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the world, as poetry, any composition that ever dazed and dazzled by the florid encroach. was not in rhyme. Certainly all our earliest ments of metrical prose, and its allies in bor. EDITOR'S TABLE. poems are written in rhyme, and, although rowed plumage, endeavor to strike the line at we may, at rare intervals, meet some effusion our very feet. in metrical prose, such as the “Faustus" of

James McCARROLL.

E find in a recent number of the Marlowe, it does not appear to have ever been

Golden Age the following paragraph: accepted in the light of poetry. Nor do I

“One of the leading editors of this city believe that Shakespeare ever regarded any

AT CHESS.

objected to Mrs. Howland's article, suggesting of his plays in this light. He was not a se

a plan for teaching the rudiments of science vere enough classic for that. Milton, I ven

to the people by courses of systematic inture to think, was the first English writer

struction under the auspices of the governthat claimed all the honors of poetry for bis

A man in his prime and a maiden fair, ment, that it contains a sentiment which is blank verse or metrical prose. Ignoring the

Over whose polished and blue-veiped brow very mischievous and likely to bring the solid Saxon spirit of Chaucer and Spenser,

Rested no shadowy tinge of care.

country to ruin.' The particular sentiment in and avoiding the difficult structural paths Her eyes were fountains of sapphire light;

question is that the government should use its

resources to promote public instruction. Mrs. that they had followed in relation to pure Her lips wore the curves of cheerful thought;

Howland responds as follows: "What better English poetry, he found' it convenient to And into her gestures, and into her smile,

possible use can there be for the people's adopt for his larger works Greek or Latin Grace and beauty their spell had fraught. wealth-the wealth which their labor has cremodels in which there were no restrictions in

ated, for there is no magic under heaven the way of rhyme—that five-barred gate that Above the checkered table they bent,

whereby to create wealth except the magic of has brought many an ambitious Pegasus to a

human labor—what better possible use for this

Watching the pieces, red and white, dead halt. But, after all, Chaucer is the fa.

wealth than that of increasing the education As each moved, on in appointed course, ther of English poetry, and any composition

of the people? Considering the fierce con

Through the mimic battle's steady fight- flict of political parties now raging, the rethat does not display the structural charac

The queen, in her stately, regal power; peated exposures of governmental short-sightteristics which he has left us as abiding en

The king, to her person friendly shield;

edness, folly, and general incompetence, the samples in his works, cannot, from an EngThe mitred bishop, with his support,

present terrible financial and industrial collish point of view, be properly designated

lapse of the country, one may well ask, And

And the massive castle across the field; a poem. And, most assuredly, his authority

what if the government should be ruined ? ought to have infinitely more weight with

Does it follow that a better and more nobly us than that of Milton. For the subject of

The pawn, in his slow and cautious pace, democratic government might not succeed? I, the greatest work of the latter was a poem A step at a time; and the mounted knight, for one, have sufficient faith in the virtue of already made, or was so suggestive and be- Vaulting, as gallant horseman of eld,

this people to rest assured that they will yet

work out their salvation, and all the better if yond the reach of logical criticism as to To the right and left, and left and right.

less "encumbered with help” such as the govsecure from so profound a scholar its own But a single word the silence broke,

ernment affords. That a government can be effective treatment, perforce, as it were; As they cleared aside the ruin and wreck ruined by any policy tending to increase the while “The Canterbury Tales,” very unlike Of the battle's havoc; and that word

scientific culture of the people, is the best “Paradise Lost,” were mainly created out Was the little monosyllable "check!”

possible proof that it ought to be ruined, and of such materials of every-day life as could

the sooner the better. A true government of be subjected to the test of human reason.

the people must be strengthened by every Pawns, and bishops, and castles, and knights, This fact is worthy of consideration, for it is

sentiment and every policy that increases the Trembled together in sad dismay,

general intelligence; just as certainly as that in its light alone that we can truly measure

While a pair of hearts were pulsing beside an oligarchy must be weakened by every ray the merits of both works, or the genius of

To a deeper, wilder, sweeter play.

of knowledge that permeates the masses.'" threir respective authors.

Yet the gaze of each-the man and the maidI shall now complete these brief observa

We may as well acknowledge that the On the board was fastened for turn of fate, tions by quoting a stanza from Longfellow,

editor here referred to is the editor of this which, in my opinion, contains all the eleWhen she archly whispered, with radiant

JOURNAL, who does not, however, object to this ments essential to the perfection of poetry in

glance, every possible relation.

publication of a portion of a private letter, inI do not cite the And a sparkling smile, “ If you please, sir,

asmuch as he is thereby afforded an opportun. extract in any invidious spirit, for I have

mate!" met, from other pens, quite as perfect speci

ity of being a little more explicit in his views mens of rhythm, rhyme, and numbers. But And gently her fluttering triumph-hand, upon the subject referred to. In doing so it so superb is the idea that animates it, and so As white as a flake of purest pearl,

will be necessary to repeat arguments that original, harmonious, and impressive its treat- She laid on the crown of her victor-king, have already been frequently uttered in these ment, that I select it without hesitation. It

While the other toyed with a wanton curl.

columns, but important principles have to be is from the “Psalms of Life: " He lifted the first to his smiling lips,

restated many times before they obtain an “ Art is long and Time is fleeting,

And on it imprinted a trembling kiss; And our hearts, though stout and brave,

intelligent hearing. Still like muffled drums are beating And he murmured softly, “I should not care

We believe that the progress of civilizaFuneral-marches to the grave." For losing the game, could I win but tbis!"

tion has been very nearly commensurate with This is poetry in all its structural perfec

the subor tion of government, and that tion-in all its intrinsic worth-in all its un

What the maiden answered 'twere treason to

tell, surpassed loveliness. Here we find no prosaic

even now, although great results in this direc

tion have been achieved, the most important justification of paltry "allowable rhymes” As her blushes deepened to crimson glow, or stupid “poetic licenses." Here, though Mounting, like lightning-flashes quick,

task before the world is the rigid limitation sombre the subject, the gems of thought Till they burned on cheeks, and ears, and

of the powers and the duties of the state. burn through the pall with a brilliant lustre. brow.

The legitimate function of government is the How unapproachable the simile “like muffled And in three months' time the church-bells preservation of order and the maintenance drums!” It is only from some eminence

rang,

of justice—that is, to secure the safety and such as this that we can catch a glimpse of

And the parson finished the game begun,

protect the rights and liberties of each indi. the true point where the line should be drawn When both wore the conqueror's triumph- | vidual. Just to the extent in the past that it between English poetry and English prose. And as, in relation to the former, there is

has gone beyond these duties it has wrought

And both were happy, for both had won. not one other height to climb, we, of neces

mischief, and to the extent that it now persity, must turn our eyes downward, and, how

SALLIE A. BROOK. sists in going beyond them it threatens still

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further mischief. The history of religion is , and municipalities of the country with bank- We hear a great deal of complacent talk a signal exemplification of this fact. The ruptcy. The disposition to rush into things about the superiority of American oratory. history of trade and commerce is another. at the prompting of ignorant clamor must be Those who utter this sentiment are not usu. In truth, trade and the arts have flourished arrested, or the whole country will soon be in ally thinking of the extravagances of propretty nearly in direct ratio to the extent financial ruin. Even now the present aggre- vincial politicians; they are mentally corthat government has let them alone. If gate of the public debt is startling; it is paring our best speakers in the pulpit, on the the state now and then has interfered to ad- daily increasing; and yet from every quar. platform, in the legislature, at the lecture-desk, vantage, these cases have been exceptional; ter comes a public cry for undertakings that with English speakers in similar places; and as a rule, its interposition in affairs beyond the will still further greatly increase it. And they congratulate themselves that our public maintenance of order, and the protection of then, as we multiply the functions of gov. men are not such hesitating, awkward, stum. the weak against the strong, has been disas- ernment, we increase the opportunities for bling, and lethargic speakers as their cousins trous. Moreover, it has ceaselessly interfered fraud and corruption. Our Legislatures are of England are. Is this congratulation juswhere it should not, and left undone those even now mainly organized to further this tified ? If we avoid some of the defects of things for which alone its existence is desir- or that mendacious project, and out of this English orators, is it quite certain that our able or even endurable. There have been pe- readiness to attempt things beyond their prov- own methods have any thing in them more riods in history when roads swarmed with ince has arisen the most corrupting force in truly worthy of applause? If it may be asrobbers, and neither life nor property was our midst-we mean the lobby. By limit- sumed that there is such a thing as the art safe, and yet the whole energies of king, ing government to its legitimate boundaries of the platform, is this art understood any ministers, Parliament, and all the political we shall reduce corrupt legislation to its better here than abroad? Without attempt. forces, have been given up to a struggle for minimum. And we shall find ere long that ing to answer these questions directly, we the domination of a priesthood.

we must so reduce it or bring upon us the will endeavor to throw a little side-light upon But, notwithstanding the plain lessons of flood.

them by describing a special display of : history, people seem beset with the idea that As to Mrs. Howland's special inquiry, certain kind of popular American oratury it is the province of government to attempt “What better possible use can there be for that we recently witnessed and listened to. every thing and to regulate every thing. Or the people's wealth than that of increasing It was a lecture, so called, but in reality perhaps it would be more correct to say that the education of the people?" we reply, it was an oration. The lecturer-this is the everybody is beset with the idea that it is None! But why put their wealth into the term he applies to himself, and bence we the province and duty of government to car- hands of the politicians for the use sug- must use it, whether correct or not-is one ry out his own special notion, whatever it gested? Is it not certain that the work un. of the best-known men in the country. He may be. No one seems to see that if the der state control will be badly done, and the is known as a reformer; he is supposed to state attempts any one thing beyond its le- wealth greatly wasted? This disposition to be an “advanced thinker;" his name has gitimate duties it must and will attempt oth- call upon government to undertake all sorts been unpleasantly conspicuous in a great and er things, until at last its busy intermeddling of enterprises evidently arises from a vague widely-discussed scandal. He is a tall, well. makes a host of mischiefs. If government, idea that the money spent by government is made, handsome man. His face is intellectual in obedience to a clamor from one quarter, in some occult way created, and is not de. in expression ; his brow is wide and hand. is to establish scientific schools, then it will rived from the people, or is derived in such a some; Hyperion locks cover his bead, and be urged by another class to found art- way as to lay no pressure upon them. By fall upon his neck. He is a very comely pictschools, and by still another class to organize all means let it be remembered that it is the ure to look upon in these particulars, but he music-schools. In undertaking the education wealth of the people which the government does not dress well. In England lecturers, of the people at all, there is sure to be a con- is distributing, and that there are wiser and just as musicians and readers do bere, usutinual pressure upon it to carry out this or more economical means of distribution than ally appear in evening-dress. This might the other favorite project by people who any which the politicians can give us. seem with some people an affectation in a think that government ought to be not only How is it, of all peoples, that Ameri- popular lecturer-nor is it, in fact, necessary paternal, but paternal in the particular direc- cans so disregard their own traditions and --but a tasteful and appropriate attire would tion which they advocate. Some people want their own example in this matter? Have be objected to 'by nobody. The lecturer we colleges and schools supplied by government; we not triumphantly shown what voluntary are describing was very clumsily and awk. others want art-galleries and museums fos. | energies can do? Nowhere in the world is wardly dressed, thereby partially negativing tered by the state; others think that the the Church so well supported, so active in its the advantages of his personal appearance. theatre and the opera should have the aid of mission, so energetic and prosperous, as it is This may be a small matter, but the art of the state; still others ask why literature is by the voluntary system in America ; and yet the platform, like other arts, must condescend not patronized by Congress; more practical the time was when every statesman thought to take note of little things. people insist that canals must be dug, and it indispensable to give the Church the al- But our main concern is with the lectrailways and ships built, by government; liance and support of the state.

urer's manner. The address glittered with there are still others who think that the tele- be certain that the success of the voluntary telling periods and brilliant fallacies uttered graph and the express business should fall method in the Church gives assurance that with clamorous voice, turbulent gestures, hisunder state control; and so on, until, if all it would also be successful for education, trionic attitudes, and manufactured passion. suggestions were carried out, pretty nearly ästhetic culture, and all practical enterprises. The speaker flung his arms about; shook his the whole functions of society would be in The wonderful growth of America has been fists at the ceiling, at the air, at his auditors; the hands of our rulers.

largely due to the fact that here more than threw himself into violent theatrical posi. Very few, indeed, seem to see the dan- elsewhere government gives every man free and fairly stunned his listeners with gers that arise, and the greater ones that play and elbow-room; let it hereafter do explosive vehemence. The virtues of simplicithreaten, from this ill-instructed public sen- so in all things, and our future progress ty, repose, and moderation, were unknown to timent. Out of it has come an aggregate of shall transcend the dreams of the most him. Commonplaces shared with " glitterpublic debt that threatens half the States | hopeful.

ing generalities" in the wild turbulence of

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utterance; and, although the speaker got any feeble claims the Anglo-Saxon race may tion at the outrage on the agent Margary, is much applause—for noise and declamation have to aid in moulding the form of modern probably to secure greater commercial adare always sure of the crowd-the address civilization. Victor Hugo will have it that vantages in the Orient than she now poswas unworthy an intelligent audience. It was there are but two controlling spirits in the

The present Chinese Government is of that style of oratory that has its root in the world, struggling and to struggle with each unfriendly to the English, and, worse still, is clamorous methods of the camp-meeting and other — Germany, the spirit of darkness; friendly to the Russians. The Russians are the political stump; it was wholly barbaric; France, the spirit of light. Then he goes England's commercial rivals in the East, and it was of a character that people of genuine on with a good deal of vaporing about hence jealousy may naturally be another moculture and ästhetic taste could never toler- France belonging not to berself, but to the tive for giving the Chinese a drubbing. ate. If we boast of our oratory simply be- world, and that " a province lacking to cause it is pungent and sensational, we argue France is not a force that fails to progress,

Literary. for ourselves a very low place in the intel- but an organ missing to the human species," lectual scale. It is customary to talk of and that “her mutilation mutilates civilizatheatre-goers as largely composed of people tion.” We are left to infer, on the other MRALVANS. SOUTHWORTH'S“ Four

Thousand Miles of African Travel " * of inferior social place; but our theatre- | hand, and no doubt Victor Hugo would ad

is not such a book as one would expect the goers, as a rule, are accustomed to exact of mit, that a province filched from Germany

secretary of a geographical society to write. performers at least a measure of artistic pro- by France would be a province saved from In the first place, its title, if not actually priety, whereas our lecture - goers seem to political perdition. There is more about misleading, certainly at first glance seems to permit platform-men to indulge in a hundred “the city of Frederick II. insulting the city

promise more than is performed in the subviolations of taste. There is a great deal of Voltaire," as if the city of Voltaire would

sequent pages. One would hardly conjecture,

for instance, that four thousand miles of Af. of exaggerated passion on the stage, but the not have gone wild with exultation had its

rican travel and nine lines of title cover no noisiest actor is never violent in entire dis- soldiers applied the torch to that of Freder

more than a journey up the Nile to Kharregard of the requirements of the language. ick II.! If we mistake not, Victor Hugo has toum, a short excursion up the White Nile, The stump-speech style of oratory, on the more than once berated the Emperor Napo- and a camel-ride from Berber to Suakin, on contrary, is violent in and out of place, and leon for precipitating war in 1870; but would

the Red Sea. Of course such a route is not the pupil of that vicious school here consid- he not do well to consider whether the dis

a “beaten highway" in the same sense as

the Rhine is, but it has been traveled far too ered had not bettered his instructions. If the astrous result of that war was not in large

often and described much too fully for it to dramatic manner is permissible at all at the part due to the inordinate national self-con

afford any thing especially novel or exciting lecture - desk, it should at least be artistic; ceit which Victor Hugo has done perhaps to the observation of a casual tourist. there should be repose, light and shade, and more than any other writer, living or dead, When we discovered the true dimensions passion only at culminating periods. As to to puff to the absurd proportions it has as

of the journey, indeed, recalling the fact that the false and bad method we have described, sumed ? It was the exaggerated idea of the

the author is secretary of a geographical

society, we naturally supposed that he would we should by all means prefer the besitancy prowess and greatness of France which has

use his own experiences as a sort of thread and stammering of English speakers, if these been dinged into the ears of Frenchmen for

on which to hang a summary or redaction of conditions are necessary in order to secure fifty years, by the so-called “ romantic

our knowledge of Central Africa ; but Mr. good sense and good taste.

school, of which Victor Hugo himself is the Southworth was determined to make a book

Nestor, and was almost the founder, carried of adventure or nothing, and, without Mr. Victor Hugo has been lecturing his coun- into the operations of the state, and flatter

Stanley's excuse, shares the latter gentle

man's contempt for“ arm-chair geographers.” trymen again—this time about the prospects ing the self-esteem of the army, that indi.

Perhaps, however, it is as well that Mr. and blessings of peace. He is nothing if rectly led to Sedan and the capture of Paris ; | Southworth did not make it his chief funcnot millennial in bis ideas and aspirations; and Frenchmen will do well to beware of ac- tion to impart useful knowledge, as the little and he will find few to disagree with him that cepting Victor Hugo's estimate of the part with which he does present us is likely to when man has become so perfect that con- taken by France, or any other one country,

cost the reader a good deal of bewilderment quests and royalty have vanished, when the in forming modern civilization - a work in

and careful balancing of one portion of the

book against another. It is quite evident poor man “understands the necessity of which, it is to be hoped, all nations have a

that Mr. Southworth was completely “taken work and the rich its majesty," when“ the more or less conspicuous share.

in," as the phrase goes, on his first arrival gross side of man is ruled by the spiritual,"

in Egypt, by the éclat with which he was reand when a great many other things glow. It looks very much as if England were ceived by government functionaries, and the ingly enunciated by Victor Hugo take place, going to have another war with China on her attentions which were bestowed upon him there will indeed be that peace on earth hands. Some months ago an English trade

as Herald correspondent; and he begins by

lauding the khédive to the skies, representwhich his spirit craves. What is likely to agent was murdered at Yunnan, a remote

ing him as the savior of Africa, and as the sadden those who venerate the great author inland province of the Celestial Empire.

greatest genius among modern rulers. Furfor his past works, is the appearance, in an Reparation was promised, but has not been

ther on in the book we find this ardor conaggravated, indeed almost maniacal form, of given. Moreover, the Chinese viceroy has siderably cooled, and, incidentally, encounter his old vain and preposterous idea of the kept the English minister waiting in an ante- some facts which reveal the khédive in bis indispensable importance of France as the

Twice within fifty years England has

true character-as an energetic, rich, and only possible leader of modern civilization. given China a piece of her mind out of the

liberal-handed despot. Toward the close Mr.

Southworth recovers himself completely, and “There are two efforts,” he says, “working throats of her cannon. The last time she

the air of condescension and consciousness in civilization, the one for, the other against : had France to help her. Times and things the effort of France and the effort of Ger- have changed much in the last fifteen years.

* Four Thousand Miles of African Travel: A many. The choice of the future is made be. The Chinese soldiers are much better armed

Personal Record of a Journey up the Nile and

through the Soudan to the Confines of Central Altween these two worlds, the one gloomy, the and disciplined than they were then; and rica; embracing a Discussion on the Sources of

the Nile, and an Examination of the Slave-Trade. other radiant-the one false, the other true." | England, if she fights, will have to fight alone.

By Alvan S. Southworth. New York: Baker, This is rather a cool way of waving aside Her real object, concealed beneath indigna- | Pratt & Co.

room.

of superior wisdom with which he interviews the khédive, and “measures the powers” of Nubar Pasha and other high officials, is the amusing feature of a book which is deficient in humor,

But the author's habit of self-contradiction is displayed most strikingly in his record of what he supposes to be facts. On page 163, et seq., in treating of “the popular fallacies concerning the Soudan," he denies that it is unhealthy, declares that he saw as many old men there, in proportion to the population, as he had seen in New York, Paris, or London ; traces most of the suffering from the climate, on the part of Europeans, to intemperance in eating and drinking; says that Khartoum is “unhealthy only during two months;" and sums up with the affirmation that the Soudan “is as healthy a country as there is in the tropics.” After this, it is certainly surprising to encounter on page 226 the following entry in the author's journal :

" July 15th.-Adieu Soudan! Adieu to your flames that men call winds, to your burning coals that men call sands! Adieu to your malarial zephyrs, your poisoned streamlets, your corrupted pools, your polluted flowers ! Adieu to all your complex infamies ; to your extortion, your extravagance, your commerce in slaves, your poisoned cup, your strangler's wrist, and your cruel bastinado! Adieu to the sudden chill, the wasting fever, the enfeebled stomach, and adieu to vaporizing vitality! Adiou to all those unbridled forces which prostrate, diminish, and kill! How few, like myself, have been able to make this last adieu ; have been able to stand by the shores of a wholesome sea and thank God that I, too, am not a victim !' Noone pillowed upon silk and down can appreciate my joy in thus escaping with life. . . . Ninety per cent. of all Europeans perish from the climate-the majority from sudden deaths during the first month in the country! This is worse than war, plague, or famine."

A precisely similar difficulty is encountered when we find it estimated on page 179 that “there remain in Central Africa one hundred thousand elephants, more or less," and on page 191 that there are thirty million in the gion around Fachoda alone! And the guesses about population are equally wild-Mr. Southworth assigning thirty million inhabitants to a region for which Dr. Schweinfurth, an exceptionally cautious and trustworthy observer, estimates but seven million.

tion of his countrymen to the changed con- war-doubtless the best thing of the kind
ditions of the warlike art, to urge upon them ever written, and scarcely less interesting to
the necessity of preparing in time for the Americans than to Frenchmen.
national defense, and, at the same time, to A closing word should be said in praise of
indicate the means by which this defense Mr. Bucknall's translation, which is excellent.
may best be secured. If this be his object,
however, why, when he is already recognized AFTER searching bis vocabulary for an ad.
as an authority in this branch of applied equately descriptive term to apply to Mr. E.
science, go back almost to prehistoric times S. Nadal's “ Impressions of London Social
for a subject ? and why deal with a hypothet- Life” (New York: Scribner, Armstrong &
ical fortress when an actual one would ap- Co.), the critic will probably find bimself
parently have subserved the purpose so much compelled to resort to the one which first
better? Under ordinary circumstances, we occurred to him, namely, “amusing." The
should conclude that we had to deal with a book is emphatically, and in the best sense,
familiar type of literary manufacture ; but amusing. It makes small demand upon the
M. Viollet-le-Duc is quite above the vulgar thinking faculty; it scarcely even preteuds
arts of the mere book-maker, and such a sug- to instruct, and, singular to say, it propounds
gestion, therefore, affords us no help. no physico-psychological theory concerning

Ceasing, then, to guess at bis motives, we the influence of “race," climate, roast-beef,
have to thank the author for a very instruc- and an aristocracy, upon the character of the
tive and very interesting, if somewhat puz- modern Englishman. The function which
zling and heterogeneous book. Beginning Mr. Nadal sets himself to fulfill is simply to
with the primeval inhabitants of a valley, describe things 'as they actually appear; and
whose supposed situation is on the Cousin, an the several essays composing his volume are
affluent of the Saône, he describes their pa- just the sort of rambling monologue with
triarchal life and their first encounter with wbich a cultivated gentleman and traveled
invading strangers (Gauls), who dispossessed man of the world regales a congenial circle
them and occupied their land ; coming then of listeners-personal gossip and personal
to a period two centuries later, he shows how experiences, running off occasionally into a
the growing insecurity of the people gave generalization, and mildly flavored with epi-
birth to a soldier-class, who built and garri. gram.
soned an oppidum (most primitive style of Description, then, being the forte of the
fortress) on a commanding promontory, which book, substantially the only test that can be
forms the locale of the entire narrative. Thirty applied to it is its fidelity, and this test it
years afterward occurs the first siege, in which seems to bear remarkably well. As secre-
men with bows and arrows, swords, and clubs, tary of legation Mr. Nadal had the most fa-
confront stockades and earthworks, defended vorable opportunities of becoming acquaint-
by men similarly armed. Two centuries and ed with London society (than which, he says,
a half intervene between the first siege and “the descendants of Adam, the world over,
the second, which latter is conducted by one could show nothing better ") and other phases
of Cæsar's lieutenants, and is typical of the of English social life; and the entire frans.
Roman conquest of the Gauls. Converted ness and impartiality of his observations are
into a fortified city on the Roman plan, the evident upon the very face of his writing.
fortress passed in the course of time into the Besides this, the London critical journals,
hands of the Burgundians, who, about the which seem to have gotten hold of the book
year 500 A. D., sustained the third siege before our own, concede that, while the au.
against Clovis, king of the Franks. The thor has made minor mistakes both in fact
twelfth century finds the fortress transformed and inference, the work, as a whole, is tem-
into a feudal castle, the lord of which revolts perate, accurate, and fair. In fact, Mr. Nadal
against the Duke of Burgundy, and is sub-

to have accomplished the unprecejected to the fourth siege; in this siege dented feat of writing a book comparing the Greek fire was first used in Western war, social customs and personal traits of EnglishThe fifth siege occurs in the fifteenth century, men and Americans, which satisfies the latter and is notable as marking the advent of fire and at the same time avoids giving offense (gunpowder) artillery. A century later, the to the rainpant amour propre of John Bull. fortress, again become a fortified city, be- Whether this is attributable to Mr. Nadal's longing to France, undergoes the sixth siege superior tact and discrimination, or to a de at the hands of the imperialists (Germans). crease of that truculent self-consciousness The seventh and last siege occurs in 1813, as

which has hitherto characterized the two napart of the operations of the allies under tions, we shall not attempt to decide; but Prince Schwartze against Napoleon ; | the fact is both significant and encouraging, and the book closes with a final chapter dis- for it indicates a dawning perception of the cussing the style of fortification best adapted truth that differences are not necessarily itseto prevent such an invasion as that of the riorities. Germans in 1870.

Most of the papers in the volume have The different styles of fortification are de already appeared in one or other of the magscribed minutely and with the precision of a azines, and it is only fair to say that readers military treatise, and the description of the who are familiar with these will hardly find battles and sieges are as vivid as any thing the book otherwise desirable. A suspicion of of the kind in Alison. Numerous charts, padding attaches to the shorter papers, which plans, and pictures-some of them colored appear to have been put in to fill space, and and exquisitely engraved-illustrate the text; which seem to be preliminary studies of arti. and the book, as a whole, is a sort of pano- cles rather than articles in a finished state. rama of the successive phases of the art of To such readers, however, as are still unae.

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It is difficult to define M. Viollet-le-Duc's "Annals of a Fortress." * Ostensibly a chronicle of the successive transformations and sieges which a supposititious fortress has undergone from the earliest historic times to the Franco-German War, it is at once a his. tory of military architecture, a history of the art of war, a history, in outline, of the French people, and a political pamphlet. To bis unrivaled talent as an architect, M. Viol. Jet-le-Duc adds the highest qualifications of the military engineer; and, judging from its closing chapters, we should say that the present work was intended to arouse the atten

* Annals of a Fortress. By E. Viollet-le-Duc. Translated by Benjamin Bucknall. Boston: J. R. Osgood & Co.

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quainted with the dozen or so of essays wbich good time was coming for literary men.

en. The is at his fingers' ends, we judged, when, in give character to the volume, we can promise

earnest and athletic clergyman, the stalwart pointing out to us the peculiarities of the as many agreeable half-hours.

though dissolute Guardsman, the rollicking picture, he showed us certain spots in the

naval officer, seem to be yielding their place face where the herring-bone thread of the It is rarely that we find a manual of the

in public estimation to the brilliant essayist, kind which so completely fulfills the promise the smart play-writer, or the slashing reviewer.

canvas was concealed by heavy coatings of Miss Braddon las succumbed to his fascina- paint-coatings wbich were usually so thin of its plan as Mr. John Phin's “Practical tions, and now Mrs. Ross-Church is attempt

and delicate as to allow the shape of the Hints on the Selection and Use of the Micro. 1 ing, not without success, to interest us in his

threads of canvas beneath them to be perscope" (New York: Industrial Publication

fortunes." ... There exists, in St. Mark's fectly observable. This portrait is the exact Company). It is scarcely larger than an or. Library at Venice, a manuscript in the hand- size of the original, and, in addition to his dinary tract, but the author manages to con- writing of John Locke, consisting of notes on own memory, Mr. Page relies upon a photodense into that brief space a very lucid anal

medical subjects, which is the more curious if, graph for its form and drawing. A brothers ysis of the structure of the microscope, a as has been said, Locke was averse from al

artist procured for him, at Florence, canvas full and fair description of the different kinds lowing it to be known that he once intended

of the same texture as that which Titian used, to practise medicine. ... The Saturday Reof instruments, with special reference to view gets into a comical state of bewilderment

that no means might be wanting to complete their qualities, detailed directions for their

over the word “ waffles" in Mr. Nadal's “Im- the likeness, for everybody will remember use and protection, and valuable hints on pressions of London Social Life."

the different look which pictures acquire if the collection, preparation, preservation, and pause,” it says, " to ask what are waffles ? they be painted on coarse or fine canvas, on mounting of objects intended for examina- Are they akin to terrapins, or eaten with wooden panels or on copper-a look which tion. All this information is presented in cream, or fried in bread-crumbs?" ... It is

no tricks of paint can perfectly imitate. such simple and practical shape that the

said that the forthcoming posthumous writings If Titian's portraits usually question us, merest tyro in the use of scientific instruof Hans Christian Andersen will contain say

his picture of himself has this power in a ments can apply it; and at the same time eral unpublished verses sent to him by Mrs.

most eminent degree. A great many people there are many suggestions which experi Browning, Leigh Hunt, Wordsworth, and oth

will remember it, with its intellectual head ers. The number of private letters from the enced microscopists would doubtless find leading literary men of England which Hans

and eyes, its fur mantle about the shoulders, useful. The author is evidently an expert in Andersen received during the last fifteen years

which increase the size and presence of the both the theory and practice of microscopy, of his life is said to be extraordinary, and artist beyond his usual dimensions, the gold and he has taken the trouble to gather just the most interesting of these will also be pub- chains worn across his breast, and in the botsuch facts concerning the character of the lished. . . . Reviewing“ The Life and Growth tom of the portrait the likeness of one hand, various styles of instruments as will save the of Language," the Academy says: “Professor with which he pushes aside bis palette, while begiyner in the science from making a fatal Whitney is the leading representative of what

his head, turned slightly in the other direcmistake at the start. may be termed the common-sense school of

tion, says to the spectator, “My work is fin. philology, which has fitly found its advocate

ished"-a statement with which we fully agree among our Anglo-Saxon brethren of America. The same publishers issue another and The same objections of superficiality and nar

as we examine the marvelous drawing, the similar tract on “ The Pistol, and how to

rowness which the followers of Kant and Hegel splendid color, and the perfect balance of the use it." Its author follows Mr. Beecher's have raised against Reid or Stewart, or the

form and composition of the painting. Mr. example in preaching the gospel of self-de- later representatives of utilitarianism in this Page has made a very impressive thing of fense, and his directions for the selection of a country, will doubtless be brought forward his beginning of this copy, and, standing in weapon and for acquiring skill in its use seem against Professor Whitney's philological sys- his studio, as it does, surrounded by like. to be all that the average citizen will require tem; but none at least will be able to deny its

nesses of other people of other times, this in order to protect his person and property simplicity, its clearness, and its commenda

picture, though it be but a copy, looks so from the spoiler.

bility to common-sense." A set of the
Chinese version of the Buddhist Scriptures grand, so dignified, and so intellectual, that

we are convinced that even a copy from such has just been presented to the English IndiaA GENTLEMAN of Troy has written a new Office. The work weighs three tons and a

a hand as Mr. Page's is a great work of art, drama, bused upon the story of General Ar- quarter.

and may be of real and vital value. Copies nold's treason. The Tribune, mentioning this

are, in our opinion, usually worse than nothfact, makes the following suggestive comment

ing. They are generally manufactured by upon it: “Mr. Sala recently suggested this

men of little artistic perceptions, and, as topic as a good one for an American drama.

Hawthorne says in his note-book, speaking It seems to be forgotten that several dramas,

of the crowds of copyists who obstruct the all uncommonly commonplace, have been produced, with General Washington for the good

says that, “wbile we question the por- peculiar grace or power that gives reputation hero and Benedict Arnold for the bad one.

traits of other artists, Titian's portraits ques. to the originals. But copies have a very difEvery attempt to put Washington upon the stage bas resulted in ridiculous failure; partly

tion us." This remark, the result of keen ferent value when they are renderings by fine because he is too near our times, but mainly

observation, is a very just one, for there are artists of the thought, the intention, and the because he had nothing dramatic in his char

no pictures in the world in which the force mechanical appliances of other men, with He was too cold and stately for the and personal character of the originals are whose works they have saturated their minds stage-too virtuous to inspire terror, and too felt so positively as in the quiet, self-con- and feelings. Since it is so very difficult to grand for pity. All attempts to convert him tained faces of Titian's men and women. get originals by the great masters, it would into an Achilles, a Hector, or even a Corio

With their eyes of paint they seem to fathom be the next best thing to it, after museums lanus, must result in dramatic disaster. As

and penetrate deeper into us than they allow and galleries have been supplied with photofor Arnold, he was a mere Connecticut shop

their own consciousness to reveal itself to keeper turned soldier-a sensual, selfish, and

graphs and carbons, to commission a few of our curious gaze. showy person, on neither side great. The

the best artists, either American or foreign, tragedy must of pecessity culminate in the

A short time since, in a visit to the studio each to produce for us the favorite works of hanging of André; but there is nothing hero- of William Page, we saw, on his easel, a his favorite old master. Then at least the ic either in the deeds of a spy or in his hemp- | drawing in black-and-white, the preparation copies would be works of art, and Titian inen expiation. In spite of Mr. Sala's opinion, for a copy of the head from Titian's famous terpreted by Page, Francia by La Farge, or we defy any body to write much more than a portrait of himself, which Mr. Page is repeat- Da Vinci by Allston, bad it been possible, noisy melodrama upon the West Point events.

ing from one of his own copies made from would have formed a most delightful collecThe capture of André and the distress of Mr.

the original at Florence. Two of these copies tion of pictures around which our imaginaArnold are not enough to carry a great play."

are owned in America, one by Mr. Hunting | tions could rally. The Athenæum observes that "if novelists

ton, the artist, and the other by Mr. Shaw, are guided by popular taste in the selection of of Staten Island. Mr. Page has one of these WHETHER it be through the influence of a career for their heroes, it would seem as if a for reference as to color, though the original the art-schools and museums at South Ken

The Arts.

on ,

acter.

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