitby for the where thronghout the Einpire so many

astery, in the dim twilight of English litera- purpose of witnessing the singular act of Houses to the honour of the Blessed Virgin ture, wrote, in sublime strains, the earliest propitiating the manes of the old Eskdale. so stately and sumptuous that Procopius tells l known poetical composition in the Saxon side Hermit.



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The tradition conected with this most set your stakes at the brim of the water, performance of the rite on Ascension mornwhimsical penance is highly romantic, and each stake a yard from another, and so yed-ing, 1874. runs in substance as follows:

der them as with your yedders, and so stake I reached Whitby on Tuesday, May 12ih, In the fifth year of the reign of Henry II., on each side with your stout-stowers, that and engaged quarters at the Angel Hotel, in the Lord of Ugglebarnby, William de Bruce, they stand three tides without removing by the Baxtergate-a comfortable, old - fashioned, the Lord of Sneaton Castle, Ralph de Piercie, force of the water. Each of you shall make slow-going inn, much frequented at nights by with a gentleman of Fylingdales named Al- them in several (separate) places at the hour smug store-keepers and florid-faced owners latson, met in “a certain wood or desert, aforenamed (except it be full sea at that hour, of shipping property, who drink“ called Eskdale-side,” to hunt wild-boar. The which, when it shall happen to pass, that ser. smoke long clay-pipes with awsul solemnity. wood belonged to the abbot of the Whitby vice shall cease); and you shall do this in Respecting the planting of the Penny Hedge, Monastery, who was called Sedinan; and remembrance that you did most cruelly slay I found these estimable personages about as " the aforesaid gentlemen met with boar- And that you may the better call God communicative as clams; and, when I asked staves and hounds, and found a great wild- for repentance, and find mercy and do good the landlord concerning the location of Eskboar, and the hounds did run him very well works, the officer of Eskdale-side shall blow dale-side Hermitage, be surveyed me with an ncar about the chapel and Hermitage of Esk. bis born : ' Out on you! Out on you ! Out on expression of displeased astonishment, as dale-side, where there was a monk of Whitby you !' for the heinous crime of you. And, who should say, “This chap mun be a luwho was an hermit. The boar, being sore if you and your successors do refuse this natic!” After considerable" interviewing,” wounded and hotly pursued and dead - run, service, su long as it shall not be full sea, at which mine host met with a conspicuous lack took in at the chapel - door, and there laid that hour aforesaid, you and yours shall for- of urbanity, I elicited the statement that “t' him down and presently died. The hermit feit all your lands to the Abbot of Whitby aud harmit leeved up t' Esk saide aboon Rus'. shut the bounds out of the chapel and kept and his successors."

arp yance, but he's been deead this mony a himself within, at his meditations and pray- “Whereupon," says the ancient chroni

yeear, as ony seul ou't te knaw." ers, the hounds standing at bay without. cler, “the hermit died in the peace of God, Next morning I started for the Hermi. The hunters came to the Hermitage and December 18, A. D. 1160."

tage, and, after a pleasant walk by the Eskfound the hounds round about the chapel. A story so romantic could not escape the side, reached Ruswarp, and called at the door They called the hermit, who opened the door pen of Sir Walter Scott; and accordingly, in of the school-house to inquire the best road and came forth, and within lay the boar Marmion,” canto second, there is the fol- to the ancient ruin. The teacher, an intellidead; for the which the gentlemen, in a fury lowing reference to it:

gent young lady, could give me no informabecause their hounds were put from their

“ Then Whitby's nuns exulting told

tion on the subject. She was not acquainted game, did most violently and cruelly run at How to their house three barons bold

with the legend, nor had she read “Marthe hermit with their boar- staves, whereof

Must menial service do ;

mion” or any ancient chronicle of Whitby. he died."

While horns blow ont a note of ebame,

Yet, curiously enough, she had been “raised”

And monke cry, 'Fie upon your name ! When these fire-eating barons saw that

In wrath for loss of sylvan game,

within two miles of the scene of the story! they had done the business of the holy man,

Saint Hilda's priest ye slew;'

In the centre of a bosky dell, I found in they were sore afraid, and, after the manner That on Ascension-day, each year,

the mouldering ruins of what appeared to of slayers of the period, they fled to Scar

While laboring on our harbor-pier,

have been a rude cottage the old Hermitage. borough and took sanctuary. Meantime,

Must Herbert, Brace, and Percy hear."

The large, rough-hewn stones that had formed however, the hermit temporarily rallied, and The Bruce and Percy "homagers,” by its walls lay strewed round in confusion, and apprised Abbot Sedman of the outrage.

some process that has escaped the old chron- were grown over with lichens and rank green “ The abbot was in great favor with the king, iclers, purchased their exemption long ago;

The river stole peacefully past the and soon removed the assassins from sanc- but the successive families who have pos- margin of the dell. The trees were assum. tuary, and they were like to have been put to sessed the property of the Allatsons in Fy- | ing their summer dress. But, instead of the death.” But the hermit, being a holy man, lingdales bare annually performed the menial peaceful seclusion suitable for a recluse, the sent for the abbot, and on his death-bed de- service down to the present time. At the busy sounds of manufacturing industry smote sired him to send for the malefactors, date Scott wrote, and for a decade subse

upon the ear.

The hum of the fan-blast, “I freely forgive them my death," said quently, the act of penance was known as the sharp puffs from the iron-smelting cupo. he, “if they be content to be enjoined to this the “Horngarth service," but in recent years la, the jar and whizz of many-purposed mapenance for the safeguard of their souls." it has been popularly characterized as “the chinery, and the familiar snort of the locoThe three hunters, glad to save their lives planting of the Penny Hedge."

motive, now vexed the sylvan solitude. at iny price, willingly agreed to perform any The original story has been bitterly chal- As I mused on the drama enacted on the penance the saintly man might nominate. lenged and roughly handled by antiquaries. spot more than seven hundred years ago, I Whereupon, said he :

The celebrated Captain Francis Grose, sung was joined by another pilgrim to the hermit's “You and yours shall hold your lands of by Burns, and the local historians of York- shrine. He intimared that he was a Fellow the Abbot of Whitby and his successors in shire, are united in favor of its absolute au- of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle. tbis manner: That, upon Ascension-eve, you thenticity; while, on the other hand, eminent on-Tyne, and, like myself, he intended to wit. or some of you shall come to the wood of the members of the Society of Antiquaries pre- ness the planting of the Penny Hedge on the Stray Head, which is in Eskdale-side, the tend to show that the arguments which de- morrow. As we conversed about the extraorsame day at sunrising, and there shall the monstrate the story to be fictitious are incon.dinary nature of the incident and the penance officer of the abbot blow his horn, to the introvertible.

enjoined, my companion shrewdly remarked tent ye may know where to find him; and he First and foremost, the iconoclasts assert that "it required no great skill to foresee shall deliver unto you, William de Bruce, ten that there never was an Abbot of Whitby that it would never be bigh water on Ascenstakes, ten stout-stowers, and ten yedders, to named Sedınan ; that the name in the tale ission-day at nine o'clock in the morning, inasbe cut by you, or those that come for you, borrowed from Cædmon the poet; and that much as the time of Ascension-day is deter. with a knife of a penny price; and you, Ralph the abbot's name in a. D. 1159-'60 was Rich- mined by that of Easter, which is regulated de Piercie, shall take one-and-twenty of each ard. Moreover, they allege that there was no by the moon, and the moon regulates the sort, to be cut in the same manner; and you, Ralph de Percy, nor any other Percy, at that tides." Allatson, shall take nine of each sort, to be time, lord of Sneaton Castle; nor any Bruce As my new acquaintance seemed to be au cut as aforesaid, and to be taken on your that was lord of Ugglebarnby; nor, so far as fait on the formula to be observed by Mr. backs and carried to the town of Whitby, can be discovered, any Allatson then in Fy- Ralph Hanshell, the present owner of the and so be there before nine o'clock of the lingdales.

Fylingdales property, I accompanied him to same day mentioned. And at the bour of Leaving these learned Dryasdusts to set- the wood of the Stray Head, where the nine of the clock (if it be full sea, to cease tle the controversy among them, and hazard. stakes, stout-stowers, and yedders, are annu. that service), as long as it is low water at ing no opinion on the subject, I proceed to ally cut. He explained that it was not to be ex. nine o'clock, the same hour each of you shall record the result of my observations of the pected that for a penny a knife could be pur




chased equal to the task of cutting the wood. bailiś, who was present on behalf of his e:n- diverse vintages with such ready and indis. But, by a convenient arrangement with a ployer, the present owner of Whitby Abbey, criminately exuberant praise. To like Vic. hardware-dealer in the town, Mr. Hanshell to see that the penance was duly performed. tor Hugo's immensely electric and jerky style, contrives to satisfy his conscience and the re- At high water, the Penny Hedge was par. and yet bestow hardly less fervor of encomiquirements of the penance at the same time. tially submerged, but it stood its ground. At um upon the repose and icy classicality of In recent years it has not been considered low water, it was again left high and dry; | Arnold's verse, is, to say the least, the exhi. imperative to have the wood delivered by but, although no guard was placed over it, bition of two enthusiasms that are rarely the bailiff, nor for the Laird of Fylingdales to no idle hand disturbed it, for even the boys twinned in a single critic. Not that he is to bear the burden on his own shoulders to of Whitby appear to be less profligate and be censured for this—it is in some sense to Whitby. On this occasion a farm-servant abandoned than they are in other English his credit; and we are interested further in performed this drudgery on Ascension-eve. towns.

knowing that our critic considers Walt WhitOn the early morning of Thursday the

JAMES Wight.

the greatest of American roices." Csual greetings of the townspeople were gen.

It cannot be denied that his rose-water is erally supplemented by the remark, " Well,

of very delicious aroma; it is plentiful—er. MR. SWINBURNE'S PROSE. ye'll be gaun t' see 'im plant t' Peany

haustless, even ; and he throws it forth with Hedge ?"

an unsparing hand. He can also vituperate There was no enthusiasm or curiosity ap- VIIERE are some things which at first in the same high color and vein, and particu. parent. Instead of walking on the pier as blush seem palpably plain to the un- larly upon writers who have ventured to think usual, they would, that particular Ascension. derstanding, which nevertheless are not quite and to say that moral canons should have day morning, as a mere matter of course, so easy of definition. The quality or com- some weight in the selection of topics for walk up the river above the bridge, and stol. bination of qualities which makes the differ. public and universal treatment. It is not to idly witness the nine stakes driven and ence between prose and poetry may be cited be expected that so fiery a particle as Mr. yeddered," as they had done a score or two as one of these. Poetry has been defined Swinburne's unique genius could easily fold times previously.

from the days of Aristotle to those of Low- itself up in moderate terms of expression, The Penny Hedge is always planted on ell and Stedman, and what single definition The fitness of a few words he rarely or never the south side of the Esk, toward the upper of it now remains unrevised or unrevisable ? perceives, and his rhetoric goes on and on in end of Church Street, near the ship-building It has been felicitously said-and the state. most discursive and beautifully bewildering yards and rope-walks. At low water a vast ment is good, except that it lacks, like most curves, very much like the roll and ricochetexpanse of soft, muddy soil is here exposed, others of its kind, totality—that good prose ting of rockets. He makes nothing of call. through the middle of which the narrow river puts words in the best places, while poetry | ing up the flash of a conflagration for pur. tortuously creeps like a slimy snake. At puts the best words in the best places. poses where a moderate illumination might high water this soft, greasy swamp is over- Perhaps, though, Matthew Arnold's distinc- suffice, so rich is he in resources of corusca. flowed, and the inner harbor has a compara- tion between morality and religion may be

tion. tively-respectable and extensive appearance. helpfully suggestive here. If religion, as It is this redundancy of verbiage and fire It was

on this dark, spongy soil that the he says, is “morality touched by emotion," that more than any thing else palls upon and Penny Hedge was to be planted.

poetry, equally, if not more than equally, may tires the reader. His sense of and feeling A few minutes before nine o'clock Mr. be said to be prose touched by emotion, ex- for the picturesque are nearly measureless, Hanshell appeared in his shirt-sleeves carry. cept that the description omits all account and he dips his pen, for the most part, ing nine pointed stakes, each about five feet of form. It is common enough to meet with in bis imagination, and that is to say in an long and two inches in diameter. These he poetical prose, and even so great a master element about as boundless and inexhaustidrove into the soil with a “penny wooden and so matchless at his best as Wordsworth ble as the ocean. The small proportion mallet” at the respective distances of a yard could execute the most prosy verse imagina- of reason and moral sense that goes to apart. Then he took the nine hazel yedders ble, not knowing, apparently, when he spoke make the rest of his equipment is vacuously -which were, in fact, slender rods twelve pneumatically or otherwise.

apparent. In fact, we can think of no betor fourteen feet long-and laced these along Mr. Emerson, in alluding to Mr. Tennyson, ter remark on his style than this, which we the stakes as a basket-maker winds his peeled lately said, “Nay, some of his words are borrow, that “it is without measure, without willow round the uprights or skeleton of his poems; ” and one might well be able to say discretion, without sense of what to take and fabric. Finally he took the pine stout-stow. this of much that Emerson himself has writ- what to leave; after a few pages it becomes ers and placed each stower at an angle against Poetical power does not always assure intolerably fatiguing. It is always listening each stake, to act as a prop, and nailed it us of power in the writer to produce poetry, to itself — always turning its head over its with a "pennyworth of nails" driven by a yet I can recall no writer who has at any shoulder to see its train flowing behind it.

penny hammer.” Altogether it was a most time written a really good poem who does The train shimmers and trembles in a sery ridiculous and insensate proceeding; and, not, by that very ability, impress some pe- gorgeous fashion, but the rustle of its embut for the eccentric performances of the culiar and felicitous qualities upon his prose. broidery is fatally importunate." horn-blower, would have been about as cheer- The æsthetic axiom asserts that the greater To repeat this mode perpetually, as Svinful as a funeral. But the trumpeter, upon gift includes the less.

burne does-going back over each period of whom devolved the solemn duty of blowing, I have been interested of late while read- purpose to taste his own words, and in such “Out on you! Out on you! Out on you,” was ing Mr. Swinburne's essays—which seem like manner as to impress the author's self-cona character. There was a mischievous squint the substance of his poetry moulded in an- scious admiration of their sweetness-is nein his black, bead-like eye, a blandness in bis other form—not more in observing his likes cessarily to be tiresomely and helplessly prosmile, and a pimply purpleness in the princi- and antipathies than in noticing bis method lix. And when a writer begins to posture in pal feature of his face that indicated a prone- and manner in the easy freedom of prose. Its this way, he may go on doing it forener. ness to dissipation and late hours. Wben murmur and sonorousness tell at once its ori. There is absolutely no necessary pause for å the first stake was driven, Joe Dodds puck. gin, and tell, too, the precise sort of critic luxuriance that has no necessary reason. It ered his mouth, raised the trumpet, looked the author is. You miss nowhere the poetic may show admirable dexterity, and provoke, calmly around, smiled like a brigand, winked quality. Indeed, it would have been impos- in places, your wonder at such almost habitat his cronies, and began to “toot." His sible for him to leave the poetry out; and he ual affluence of fine tones and tints, but the initial note was terrific, and he rose by dis. reminds you of his larger calling, suggesting one fatal objection to it is, if there were no tressing increments to a blare that curdled Tennyson's description of the poet in being other, that it tires. If the prolixity were an the blood.

“ drowned with the love of love, the scorn of occasional blemish merely, it would be bad Subdued applause rewarded Joe's brazen scorn," if not “the hate of hate." What enough ; but it is an organic trait. It is not denunciation, and be repeated it at least a com pels attention as a very prominent char- something superimposed that we may hope dozen times, to the manifest satisfaction of acteristic is his truly wonderful catholicity added experience or culture will hereafter all present, not excepting Mr. Cholmley's of taste, which accepts the wine from such | remedy in the author ; it is the fundamental


nel :



basis of the style itself that is at fault. Its such heavenly chance on his; his strength as for the right-has all the delicacy and lack of force and genuineness, and its loss of impulse is matched by his strength of sweetness that rhythm and lyrical melody of persuasiveness and genuine sincerity, are will; he never works more by instinct than

can hope to give in an unmetrical way; and by resolution; he knows what he would but too evident. We see something arise have and what he will do, and gains his end

it stirs the blood in places like the energy now and then in the form of a great tidal and does his work with full conscience of pur

and sliock of a breeze from the clear north. thought, but you follow it until it grows pose and insistence of design. By the But for much that is simply true and trustfainter and fainter in outline, and finally might of a great will seconded by the force worthy, for insight that is thorough as well lapses away in a feeble and limp swash on a of a great hand, he won the peace he holds

as helpful, for correct perspective, for either still feebler and tasteless shore, against all odds of rivalry in a race of rival

fine æsthetical giants."

or psychological analysis, But to turn from the manner to the mat

and, above all, for a monition of conscience, ter. It was said that to witness Kean's acting

But any list of quotations would be in.

even of the un-Puritan kind, the reader who was like reading Shakespeare by flashes of

complete without that remarkable and pictu- looks will meet with signal disappointment; lightning. To modify this figure a little to resque description of a thunder-storm at sea,

and, as a help to an inexperienced reader, it fit the perusal of Swinburne's criticism, we with which the book opens, and which does

is like the fire-flies of the night. As a literary should say it is reading something of more

duty as a metaphor for expressing the kind pyrotechnic it is quite wonderful, and often or less interest by the aurora borealis. He and quality of Victor Hugo's genius. If

entertaining; but one wishes, after going a does, of course, light up bis theme, and on one were to parody a similitude so huge, and

little distance with the author, to look down occasions when his mood, or the oscillation so nearly grotesque, would it be proper to to the earth, and give his feet a touch once of his judgment, falls a-plumb with reason,

say of Mr. Swinburne's genius that it resem. more of the solid grour.l. he can give forth memorable and striking bles an earthquake on land? The thunder

JOEL BENTON. argument. It would be a phenomenon not

storm is one Mr. Swinburne witnessed when easy of explanation if, with bis delicate in- a boy, while midway in the English Chansight into the mysteries of poetry and of lan.

KISAGOTAMI. guage, he should not acquire some right and About midnight the thunder-cloud was power of speaking, for the poets at least, right overhead, full of incessant sound and FROM BUDDHAGHOSHA's “PARABLES." that few on like grounds can claim to pos. fire, lightening and darkening so rapidly that sess. One might hesitate to dispute him in it seemed to have life, and a delight in its

ISAGOTAMI, clasping to her breast life. At the same hour the sky was clear to any opinion to the assertion of which this the west, and all along the sea-line there

fear possessed, endowment is sufficient. We are, therefore,

sprang and sank, as to music, a restless not at all surprised to find that his poetical dance or chase of summer-lightnings across Ran through the streets, besieging every door estimates of Byron and of Shelley, apart the lower sky-a race and riot of lights, For some rare balm his lost life to restore; from the moral discrimination involved, are

beautiful and rapid as a course of shining

oceanides along the tremulous flow of the Until her neighbors, at this frantic grief, justly pertinent and satisfactory, and real

Eastward at the same moment the For which the world itself has no relief, contributions to his theme.

space of clear sky was higher and wider-a There are bits of opinion in all his essays splendid semicircle of too intense purity to

Began to say:

The girl has lost her headthat successfully challenge acceptance, as be called blue; it was of no color namable

What medicine is that which cures the dead?! well as gratify your admiration. When he by man; and midway in it, between the does say the right thing, it is sometimes storm and the sea, hung the motionless

But one more wise, and taking pity's part, full moon; Artemis watching, with a se

Offered this solace to her aching heart: wonderfully said—but his whims and per.

rene splendor of scorn, the battle of Titans versity run like a river through a text in and the revel of nymphs from her stainless

“Dear girl, I cannot proffer you much joy,

But there's a doctor who will help your boy." which the illustrations of wisdom serve as and Olympian summit of divine indifferent widely-scattered islands. As an instance we light. Underneath and about us the sea was

Asking his name, the girl was straightway sent would like to commend, it seems to us that paved with flame; the whole water trembled

To good Gotama, and to him she went. and hissed phosphoric fire; even through the following is well worth saying, and is

the wind and thunder I could hear the crack- “Good master, aid me, for I hear it said well said: ling and sputtering of the water-sparks. In You have the power to raise my child that's

dead." " All the ineffably foolish jargon and

the same heaven, and in the same hour, there jangle of criticasters about classic subjects shone at once the three contrasted glories

The Buddha answered: “If I do this deed, and romantic, remote, or immediate inter. golden, and fiery, and white-of moonlight,

'Tis needful you procure some mustard-seed ests, duties of the poet to face and handle

and of the double lightnings, forked and this thing instead of that, or his own age insheet; and under all this miraculous heaven

“Found in a house where neither groom nor stead of another, can only serve to darken lay a flaming floor of water."

bride, counsel by words without knowledge: a poet

Parent nor child, nor man nor maid, has died.”

The single fragment of comment which of the first order raises all subjects to the first

we have quoted from an accomplished critic, Then, with her child still clasped about her rank, and puts the life-blood of an equal inin reference to Mr. Swinburne's style, may

waist, terest into Hebrew forms or Greek, mediæval

From house to house, a weary round she paced or modern, yesterday or yesterage."

possibly be Mr. Lowell's—it is good enough

to be; and from the same pen we have On her sad errand-but could cross no door Here, too,

is a judgment so rounded and well-considered, that it almost confutes, and another quality of these essays acutely

Where Death's dark shadow had not passed

before. noted. The writer says: “We do not rewould pretty nearly disprove-if such in

member in this whole volume a single in- One voice forever on her pathway flew : stances were common-all that we have just stance of delicate moral discrimination-a

“ The dead are many, but the living few." been saying. We take it from the final

ngle case in which the moral note bas been paragraph in the essay on “ John Ford :"

So, when Gotama asked if she had brought struck, in which the idea betrays the smallest The mustard-seed, so long and vainly sought, “No poet is less forgetable than Ford ; acquaintance with the conscience.” And this pone fastens (as it were) the fangs of bis

She said: “I have it not-each way I sped genius and his will more deeply in your memis notably true.

I found but few were living, many dead." ory. You cannot shake hands with him and

The book with which we are dealing, * pass by; you cannot fall in with him and out though it is prose in form, is prose pervaded

And Buddha answered: “True enough, most

true, again at pleasure; if he touch you once he by the measureless force and lurid flicker of a Death comes to all, as it has come to you." takes you, and what he takes he keeps his picturesque and subtilely sensitive and poeti. hold of; his work becomes part of your cal imagination. It affords fine glimpses of

So fled her grief, and seeing in the night, thought and parcel of your spiritual furniture

At every house, a bright or fading light, forever; he signs himself upon you as with a

beauty, and splendor of expression; it has seal of deliberate and decisive power. His some almost ineffable visions; its eloquence

She said: "Our human lives are just the

same, force is never the force of accident; the cas- —and it is eloquent, as eloquent for the wrong

First an uprising, then a dying flame; ual divinity of beauty which falls, as though direct from heaven, upon strong lines and * Essays and Studies. By Algernon Charles “ Never on earth will such mutations cease, phrases of some poets, falls never by any Swinburne. London, 1875.

But after death come rest and endless peace." EDITOR'S TABLE.

THE World has been lamenting“ The Lost

Arts of Civilization." It thinks that
the “sewing-machine has already destroyed
one of the most beautiful, one of the most hu-
manizing of arts—the art of needle-work, in
which our mothers and grandmothers ex-
celled, and from which they had comfort as
well as occupation." It also tells us that
“the planing, turning, and mortising ma-
chines, with their various applications, have
converted the skillful carpenter of forty years
back into a commonplace joiner and framer.
There are no carpenters any more," it goes
on to say; "the nice skill in that once-in-
structive art is all monopolized by machine-
ry; ... all that delicate work which so ex-
ercised his eye and hand, which created
grades in his métier, and made the skillful
carpenter really a man of accomplishments,
all this is now transferred from his band to
the jaws of the unreasoning, inexorable, brute
machine.” This lamenting critic, still cast-
ing his eye on the delights and results of by-
gone skill, assures us that “the mowing and
reaping machines have made those beautiful
arts of former time, mowing with the scythe
and reaping with the grain-cradle, to be al-
most absolutely lost arts; " and he further
says that “with photography and its devel-
opments must come the destruction of paint-
ing Portraiture is already almost a lost art,
landscape will soon follow, and the higher
forms of historical painting will soon die.
. . . The plastic arts and architecture must
in the same way yield to machinery, just as
inevitably as the Geneva watch-maker must
give way before the Waltham works. When
an artist can cast you a thousand copies of
a moulding, cornice, or frieze, at once and
of the same pattern, the chisel will not dare
attempt to compete.” The writer concedes
that the revolution he describes is favorable
to human progress ; "it is itself progress,"
he says, “ since the effect is to divert the
more intelligent persons connected with any
art from employment in it, and to drive them
to seek employment in connection with some
higher art. It is progress, too, in that it
continually frees a larger number of persons
from exhausting toil, and gives them increas.
ing time to seek culture.”

We cannot quite accept the consoling theory of the last few sentences. While the revolution described will, no doubt, release certain energies from a lower in order to advance them to a higher plane of effort, it will tend also to throw upon the world hosts of men wholly ignorant of any form of skilled labor, and from this will result, not progress, but a great decay of intelligence, of worth, and of morals. Indeed, this consequence of the

substitution of machinery for the skill of the derful burmonies of color, expression of pas. individual laborer is already evident. The sion and emotion—these all lie without the number of men unfitted for any definite cm- reach of the camera and within the touch of ployment, unskilled in any of the arts or that force in human nature called genius, crafts, is on the increase, who in a vagabond which no machinery can imitate and no way flow into the great cities, where they de- method of duplication supplant. As an lis. pend upon chance opportunities for employ. torical fact, art is experiencing a great rement, and help to swell the ranks of the idle vival. It is taking possession of the world and the vicious.

as it did four hundred years ago ; an army of But, while we cannot assent to the idea enthusiasts are enlisted in it, and everywhere that general progress is to come of this revo

we may see the signs of awakened public inlution, we are not without our consolation.

terest in this outcome of æsthetic culture. This lies in the fact that a reaction has begun Painting and sculpture at least are possessed in favor of individual taste and skill as op- / by the spirit of immortality. posed to machine-made articles. In furoi. ture this revival is more noteworthy than in The recent introduction of elevators for other things, but we may confidently expect carrying persons to the upper floors has it to extend to other branches of manufacture already made a marked change in the new in which machinery has been replacing man- | architecture of our city. It has been found ipulation by the individual. The canons of that by making the top-floors of buildings the revived art in furniture are that house- easily accessible, they take preference even hold articles should be pure and simple in over those at a lower altitude for many kinds style, substantial in manufacture, and that of business. The light is better, the air is each product should be stamped by the in- purer, the situation is quieter, nine stories dividual skill of the craftsman. A mania for up than at three or four stories, and wben this kind of furniture has already begun, so the ninth story may be reached by a swiftthat in one direction at least the supremacy moving steam-elevator, every objection that of duplication is gone. The “ thousand cop-might exist against this great height is reies of a scroll” and the facility of the glue-moved. It seems strange that so simple a brush are understood, and are coming rapidly contrivance for utilizing upper stories and under a general detestation. Machinery, of high spaces should not have come into rogue course, will continue in use, if for no other until within recent years. New devices for reason than because it reduces cost; and for- the substitute of steam, such as hydraulic tunately even a “brute machine" is amena- power, are likely to greatly extend the use ble to advanced civilization. The example of this very comfortable way of “getting of the purer style has already been fol- up-stairs." lowed, inasmuch as we see it modifying and There is an important change in our doimproving the designs of the macbine-made mestic architecture that is likely to come of article; and this is no light service.

the use of elevators. It is no new idea that There is another direction in which all the kitchen ought to be placed at the top of the efforts to find a substitute for the skill the house. At this point the disagreeable of the hand have come to little. This is in odors that now rise from the cooking-range engraving. A great deal is said about new and the laundry, and more or less permeate processes, ingenious methods of using the the whole house, would be carried off into the camera and acids whereby drawing is copied upper air. The healthfulness and the agreeand lines in relief formed; but no device has ableness of the living-rooms would evidently succeeded in giving the tone, the feeling, the be greatly enhanced by the change of the quality that come from the finger-ends of kitchen base. Hitherto the great obstacle the man charged with art-feeling.

in the way bas been, not only the labor of In one particular the World writer seems carrying supplies up the several pairs of to us wholly wrong. Painting shows no sign stairs, and carrying refuse down them, but of a surrender to photography. Miniature- the dirt and litter certain to accrue there: painting has been fairly killed by the sun- from. The elevator would remedy all this, pictures, and perhaps portrait-painting suf- fetching and carrying needed articles with fers; but the world of ideal art is full of facility and at little expenditure of time or vitality, of exultation, of growth, of expres- energy. It would not be practicable, of sion. Art-taste is an appetite that grows course, to introduce steam or even hydraulic upon what it feeds; those who begin with power into small residences; but elevators photographs, or who enjoy photographs, are balanced by weights, after the manner of only thereby stimulated into greater zeal “dumb-waiters," pow in many houses in use for the products of the pencil. Not only is between kitchen and dining-room, would be divine color beyond the reach of the sun- sufficient for the purpose. As roofs of shadow, but imagination, creation, poetical houses are now commonly built nearly flat, feeling, subtile sentiment, strange and won- this space could be inclosed and used for the

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