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cause they think its unrestrained increase a To begin at the beginning, it is admitted The lazy half-breed of the tropics, as he lies source of dire evil in the present, and a that the theory of Malthus is abstractly cor in the shade of his banana-plant, dreams frightful menace for the future. In drawing | rect; that population must ultimately press doubtless of a better state, in which many their conclusions, as it seems to me, these closely upon the means of subsistence, if of his cravings now unsatisfied might be modern Malthusians lose sight of some fac- there be nothing to prevent; but so, too, would filled, but he makes no effort for the attaintors quite as important as the one commerce a good many other dire evils befall us if ment of such a state, so long as the plantain which the founder of their philosophy for- there were nothing to prevent. The fact is, which shades him furnishes him also with got; and it is to suggest some of these that that the actual increase of population falls food enough. Can there be doubt that he the present paper is written.

far short of the possible increase, and it is would lead a more active, a more useful, a Unluckily the utterances upon this subject probable that this has nearly always been the better life if the food were less abundantly are usually incidental to other things, and

It is true also, as every observer supplied or more difficult to get? The North consequently so indirect that it is somewhat knows, that the natural growth of population American Indian had no tree or bush from difficult to cite them for purposes of discus. in densely-peopled districts is always less which to pluck unearned food; he could not sion. In a recent magazine-article, * however, rapid than in those in which the land is not lie idle all day without lying empty as well. I find a tolerably direct statement of the fully occupied. In short, experience teaches But he found in the spoil of forest, and lake, modern Malthusian creed, from which I quote unmistakably the existence of certain occult and river, a sufficient means of subsistence, the following passage. The italics are my but active natural laws which operate to pre- and, availing himself of food so easily seown, and are used merely to indicate the es. vent the over-peopling of populous districts. cured, he made no effort to improve his conpecial points to which the attention of the Again, whatever speculations we may indulge dition. There was for him no pressure of reader is invited:

in on the subject, it is an undeniable fact population upon the means of subsistence, “The panaceas that various enthusiasts that thus far in the world's history produc. and, while his life was, perforce, more active offer us - liberty, universal suffrage, free tion has actually gained upon population. A than it would have been if he might have schools, free churches, the rights of labor, careful study of the history of famines shows found a food-supply on every bush and tree, the religion of humanity—these things can- that we have grown away from the danger of his activity was strictly bounded by the nenot vanquish hunger and disease, nor the vice starvation rather than toward it; that the cessity imposed upon him. He hunted be. and ignorance that must always accompany supply of available food at the world's com- cause he must, but did no other work, because them. How blankly the men of action over- mand is relatively greater now than at any no other was necessary to the maintenance look their main cause-namely, the overcrowd- earlier period. (See Greg's “Enigmas of of life. And this would seem to be the case ing of almost all communities, whether densely | Life.")

always. Throughout the history of the human or thinly peopled, the presence of too many All these things have been urged by po- race, if we make due allowance for inherited mouths for the food! The pressure of popula- litical economists in answer to Malthus, and habit here and there, we shall find the rule a tion upon the means of subsistence is also its they should serve, certainly, to quiet all ap- general one that men work only of necessity, pressure upon the means of health, intelli- prehensions of immediate danger from over- and that their necessities constitute always gence, and decency; and yet the last word population ; but the main point made by a pretty accurate measure of their industry. of most of our social reformers is, 'Increase modern Malthusians is not so much that we

work is the universal condition of and multiply. In the Apocrypba is a pas. are in danger of general pauperism as that improvement and progress. It is only in sage much more to the purpose—a passage the actual, present pressure of population earnest work that men develop their best which might have given us a better world upon the means of subsistence is a deplorable qualities of mivd and body. Intelligence, than the present, bad it held its place as evil and the prime cause of nearly all our quickness of perception, intellectual activity, scripture: “Though they multiply, rejoice ills; and that to reform the world and im- shrewdness, determination, “grit”-all these not in them; ... trust not them in their

prove the race we must impose some checks greatly aid their possessor in an active and life, neither respect their multitude, for one other than those provided by Nature and cir- necessary struggle for the means of subsistthat is just is better than a thousand. ... cumstances upon the multiplication of men. ence, and so the necessity of active strugBy one that hath understanding shall the city And, while at the first glance there appears gling imposed upon men by the pressure of be replenished.' . . . Is not this the key of to be some reason to think views of this kind population upon the means of subsistence the whole question of reformhow to improve sound, their correctness, I am persuaded, may tends directly and inevitably to develop the quality and how to limit the number of the be successfully questioned.

them. And of more strictly moral qualities human beings that are born into each civilized Mr. Walter Bagehot, in an invaluable work,* the same thing is equally true. Honesty is community ? "

devotes an entire chapter to a discussion of the best policy," and men learn to be honest, Now, all this would seem to mean that, to “the uses of conflict” in the development or, rather, they learn the moral quality of improve the quality of the people born into of nations, and we may properly borrow his honesty from its usefulness in the struggle. the world, we must in some way limit their phrase here, urging the manifest uses of con- Patience, temperance, cleanliness — all the number; that the pressure of population up- flict in the development and improvement of virtues, in short-are found to aid very acon the means of subsistence is in itself an mankind, as one reason, at least, for thinking tively in the sharp conflict which the pressevil to be avoided by wise statesmanship or the crowded state of the world not altogether ure of population imposes upon most men; wise philosophy in the interest of the human an evil. It is said that the banana is the and so we say the conflict is good for man, race; that, if we have not fallen upon the curse of the tropics, for the reason that it af. and the pressure bewailed by the Malthusians evil times foreseen of Malthus, we are ap- fords food almost without labor, and, whether is the great motive power of all progress and proaching them, and meantime are suffering or not the love of ease, the tendency to idle- all improvement. Not only is it not true most of our ills in consequence of present ness, be an inborn and universal human trait, that we must limit the increase of population over - population. The plausibility of the it is certainly a common one enough to justify by artificial means for the sake of improving theory is apparent, but the view taken seems the assertion that, without necessity, a large the quality of the race, but, on the contrary, to me a very superficial one, in which some part of the human race would do no work at the highest improvement in quality can come important matters are wholly overlooked. all. It is only the necessity of working in only through the very crowding which, we

That the world is crowded may be ad. order to get food which makes men industri. are told, stands in its way. Work, attrition, mitted, and it may not follow that it is over- ous, active, busy beings; and it is only the conflict, these are brought about only by the crowded, or that the crowding is an evil. On crowding complained of by our Malthusians pressure of population upon the means of the contrary, I think it may be shown that which imposes this necessity upon mankind. subsistence, and these are the essential conthe pressure camplained of is a source of

ditions of improvement. It is safe to say good-not unmixed, of course, but good, nev- * “ Physics and Politics; or, Thoughts on the that no idle, indolent race-no race whose ertheless, and that the good greatly out- Application of the Principles of Natural Selec- energies have not been sharply taxed in a weighs the evil.

tion' and 'Inheritance to Political Society. By struggle of one kind or other—ever yet made

Walter Bagehot, Esq., Author of "The English *“ Zealot and Student,"' by Titus Munson Coan, Constitution." New York: D. Appleton & Co.,

an advance worth recording, in physique, inin the Galaxy for August, 1875. Publishers.

tellect, or morals. Indeed, we may go further

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and say, without fear of contradiction, that to the improvement of species already exist- | population by statutory evactment. Impose no race bas ever made satisfactory progress ing, is true. We see around us every day restrictions upon marriage. Do this, or acduring a prolonged period of repose from its the effects of the struggle for existence, and cept universal pauperism as the necessary life-struggle. All history shows us decay we know that in the end the fittest survive, and speedy consequence.” Going further, under the gilding of luxurious idleness, when- while the unfit fall silently out of the ranks. he finds that already population seems to ever any nation, having won wealth or great- In view of this fact, are not they who urge press hardly upon the means of subsistence. ness of any sort, las rested for a time con- the limiting of populatiou as the shortest cut He finds, too, that the race, as it exists to. tent. In a fierce struggle for existence, and to race-i provement shutting their eyes to day, greatly needs improvement in quality, in that only, men train their faculties to the the fundamental truth of modern science ? and, jumping at a conclusion, tells us that highest activity of which they are capable, The crowding of which they complain the world is already over-peopled ; that crime, developing much strength that was latent, would seem to be the essential condition of and vice, and ignorance, and disease, and dirt, and creating much which, but for the neces. improvement by selection. But for the press- are the actual and present results of over. sity of its use, would have remained forever ure of population upon the means of subsist. | population ; and that to be rid of them we non-existent.

ence, there would be no struggle for exist- must limit the number and improve the qual. This is the lesson history everywhere ence, and hence no measuring of strength ity of the people born into the world. teaches; but we need not go to history to between the fit and the unfit, and no pro. All this seems very alarming at first, but, learn it. Every.day life exemplifies the truth cess of selection and elimination. A rude upon examining the facts a little more close. in question in a thousand ways. The ablest husbandry answers the ends of the frontiers- | ly, we find bere, as everywhere, that Nature lawyers are not found in country villages; man, and so, as a rule, the frontiersman con- has made no mistake. The calculation with our most eminent physicians are bred in tents himself with a scratching of the ground, which Malthus sat out was correct enough, cities; great bankers and financiers do not which he calls agriculture. But, when popu. except that it represented not facts, but apgrow in the rural districts, but in Wall or lation grows dense about him, and land cost-parent possibilities. The possible number Lombard Street. In the great cities all ly, he is forced to choose between improve- of children in a family is more than twenty; these men must struggle hard to maintain ment and failure ; and, if there be no new the actual number, upon an average, is about themselves, and desperately to achieve emi. frontier to which he may emigrate, he must one-fourth that. The increase of population, nence; and in the struggle they develop qual. either become a better tiller of the ground or at its seemingly possible rate, would long ago ities which could never otherwise have been suffer starvation; he must fit himself for the have filled the world to overflowing; the acttheirs. And wbat is true of them is true, in struggle or fail in it. And so it is in all ual increase has done nothing of the kind, varying degree, of all of us. Each of us owes things. A less crowded world must of ne. and, instead of general pauperism, we have much to the sharp elbowing he has encoun. cessity be a less intelligent, a less thrifty, a to-day a relatively greater food-supply than tered on life's roadway. Our faculties are less worthy world. The crowding alone puts ever before. Moreover, we find by experience sharpened, and our whole being strengthened, a premium upon intelligence, and thrift, and that Nature has berself set a brake upon the by conflict and struggle. “Necessity is the sobriety, and honesty, and all those virtues increase of numbers, which promises to be mother of invention,” says one proverb, and which help to make the human race wiser sufficient for all needs. We see that for another adage teaches that competition is the and better. Even culture, the refined and some unexplained reason the average number soul of trade. What are these but homely refining cultivation of intellect and soul, the of children per family is smaller as a rule in phrasings of the teachings of daily experi. value of which is commonly thought to be densely than in thinly peopled districts; that ence in this matter?

other than a pecuniary one, needs a crowded as the room for more men and women grows Nothing could be easier than to illustrate world for its development. What artist, smaller, fewer men and women are born into this point in a hundred ways by facts cited what poet, what idealist of any sort, could the world. Against the danger feared by from history and universal experience, if find either support for his body or the appre. | Malthus, Nature seems already to have prosuch illustration were in any way necessary.

ciation which is his soul's necessary food, vided sufficiently, without asking the assistIt seems enough, however, to state so patent among the rude folk of an uncrowded world ! ance of our modern legislatures. a fact that, so far from interfering with the Until men's intellects are sharpened by strug. As to the evils pointed out by later phiprogress of human development, the pressure gle, until the processes of selection and in- losophers of this school, it would seem that of population upon the means of subsistence heritance have converted the rude into a re- they are mistakenly attributed to over-popunot only actively aids, but is itself at once fined race, there is no place for the man of lation. That the world is crowded, is true the prime cause and chief agent in all that culture among them. He has only pearls to enough, but, as we have already seen, the we rightly call progress. give, and they are swine.

crowding is a source of good rather than of But this is by no means all, if, indeed, it | May we not safely trust Nature bere as ill, and the very condition of things which be half. The positive and visible effects of everywhere, and refrain from ignorant inter- the Malthusians of the magazines would do the struggle imposed upon man by the ten. meddling with her work? Free schools, free away with, for the sake of improving the dency of his fellows to crowd him coustitute, churches, free libraries, and the like, these, I race, is the condition precedent to improve


derived from the pressure of population upon disease," or " the vice and ignorance that the structure they would hew down as

the means of subsistence. The world is pret- must always accompany them.” But are un- an obstruction is in fact the ladder by ty full, at least in its older parts, but it is tilled acres likely to be more efficacious ? which alone we may climb to a higher and filled chiefly with inferior people. That is to Will the tramp cease to beg and plunder better state. say, the race, as it exists to-day, is not the when a limitation of population shall have The crowding they lament forces us to race it ought to be and might be. It has im- made bread-winning easier to the industri- struggle, and the struggling is good for us proved greatly in the past, and is improving ous ? Free schools feed nobody; free libra- and for our posterity. The pressure of popstill, but it is certainly not yet in a condition ries are powerless to appease hunger. But ulation upon the means of subsistence com. of ideal excellence, and it would seem to need | free schools and free libraries and all the pels us to win, by intelligence and activity, for its satisfactory advancement some more other good gifts of civilization so contemptu- the food that might otherwise drop into our potent agency even than the direct influences ously dismissed by the Malthusian magazinist mouths, and so it serves to make active, to which reference has been made. To my do help worthy men and women to develop earnest men of us. Better still, it gives full thought we have this needed agent of race. their own faculties and to become fitter than play to the process of selection, setting a improvement in the operation of the pressure they were for the struggle in which bread is premium upon every good quality of mind or of population upon the means of subsistence

body, and perpetuating it by inheritance ; in the way of development by natural selec- Let us see how the case stands. On the winnowing the race, and insproving it from tion. Whatever differences of opinion there one hand, the Malthusian philosopher finds year to year by casting out the unworthy and may be regarding the origin of species and by a process of a priori reasoning that popu- raising the worthy to prosperity and power. the descent of man, no thinking person now lation must naturally increase more rapidly True, the Malthusian cannot always mensdoubts that the Darwinian theory, as applied | than production, and he cries out: Check ure the improvement with his foot-rule. He



schools and churches because of the ill they In view of what we said last week in re.

finds ignorance and vice, crime, dirt, and misery, to-day as yesterday, and asks where the improvement is, forgetting, or not choosing to remember, that development is a slow process—as all Nature's processes are—and that race advancement is not always mensu. rable. Without doubt, mankind has advanced and improved since mediæval times, when war was thought to be the only business worthy a gentleman; when superstition darkened the brightest intellects; wben London was without a sewer or a street-cleaning fund; when footpads infested the highways to the metropolis ; when the plague depopulated cities without suggesting cleanliness as a prophylactic; in short, when ignorance and vice, and dirt and disease, were the part of the higher as they are now the inheritance of only the lower classes of society. Our pres. ent time is a better one than that, and who shall say precisely when it became better? Who shall draw the line between that time and this, and tell us where the one left off and the other began ?

Progress has been slow, perhaps, but in the main it has been constant, and so it must be hereafter. We may not be able to show wherein to-day is better than yesterday, or to lay finger upon a definite advance achieved during the current month or year; but is, as I have suggested rather than shown, there be natural laws in constant operation to produce improvement in the race; if, as I hold, the crowding, which our Malthusian magazinists complain of as overcrowding, be only the necessary condition of a wholesome struggle for existence, in which the fittest is to survive and perpetuate itself, and in which every good quality and every valuable attainment is found to aid its possessor in the struggle for existence, while every vice im. pedes and hampers him; if these be the facts in the case, we know certainly that progress is constantly making, even though we discover it not, and that the race is steadily improving now as it has done hitherto.

That vice and disease and dirt and crime exist among us to an alarming extent, we know perfectly; that no patent device for their cure or suppression exists either in free schools, universal suffrage, or in any other thing whatever, must be admitted; that they are sometimes increased by the pressure of population upon the means of subsistence, I do not doubt; but that their cure lies in removing the pressure, I stoutly deny. While here and there one man or woman is made vicious by want, the great mass of mankind is made more industrious, sober, thrifty, and intelligent, by the crowding which produces ind ual distress, and on the whole, as I say, this good outweighs that ill.

We shall probably never be rid of crime or misery while the world lasts, and we may as well look this probability in the face. The question for us is, how to reduce the misery and the crime to a minimum, and how to secure the constant improvement of men in general. If, as I suppose, the pressure of population upon the means of subsistence is the chief agent for the accomplishment of this, we shall blunder outrageously when we destroy its constant efficiency for good because of its occasional capacity to work ill.

Railroads kill people sometimes ; schools tempt frail youth to over-study; even churches EDITOR'S TABLE. tumble about the heads of worshipers now and then; but shall we condemn railways and do upon occasion, or shall we rather cherish

gard to governments and the limitation them because of the greater good they work,

of their functions, it may interest the reader guarding as well as we may against the pos- to glance for a few moments at some of the sible evil ? This is the logic of all life, and things that achieve great success without the it should restrain us from ignorant and mis- aid of the state. We have several times, in chievous intermeddling, by statutory enact

discussing this subject, referred to the vol. ment or otherwise, with processes of Nature which at best we can only imperfectly under.

untary church system of America, but have stand. Let us, by all means, do what we can

overlooked an equally favorable example in to alleviate suffering, prevent and cure dis- our Sunday-schools. We have no statistics ease, wean away from vice and stamp out at hand of the attendance at these schools, crime; but let us not destroy the agency but everybody knows what an immense social wbich is lifting the great mass of men to a

force they have become. Every church bas bigher level, merely because its operations

a school attached to it, and in every commu. sometimes produce a contrary effect upon single individuals.

nity there is a large body of men and women GEORGE Cary EGGLESTON. zealously laboring through these instrumen

talities for the religious culture of children.

Missionaries go out into the streets and lanes THE WIDOW'S COMFORT.

with the hope of persuading stray waifs into

the folds; and our most eloquent and learned GREEN is the grass upon the hill, clergymen look upon the Sunday-school as

The field-flower blossoms by the way ; While restless inusic of the rill

worthy of their best skill and effort in the And birds perfects the summer-day.

promotion of the end to which their lives are But the yellow cottage

dedicated. A great literature has grown up Over the wall

in connection with Sunday -schools. Many Is brighter than all !

journals are published in their interest, and For the child looks up in his mother's face the books published for the libraries attached And giveth splendor to the place,

to them are legion. No state church in the As he saith, for her widow's comfort:

world even approaches in this particular to “Mother, I've a plan,

tbe free church of America. Assuredly, if That when I'm a man,

voluntary effort can do so much for religious I'll dwell in goodly company,

education, it is entirely equal to the requireAnd you shall be a lady."

ments of scientific education. Paler the green upon the hill,

Much younger in their organization, but The wild-flower faileth by the way;

scarcely less prosperous, or exteusive in their While minor voices of wood and rill

influence, are the Young Men's Christian AsSing dirges for the summer day.

sociations. In these institutions we see bod. But the yellow cottage,

ies of young men drawn together by no other Where the sick boy lies,

design than the furtherance of the cause Is like paradise;

of religion, who have erected all over the For he looketh last in his mother's face,

country spacious structures, formed libraAnd light liveth in all the place,

ries and reading-rooms, organized systems As he saith, for her widow's comfort:

of lectures, extended help and instruction “ Mother, you'll come to me Wherever I be,

to the needy and the ignorant, and set beAnnid the goodly company,

fore all the world examples of Cbristian zeal. And you shall be a lady."

And all that they have done has been accom

plished wholly by voluntary energy and by All brown and barren is the hill,

voluntary sybscriptions. The state has nevThe last leaf fallen by the way ;

er been called upon to aid the great purThe winds have come, baunting and chill,

pose of these young men, and the state has And Winter weaves his threads of gray.

never interposed to mar or obstruct it. Sim. But the village church-yard

ilar faith and zeal in behalf of other great inOver the wall Is sadder than all;

terests—for science, for the arts, for literaFor the townfolk look in the mother's face,

ture-would meet with no less success. As they gather about the burial-place,

The Masons and the Odd-Fellows afford for her widow's comfort:

two other instances of the immense results “God give it that we may be

of well-directed voluntary effort. In these With thy dear boy and thec,

institutions there is not only benevolence of Amid the goodly company,

purpose, but an authority wbich is as strinAnd you shall be our lady!”

gent as that of the state, and as successfully JOHN VANCE CHENEY. enforced. We are not now discussing the

And say,

wisdom or the necessity of secret organiza- | encourages sloth, and chills that enterprising results may prove slight in any obvious way, tions like these ; we are only pointing out spirit which, wherever it exists, is more than literary pleasure and companionship are ends how completely they show the sufficiency of wealth or power. The people that the gov. worthy of consideration and respect. voluntary organization and effort.

ernment lets alone soon learn so well how to It may be said with some truth that the People usually take a great deal of pride accomplish for themselves that they outdo a really studious mind needs no such encour. in national geographical and exploring expe- | hundred-fold the nations that wait upon the agement. The intellectual activities all ditions. England was only recently sent a will and submit to the interference of their around us would, in truth, seem to be enough well-equipped expedition to the arctic seas, rulers.

to stimulate any minds not wholly lethargic; and is maintaining an exploring - party in

those who are alert, whose intellects are en Palestine. Now, however much enterprises

We hear of societies formed in some of

rapport with all the stirring movements of of this character may seem to confer glory our cities designed to encourage among

the day, who follow the discoveries and re. upon a nation, they are really quite beyond young women the practice of studying at

searches of science, who listen to the specuthe province of the state. The idea that

home. It is not to be inferred that young lations of the philosophers, who are moved by goveroment should undertake projects of men are not in as much need of home-study

the strains of the poets, who are charmed by this kind has undoubtedly its origin in as their sisters are, but so far the societies

the achievements of art such assuredly precedents of earlier periods, when despotic organized for this purpose have been founded

would need repression rather than the stimu. rulers sent forth fleets to conquer and deby women for the advantage of women. The

lation of “Societies for the Encouragement of spoil the savage places and weaker kingdoms theory that prompts the movement is, that

Studies at Home.” However, there are many of the earth. To subdue the rest of the girls, after leaving school, are too apt to neg.

kinds of people in the world. If there be world was supposed then to be one of the lect their books, and to lose their interest in

those who are unstirred by the electricities cardinal duties of the state. While expethose intellectual pursuits which education is

of the hour, let them by all means whip up ditions to overrun and subdue remote and mainly designed to promote. It is believed

their sluggish spirits in the way proposed. defenseless places are now out of date, the that with many young women the ordinary

It is probable that some natures can never public feeling is still leavened with the old incentives for the pursuance of study after

do without masters-study must be a duty pride and ambition. It is believed that there the close of her school-days are insufficient;

and a task; and there must wait upon its per. may be explorations and discoveries in the there is needed, it is thought, the stimulation

formance the award or the censure of a supeinterest of trade; the manufacturer and merof companionship, the zest of appreciation

rior, or else the heart loses courage, and the chant thirst for conquest as the knights and and kindly encouragement, the guidance of

will falls away into torpid sleep. warriors did of old. But at the very moment

experienced and mature minds. For these that the English Government is sending forth reasons societies with this purpose in view

We append hereto a letter from Dr. its ships to the North, an admirably-appointhave been founded in London and Boston.

Shelton Mackenzie, the venerable and muched expedition, supported entirely by private Of the operations of a Boston society, that

esteemed literary editor of the Philadelphia subscription, is struggling amid the wilds of has been in existence nearly two years, we

Press, also well known as the editor of the Africa under the command of Mr. Stanley. learn a few particulars from a contemporary,

American edition of “Noctes Ambrosianæ," It will be remembered by our readers that as follows:

and as the delightful repository of innumer. this expedition is organized by the proprie- “Its purpose is the very simple and direct

able reminiscences and anecdotes of by-gone tors of the New York Herald and the London

one of inducing girls to form the habit of de-
voting some part of every day to study of a

celebrities in English literature and art. Let Telegraph. If two newspapers are enabled to

systematic and thorough kind; its mode of us take this occasion to say that Dr. Mackensend to Africa the best equipped expedition operation is through the exercise of an over- zie should by all means give bis memoirs to that ever assailed the mysteries and secrets sight by experienced and educated ladies over

the world; those who have met the “old man of that land of terrors, assuredly scientific

the home-work of younger ladies, and this, of
course, mainly by means of correspondence.

eloquent” know how replete they are with men ought to be able by suitable organiza. For example, if a girl of seventeen or over de- rich memorabilia. The letter is as follows. tions to accomplish all that the state now sires to join the society, she gives her name Its contents will doubtless surprise many undertakes for them. It will be seen, by a to the secretary, pays a small initiation fee to

readers : cover expenses of postage, printing, etc., and reference to our science-department this week,

receives in return a programme of the several “Sir: In APPLETONS JOURNAL of the 2d that the English men of science are great- courses open in history, literature, art, sci- of this month, I find in the London Letly discontented with what government has ence, German, and French ; she selects the

ter' the following short paragraplı: What done for them; with the greed and perversity

department of study which she desires to pur- is said to be a hitherto unpublished sermon sue, and is put in communication with the

by Father Prout has just been printed in a that marks all classes who have taught them- member of the committee who has charge of

Cork paper. How characteristic it is! Havselves to look to the state for subsidies and the department. She is expected to devote ing chosen for his text, “He that giveth to aid, they clamor for more, and have formusome portion of every day or week to careful

the poor lendeth to the Lord," he goes on to reading and study, order and system being show that the real poor are “the clargy," and lated their demands. It would be much bet

substantial elements in the plan, and at least this is how the great humorist winds up.' Then ter for the real advance of science, better for month to report progress to her officer, follows an extract containing the conclusion the interests of the people, if Parliament

who, in return, gives advice, makes sugges- of the sermon. should now promptly reject their proposals, tions, and encourages or stimulates the stu

“I have to say that 'Father Prout's Serdent. Once a year a meeting is held of such mon,' from which that extract was made, did and remand the whole matter to the private as can come together, and a general report is not emanate from the subtile and racy mind enterprise where it belongs.

made, with special essays by students, and di- of the author of the far-famed "Reliques of It should be remembered that voluntary plomas are given."

Father Prout,' originally published in Fraser's effort is wholly inefficient in those countries This is a very simple scheme, and no one

Magazine, and subsequently in two 16mo vol

umes in 1836, but was written by myself forty where the people have been taught to look up can justly object to influences of the charac.

years ago, as an exaggerated but not uncourto government for its paternal aid and guid- ter described being brought to bear upon the teous imitation of the familiar style of the real It is not merely that the state es young women of the country. No publicity Father Prout, P. P., of Watergrassbill, nine

miles north of Cork. It was partly fouríded on badly all things outside of its proper sphere, is sought; literary vanity and display are not

fact,' the main idea and some of the poi ats being but it extinguishes self-reliance in the people, involved in the purpose ; and, although the supplied by my personal recollectior S of a ser





mon which I heard the reverend gentleman | London, and in a warehouse constantly vis- state is empowered to appropriate private preach, when, a school-boy, I lived in his

ited by all sorts of people; her disappear property when the public necessity requires neighborhood. “I published the “Sermon' in one of the

remarked by her family and it, and then only upon due compensation. English periodicals of the time.

In 1850,


she was known to be intimate with The limitation of copyright is the destruc. making a collection of my magazine articles the man Wainright, and to have been an. tion of the property-value of a book after a (in three volumes, entitled 'Mornings at Matlock,' and published by H. Colburn, London), noying him with her jealousy, and importu- certain period, and hence, according to the I included the “Sermon.' In 1854 I agaiu put nities for money. Yet the London police, argument of Mr. Drone, is a violation of a it into one of my books (“ Bits of Blarney,' which is reformed every year or two, and is fundamental principle of law. We have not published by Redfield, New York), and it oc

maintained at a very heavy expense to rate- the space to follow Mr. Drone through all his cupies seven pages (283–290) in the volume in question.

payers, do not seem to have stumbled any. arguments; we can only say that he seems to "The Rev. Francis Mahony, the veritable where near to a clew of the dark deed. The us to have completely established his propoauthor of the 'Prout Papers,' was pleased, fate of Harriet Lane, too, is no more an iso- sitions. more than once, to compliment me on the

lated case than is that of Josie Langmaid. "Sermon' in question. I desire to claim it as my own original composition, and shall com

For years London has been the scene of mur- DISARMAMENT seems to have become a municate this claim to the press of Cork, my ders quite equal to either in atrocity, and, it problem for speculative statesmen and eloown early home. Yours truly,

may be added, in mystery. The tragedies of quently-unpractical peace congresses to exer"R. SHELTON MACKENZIE. “PHILADELPHIA, October 9, 1875."

the New Road and Great Coram Street, and cise the ingenuity of their faculties upon.

of the two young girls who were found in the England just now proclaims to the world The savage and atrocious murder of poor, Regent's Canal within a few months of each that she has produced the most monstrous little Josie Langmaid, in New Hampshire, other, and whose very names could not be gun yet. The Fraser cannon, we are told, has made every one shudder, not alone at the discovered, not to speak of the people taken, bas a weight of eighty-one tons, and has albarbarous cruelty of the crime, but also at at frequent intervals, out of the Thames, ready been tested with a charge of two hun. the apparent immunity with which it was show that the English have even more cause dred and forty pounds. More than this, the committed. It adds one more to a long list than we to complain of the insecurity of life, inventive and destructive Fraser hastens to of unknown murderers, and leaves the public and the inefficiency of the police.

demonstrate that it is perfectly easy to make mind in any thing but a state of security or

guns of double the size and power of this confidence in the existing system of detec- In striking contrast to the tumultuous enormous engine-guns which will “throw a tion. The old maxim that “murder will rhetoric of Mr. Charles Reade's letters on ton of metal at every shot.” Perhaps in the out” is beginning to have too many excep- copyright is the dispassionate, convincing, next war we sball hear of whole towns being tions, it would seem, to prove the rule. The and judicial paper, by Mr. E. S. Drone, on blown to atoms at a single burst of the murders of Mr. Nathan, of the Joyce children, this subject, in the American Law Review for bellowing brass. Of course Germany, and of Kate Leehan, and Bridget Landregan, of October. Mr. Drone's paper is an examina- France, and Russia, will hasten to cultivate Abijah Ellis, and numerous others, come to tion into the origin and nature of literary Mr. Fraser's acquaintance, and to avail them. mind to recall to us how many assassins still property, connected with an inquiry as to selves of his colossal constructive powers. walk abroad free in the light of day, unsus- whether the right in this kind of property is It is a very serious commentary on the pres. pected, or, at least, unconvicted. In our in perpetual. His article covers this ground ent state and temper of Europe that he who dignant hastem however, we are too prone to very thoroughly, and seems to us fairly con- can invent a new implement of war has the overlook the fact that these cases are really clusive in its arguments. It shows histori. best chance of wealth and fame. When, as exceptional, though alarmingly numerous. cally that literary property at one time en- it is said, even civilized and commercial EngTaking all the homicides which occur, only a joyed in England the protection of the com- land is exultingly testing an engine, a single very small proportion of the perpetrators es- mon law of property; and it demonstrates charge of which consists of a bag of powder cape justice altogether. It is perhaps better how, according to the fundamental principles with grains an inch and a half square, the that they should elude the law entirely than of legal equity, it is entitled to this protec- bulk being as large as a good - sized pig, it that, being taken, they should, owing to the tion. The right of property in a manuscript | is much to be feared that the era of peace is devices of counsel, and undue influences is always conceded; but it is claimed, and afar off, which are sometimes found to environ courts has so been decided by the English courts, of justice, be taken only to receive a punish- that a publication of a manuscript destroys In September of every year a grotesque ment conspicuously inadequate to the enor- this right. Mr. Drone contests this closely, scene may be witnessed in the “ Halles Cenmity of their crime. Nor need we indulge in showing that the loss of the right could only trales," or great markets of Paris. A monself-depreciatory vaporings to the effect that occur by abandonment or by contract—that ster pumpkin, decorated with a crown of we are a more lawless and less protected abandonment must be proved by intention, pasteboard and tinsel, and borne upon a community than others. At the moment, in- and that it is evident on the face that the board which serves for a throne, is carried in deed, that we have been thrilled by the Pem- sale of a book is a contract to part with the state through the airy corridors and along broke tragedy, London has been shocked by corporeal and not the incorporeal element of the wide outer pavements.

The market. the accidental discovery of a most foul mur- the work. We recently advanced in the people gather around, and pay obeisance to der which, having been committed a year Journal a similar argument to the latter, the royal vegetable, and afterward King ago, has only just now come to light. The showing that by the very nature of the pur- Pumpkin is mercilessly dissected, sold in foolish fears of the alleged assassin lest an chase a book-buyer could not obtain more slices at auction, and made into succulent examination, for another purpose, of the than that which the purchase-money involved soup which is eaten amid much Gallic merri. house where his victim lay buried, should re- would in equity cover.

The use of the intel- ment and persiflage. Do the Paris market. veal his guilt, caused him to do an act which, lectual contents of the book is sold, and not people merely mean this as a funny festival, at this late day, exposed it. Harriet Lane the right to multiply the same. As to whether are they consciously ironical in this was undoubtedly done to death in September the right in literary property may be destroyed crowning the dullest and thickest - pated of last yea:, in the most crowded district of by the legislature, Mr. Drone shows that the of the vegetable kingdom? A rude epithet


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