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a masculine form of chemise ; bliaud, becom- through which was seen not only the cotte, has a large sleeve.” These openings in the ing bliaude in the feminine, gave origin to the but the richness of the girdle, which now sleeves to allow the chemise to protrude were modern blouse. was worn upon the under-garment.
something new. But the style had come by The chainse was most often of white linen: The élégantes of the time profited by these degrees. The object of the slashes was at “Blanc comme chainse” was a proverbial openings to show the chemise by means of first to show that the sleeves of the pour. saying. The bliaud was made of woolen or other cuts in the cotte. And (who would be point, which were entirely covered by the robe
silken stuff, and came down as far as the lieve it?) there were those who continued the or jacquet, were actually of the same mate· feet. During the tenth and eleventh centu- slashes even upon the chemise, so that the rial as the body. It was but another step to
ries it was cut so as to form several great whiteness of the skin beneath might be per- follow the same course and by other open. folds at the sides, but was tight in front and ceived
ings to show the sleeves of the chemise. This over the loins. It had large, open sleeves,
Une autre laisse, tout de gré,
honor paid to the chemise came from the which showed the arm covered with the artis
Sa char apparoir au costé."
perfection to which linen fabrics bad arrived tically-folded sleeves of the chainse.
This sufficiently explains why the preachers in the fifteenth century. Holland produced The part played by this latter garment in called the slashes of the dress "windows of linens of wonderful fineness and whiteness. the history of French costume is an interest- bell."
The additional merit of costliness assured ing one to follow. The Imperial Treasury There was, afterward, a sort of cotte their success as an article of luxury. The at Vienna possesses a bliaud and a chainse without girdle and open at the top (sorqua- linen, at first exhibited upon the arms, was whose date is fixed, by an inscription in the nie), to show the bust. This was what the shown afterward upon the body, the shoulembroidery, as of the end of the twelfth cen- women of Languedoc wore laced in front, ders, and even the thighs, by the always tury. The chainse is of fine linen. A square through the lacings of which were shown increasing number of slashes. neck-piece of silk, richly embroidered, adorns the folds of a chemise, gathered, frilled, and In the France of Louis XI., novelties were the upper part, with a button for the flap of embroidered in silk and gold. In the last very slowly introduced in the dress of the the opening. A wide border of violet silk, years of the thirteenth century a law was women, which continued to fit closely to the embroidered, at the bottom and at the wrists, passed forbidding laced cottes, as well as em- body and arms. Only to the low cut which further ornaments it, while two bands of blue broidered chemises. Brides only, by toler- had been introduced in front was added an. silk, also embroidered, cross the sleeves in ance, were allowed the latter on the wedding- other at the back. The neck or shoulder the middle.
day and for a year after, not a day longer. piece of gauze, which went all around the The men continued to wear the braies, and Jacques de Vitry, the greatest preacher part thus opened, took the name of gorgias, on horseback they wore a chainse open at the of his day, who afterward became cardinal, which name soon became used in other meansides half-way up, and, the Bliaud being had previously set down in the list of dia- ings very common up to the seventeenth cendrawn up, it looked like two streamers of bolic trades the manufacture of chemises too tury. A gorgias, or a gorgiase, was a man or white linen flapping about the legs of the finely ornamented. The moralists had al- woman who dressed in a provoking and pompborseman. The effect was not bad, but it ways waged the war against scandalous fash. ous manner. The English "gorgeous" and was dangerous in case of losing the stirrups. ions upon the wearers. This one attacked “gorgeousness” came from this word. For war the inconvenience of these flying the makers. He menaced with eternal dam. At the death of Louis XI. we may regard skirts was manifest, and many cavaliers re- nation those who ministered to the frivolity. tbe middle ages as ended, and its costumes fused to follow the style. The costume for It was not until the middle of the four- as well. The freedom of the body from the the two sexes remained long, but in the mid- teenth century that the influence of Spanish restrictions of the garments became the rule. dle of the fourteenth century there was modes brought about a change in French cos. Another modern symptom was the effort to change in the number and in the cut of the tume. Except with the clerks and the clergy, unite economy with splendor. Hitherto the garments. Moreover, it departed from the who retained the “long robe,” short garments very linings of the garments were, apparentessential principle, which, up to that time, replaced the long tunics. The outer garment, ly as a matter of conscience, of the most was that it should be of two pieces only. reaching to the knees, was called the jacquet, costly material. Queen Anne, of Brittany, People had become more delicate, and expe- the under-garment the pourpoint or gipon, the had her cottes lined with linen, with a border rienced the need of covering the body more. one opening at the front, the other at the of silk, more or less wide at the bottom of The chainse was transformed into the chemise, side. The chemise, shortened like the rest, the skirt and wrists. From the economies in the sense we understand it, a fundamental became universal. The opposition to such a to the tricks of the toilet is but a step, and garment of linen, which every person of con- radical change was violent, as may be imag- these last have been faithfully recorded by dition wore next the skin.
ined. The chronicler of St.-Denis looks upon the satirists of the fifteenth century. The The under - robe was ordinarily of wool the defeat at Crécy as a punishment for the
"... paltry cis-Atlantic lies, and called the cotte (coat). Different names wicked pride displayed by his countrymen :
That round his breast the shabby rustic ties," designated the outer robe, the most usual “ And for this, no wonder that God wished to which Dr. Holmes so vigorously stigmatizes, term being surcot. The latter had short chastise the excess of the French by his excited poetic wrath four hundred years besleeves for the women, showing those of the scourge, the King of England.” Another fore his day. The gallants with slender purses cotte, which was otherwise covered. As for chronicler is of a different opinion. Instead of the time of Charles VIII. showed through the chemise, it was entirely covered, as at of seeing in the disaster of Crécy the conse
se. the opening of the pourpoint a fine handkerpresent. The later artifices to display this quence of the change of style, he pretends chief instead of the costly shirt. But, on garment will be shown in their place, but that this change was only a preparation for the other hand, as Coquillart says, the latter one remark in this connection may be made, the disaster, “ The nobles," he says, “put was often “as large as a meal-bag". which applies to all the linen of the toilet. themselves in light trim in order the better * Mais la chemise elle est souvent In modern times we esteem it white only to run from the enemy."
Grosse comme un sac de monlin." when it is heightened by a bluish tinge. At the close of the next century the The language became rich in terms applied to When it is in the least yellow it is insuffera- wretched state of the country, and the exam- those who sought notoriety by exaggerations ble, and is at once sent to the wash-tub. In ple of Louis XI., put a great check upon the in dress. The bragards, from which we get the thirteenth century, on the contrary, it was extravagance in dress. In prosperous Bur. braggart," though the etymologists the yellow tinge that was sought after, and gundy, however, the opposite state of things don't mention it, were those who turned their the use of saffron for all linen was in vogue. prevailed.
attention to the garment called braies, and It was even esteemed a mark of beauty in the Speaking of the shortness of the dress displayed a fold of the chemise between it complexion, and a poet complains of the of the men, which exposed the lower limbs, and the pourpoint. “ Saffrens et estranges colours
the chronicler of Arras, Jacques Duclercq, In the sixteenth century, in spite of the Qu'elles metent en lor visages."
continues : “And with this they have the edict against the use of gold and silver in Very soon the surcots were worn without sleeves of their robes and of their pourpoints the apparel, we find Blaise de Montlue's a girdle, and means were taken to show the cut open in such a manner that their arms description of a chemise ornamented with body of the cotte by openings in the sides, show through a thin chemise, which chemise crimson silk and embroidered with gold
the The ruffles and frills of the earlier years
This ornamentation could he seen only at derneath it a camisole and an under-chemise the collar and wrists, as the chemise was were worn.
EDITOR'S TABLE. entirely covered by the pourpoint. The col- Toward the end of the seventeenth cen. lar was turned down, and was adorned not tury rich
T is possible , only with embroidery of gold, but also with pearls. This lasted till the end of the reign dress of the grandes-dames, and lace poignets of Henry II., when a return was made to the the sleeves of the chemise, although they
very generally been misunderstood all these frilled collar, which had already been tried in stopped very much above the wrists.
years. It is at least by no means certain 1540.
In the first quarter of the last century the that the usual interpretation is the idea inA hundred years later the dimensions of veste, which had earlier replaced the pour. tended to be conveyed. Perhaps, instead of the pourpoint were greatly diminished, and point, was opened above and half-way down,
an admonition to fear the thoroughness of the slashes fewer in number. There were so displaying the chemise and the cravate. This many fashions in regard to it that the tailors
the man of one study or one specialty, the
last, wbich owed its origin to the Croats could scarcely respond to the demands upon who served in the armies of the king, was
saying meant to imply that the man of one their ingenuity. of linen or muslin, with very long and volu
book is to be avoided as a tremendous bore, Under Louis XIII. there were either two minous ends banging down in front. It is as a fellow wholly one-sided, with narrow or four cuts up and down the pourpoint, the prolongation of the cravate which gave and disproportionate ideas of things. But, through which the snowy folds of the chemise the idea of the jabot, as the term is now used.
wbatever may have been the original purport escaped : A black ribbon kuotted over the throat, or a
of the maxim, it is entirely certain that the ** Reofloit en beaux bouillons neigeux, collar of muslin fastened bebind, having re. Comme petits flots escumeux."
placed the pendent cravate, a frill of lace saying will bear the definition we have sugRichelieu, on account of their foreign manu- was placed upon the chemise, which kept up gested. From some points of view it looks facture, bad introduced an edict forbidding the appearance of the folds of the cravate as if it were altogether the wisest constructhe use of laces which ornamented the col. that had hitberto protruded from the open- tion to be put upon it. If catholicity of lar and sleeves of the chemise. But the pas- ing of the veste.
taste and largeness of judgment are imporsion for them was so strong that Tallemant With both sexes the exposure of the che.
tant intellectual conditions, then we must des Réaux relates the story of a certain Par- mise upon the body and on the arms reached
look upon the man of a single study as one daillan who, when about to reach the house its greatest height at the latter part of the in which he meant to pay a visit, closed the preceding century. The closing years of the incompetent to fulfill his duties toward suci. curtains of his coach in order to put on his eighteenth century witnessed, in the costume ety in an adequate and satisfactory manner. laces. His visit finished, he removed them in of the incroyables of the Directory, a reduc- And yet, as we all know, there are very dethe same manner. In the early years of tion of this exposure to an extent just suffi
cided reasons why there should be men Louis XIV, and after the death of Richelieu, cient to show the place where a golden breast-closely devoted to special studies. The arts the rage for laces took on a new fervor. The pin, with a jeweled head, was fastened.
and sciences are too difficult for a man to do very minuteness of the probibitions of the new edicts was taken advantage of in evad- of the Empire and the Restoration have
more than completely master one or two of ing them. Thus, laces being specifically for- ceased to be worn by the Frenchmen of the them in the short period of life that is bidden at the neck and wrists of the chemise, present day, while with the women the gar- given him; and hence it is obvious that the ingenuity of fashion succeeded in apply. ment is no longer a visible part of the cos- there must be men of “one book," if the ing them at another portion in a manner tume, although it is not regarded, as by some
race is to achieve perfect knowledge and which is thus set forth in the “Lois de la of their English and American sisters, as
mastery of its surroundings. This necessity Galanterie Françoise" of 1644 : “You must one not to be mentioned in polite society. know that what they call a jabot is the fall
has impressed many persons so deeply that of the chemise over the stomach, which must
we hear on all sides utterances as to the ur. always be shown with its ornaments of lace,
gency of thoroughness in a few things rather for it is only your old dotard that goes but
than a superficial knowledge of many things. toned all the way down.”
OOD-BY, then!” And he turned away, It is declared that the vice of the age is the Now, the “jabot" is properly the crop of
No other word between them spoken;
habit of balf learning things, and that in a bird, and whoever has noticed the appear- You hardly could have guessed that day ance it presents in a young bird before it is How close a bond was broken.
America, especially, the thing most incum. covered by the feathers, will see how the
bent upon educators at the present moment word came to be applied to the fold of the The faint, slight tremor of the hand
is, to insist upon a few things well learned. chemise which escaped from the pourpoint.
That clasped her own in that brief parting,
If there is any mistake in this attitude it Later on, the pourpoint was shortened,
Only her heart could understand,
is in assuming that a principle which is for. and the waist lowered to allow a great puff
cibly applicable to all professional persons is of the chemise to encircle the body. The Who felt a sudden surge of doubt,
also applicable to all laymen. It is indeed effect at first was ridiculous, because it seemed
Come rushing back unbidden o'er her, at every step as if the essential garment be. As with the words her life without
true that every lawyer, every physician, every low was about to drop off, and when worn in His presence loomed before her.
engineer, every chemist, every naturalist, the street it was greeted with childish shouts
every artisan, should each bend his energies of warning. But, as there is nothing to which The others saw, the others heard
to the mastering of his chosen pursuit. Half fashion does not reconcile us, the style was
A calm, cool man, a gracious woman; soon carried to the extremest lengths. Later A quiet, brief farewell, unstirred
knowledge in one's profession is wholly inex
By aught at all uncommon. on in the same reign, the pourpoints, which
Half knowledge in any thing in had already lost one-balf of their bodies, had
which full knowledge is requisite, by one's She knew a solemn die was cast, two-thirds of their sleeves cut away. Noth
She knew that two paths now must sever;
position or one's profession, is not to be ing was more appropriate than the name of That one familiar step had passed
tolerated. But outside of one's special purbrassières, which Molière applied to them. Out of her life forever.
suit, why should one pot seek to obtain a From the shortening thus effected, the che
sort of general conception of other arts, scimise gained on the arms as well as upon the To
ences, and professions ? As it is simply im. body what the outer garment had lost. But it may easily be supposed that, with so much She read the bitter mute intent,
possible ordinarily for one to have more than
She knew-a heart was broken! exposure as this, the chemise alone could
a slight knowledge of a majority of the sci. aot protect the body against the cold. Un.
BARTON GREY. ences, there is assuredly no reason why be
ue o A trivial parting, lightly spoken ;
know accurately all the minute phases of
may not get at least this surface knowledge. should be on guard so as not to mistake su. marches, with sounding tread, from sea to sea. Our happiness, our ability to enjoy the soci- perficial for exhaustive knowledge ; but he
See iron labor pierce the bowels of the mounety of our fellowmer, largely depends upon
tain, and span the lake's broad bosom. It whose mental survey commands an extended
creeps, it marches, it climbs, it soars, it never our capacity to know something of many and varied prospect, even if he does not halts; the savages arm, and saddle their wild things. A man should know enough of
steeds; they charge, they fire, they assassidrawing and the laws of color to enjoy the blended view, is better fitted for intellect- Aying arrows; then civilization takes its rifle
nate, they wheel about, with flaming eyes and works of art; enough of the principles of ual and ästhetic enjoyment than he who has
in one hand, and its pick in the other, and the music to appreciate the compositions of the shut up all his faculties and all his sympa. labors of war and peace go on together, and great masters; enough of astronomy to com- thies in one narrow road.
still the mighty iron road creeps, climbs, and prehend the general laws of the solar system ;
marcbes, from hemisphere to hemisphere and
sea to sea. enough of ethnology to be entertained by the
In Mr. Charles Reade's concluding letter
" These are the world-wide feats that touch history of races; enough of natural history to the Tribune on international copyright | they go for less than small old things done in
mankind, and ought to thrill mankind. Yet to awaken a zest in the habits and strange
there is the following in regard to the abun- boles and corners. Carent quia rate sacro. For facts of animal life; enough, in brief, of dance of material for the purposes of Ameri.
there where the soil is so fertile, art is sterile. all of the arts and sciences to enable him
Few are the pens that glow with sacred fire ; can authors: to feel an intelligent interest in all that they
few great narrators, and not one great dramabave accomplished. What service, we may
" What is the position in the world of the tist. Read the Ainerican papers-you rerel
American writer? Does he keep pace with in a world of new truths, new fancies, and gloask, would specialists render the world if the American patentee? Why, it is a com- rious crude romance, awaiting but the hand of every man were solely absorbed in one study, plete contrast: one is up, the other is down; art; you roll in gold-dust. Read their dramas so wrapped up in his own purposes as to be
one leads old nations, the other foilows them; or narratives. How French! How British! cold and indifferent to every thing done by
one is a sun diffusing his own light over his How faint beside the swelling themes life
own hemisphere and ours, the other a pale teems with in this nation that is thinking, others? There must be a class on the alert moon lighted by Europe. Yet the American working, speaking, and living, and doing eveto know something of many things, in order mechanical inventor has only the forces and ry thing-except writing-at a rate of march that the labors of specialists may be of any
materials our mechanical inventor can com- without a present rival or a past parallel be
mand; whereas the American writer has neath the sun !" avail. Imagine a party of a dozen one-ideaed | larger, more varied, and richer materials than men at dinner-without a single ground of ours. Even in fiction, what new materials has This is all very eloquent, and will strike, common sympathy upon which all could the English artist compared with that gold
po doubt, many winds as conclusive. But mine of nature, incident, passion, and characmeet! Great as might be the achievements ter-life in the vast American Republic ? Here
the fact is, that rich and varied as the ma. of each in such a group of savants, one would you may run on one rail from the highest civ- terial of American life may seem, there is prefer the society of the most confirmed ilization to the lowest, and inspect the inter- something about it that does not readily smatterers in the world. Smattering is innovening phases, and write the scale of man.
translate into art. In all its manifestations You niay gather in a month, amid the noblest cent enough just so long as it does not prescenes of Nature, the history of the human
that are distinctively its own, it is raw and tend to be any thing more-just so long as mind, and note its progress. Here are red crude, without atmosphere, so to speak, and it is the result of a mental activity which
man, black man, and white man.
without tone; and this is the main reason map is all of a color, and nearly all of a piece ; is not content in being wholly in the dark there contrasts more piquant than we ever see,
why American literature has been so lagging. as to matters going on in the world. Let us spring thick as weeds; larger and more natu
We doubt if the absence of international copy. say here that our knowledge of a thing should ral topics ring through the land, discussed right has had much to do with it; this mayo be sound as far as it goes. A man may ac
with broader and freer eloquence; in the very
possibly have repressed it a little, inasmuch quire very little, yet that little ought to be break the bounds of convention, and nature
as English books in cheap reprints bave in a and may be accurate, it may be discriminat- and genuine character speak out in places measure taken possession of the reading pubing and just, and it should be in its degree where with us etiquette has subdued them to
lic. But we know of no distinctly forcible a whisper. Land of fiery passions and huthe truth. mors infinite, you offer such a garden of fruits
American book that has failed to get a bear. Of course we do not object to, indeed, would as Molière never sunned himself in, nor Shake- | ing, and no really strong writer that is withurge, the utmost thoroughness practicable. speare either! And what food for poetry and out recognition. But that successful authors The question we raise is, whether men and romance were the feats of antiquity compared
are few, is because it requires more skill and with the exploits of this people? Fifty thouwomen are to be exhaustively cultivated in a
sand Greeks besieged a Phrygian city fighting genius here to model national material into few things, or partially cultivated in the for a rotten leaf,the person of an adulteress, art-forms than it does in old countries. This whole range of studies. Should we know without her mind. This ten years' waste of
makes the chances of success in literature time is a fit subject for satire; only genius has every minute fact in a few sciences to the perverted it into an epic—what cannot genius
here less, while on the other hand the proexclusion of the large, general facts of all do? But what was this, in itself, and what fessions offer to ambitious minds with us the sciences ? Is it not well to know the were the puny wars of Pompey and Cæsar
many more brilliant opportunities than they outlines of some arts rather than not to know compared with a civil war, where not a few
do in other countries. In brief, the social thousand soldiers met on either side to set one any thing about them at all? Every well
Pompey up, one Cæsar down; but armies like elements here are not very amenable to art, developed character should be many-sided, those of Xerxes encountered again and again, while the intellectual forces nearly all tend to hospitable to all forms of thought, and alert fighting, not for the possession of a wanton,
law, banking, medicine, and trade. nor the pride of a general, but for the integrito all aspects of taste and study, even if it
We have, moreover, one serious national necessarily must touch some of the things the little old things seem great, and the great defect. The genius of America is not drait comes in contact with only superficially. new things sound small. Carent quia vate
matic. It is very active, as Mr. Reade 80 It is only, as we have already said, your fool
" The other day man's greatest feat of labor
eloquently describes, in a hundred things; it that, in imagining his half glimpse whole was the Chinese Wall. It is distanced. An is inventive, it is inquisitive, it is scientific, knowledge, renders catholicity of study in iron road binds hemispheres together. See it it is even within certain bounds artistic; but the eyes of certain people something to be carried over hill and dale, through civilized
its lack of dramatic passion and perception and uncivilized countries; see the buffaloes deplored. We cannot get rid of the fools; glare and snort, and the wild tribes gallop to
chills all high production in the domain of it is necessary, indeed, that we ourselves and fro in rage and terror as civilization the imagination. It can write no dramas;
it is only partially successful in the novel; the town. So there is to be a new opera- the Spectator assures us, is as large, as strong, and while our artistic genius is very charm- house, “ national” in design, in a cheerful as energetic, mentally and bodily, as ever it ing in landscape, it is utterly weak in his- | quarter, built for comfort, convenience, and It may be added that cases of ruined toric or dramatic composition. We have bearing, with ample provisions for emptying health from the use of tobacco are more rare had grand orators, excellent historians, the house in the quickest possible time in than deaths by many articles of food which charming essayists, noble idyllic poets, but the event of fire, and supplied with all the Dr. Drysdale would never think of tabooing, our novelists as a class have been inferior, latest devices of luxury and elegant adorn. and are mainly confined to cases of its use and our dramatists uiterly puerile. We may ment. The first brick has just been laid on in excess. But the doctor's fulmination is yet, however, hope for strong things. It the Thames Embankment by Mademoiselle against tobacco smoked; tobacco chewed is does not follow, because the difficulties are Tietjens, and ere long the “ Franco-Italian ” an unknown abomination in his country, and great, that we shall not be able in time to edifice will rise, with tower, colonnade, and hence the direful effect of this use of the overcome them. There are, indeed, indica- balcony, adding one more to the group of weed is not expounded by the worthy savant. tions that our writers are rising to the level of noble piles which decorate either side of the Nor are the social nuisances connected with their tasks. Bret Harte has shown how art Thames at Westminster. The plan is less the use of tobacco-which we have so often may manage the wild incidents of frontier | ostentatious and more commodious than that touched upon-taken into consideration; and life; and hence it may be believed that the of the Grand Opéra at Paris ; for the Eng. | after all it may be questioned whether the turbulent conditions of other forms of our lish, while ambitious to emulate other na- infliction of tobacco - smoke and tobaccosharply-contrasted civilization may yet come tions in artistic elegance, are determined as saliva upon innocent persons is not as great under the control of dexterous hands; and in well to be comfortable and safe. The new an evil as the sanitary effects upon those the land where the soil is so fertile, art, in opera - house will be finished, it is said, in who indulge; for in tbe one case a man is a the form to which Mr. Reade refers, may yet time for the operatic season of 1876; if so, voluntary sufferer by his own excesses, in the cease to be sterile.
it will be a feat of architecture, indeed. When other he is the helpless victim of other peo
it is done and in full use, it will be a satis- ple's intolerable selfishness. The Englislı are a music-loving people, faction to the visitor to London to go to the though England has never yet produced a opera, through wide and well-lighted streets, Our London letter of last week came to composer of the first rank. Michael William
and not, as at present, by orooked ways and hand so late that it was hurried into print Balfe has, among British subjects, attained lanes, which are nests of thieves and haunts after a hasty reading, and hence one state. the highest eminence; and he was an Irish- of wretched poverty.
ment therein escaped our notice until it was man, nor was his greatest work—“Il Talis
too late to amend it. This was, that Mr. mano "_fully recognized as a work of gen- Many and wise have been the “counter- Charles Reade had “rushed into print in orius till after his death. England lost a good blasts against tobacco " since the day of der to defend Colonel Baker, of indecent-ascomposer, though not a great one, in William royal and pedantic James; and just now there sault infamy.” Our correspondent was in erVincent Wallace; and gives promise of de- seems to be a sort of anti-tobacco revival in Mr. Reade wrote a letter to the London veloping another of a higher order of talent, England. A correspondent lately tried Telegraph, not to defend Colonel Baker's conin Arthur Sullivan. But England has given wean smokers from their “ blessed weed” by duct, but to prove by numerous citations from to the world no Beethoven, like Germany; no describing, with harrowing minuteness, the police records that the sentence of Colonel BaGounod or Auber, like France; no Rossini, unpleasant method of manufacturing cigars ker-in regard to the supposed leniency of like Italy. Yet, of all cities, London is the in France; and now comes one erudite Dr. which there is a wide-spread feeling in Eng. most hospitable to the lyric art. The most Drysdale, with an array of figures and a land-instead of being lenient, as compared distinguished artists there receive the high- whole arsenal of dreadful medical terms, to with other sentences of a similar nature, was est remuneration, and are rewarded by the prove that, unless tobacco is abandoned, the really unusually severe; and Mr. Reade, inmost generous and substantial constancy. people will become dwarfs and idiots, com- stead of defending the culprit, thinks “it Hitherto, the London opera - goer, however, merce will dwindle and the coal-fields be ex- most proper a gentleman Chould be more sehas been forced to put up with many discom- hausted, armies will cease to march and the verely punished for so heinous an offense.” forts. There may be some compensation to factories subside into a dreary and bopeless In justice to Mr. Reade, we think it incum. the English mind for the dinginess, the bad silence. The doctor almost sympathizes bent upon us to make this explanation. acoustics, the uncomfortable seats, the diffi- with that African tribe in whose criminal code culty of access of Covent Garden and Drury the use of tobacco is only a degree less hei.
Literary. Lane, in their venerable associations. Even nous tban murder. He complains that tothe prosaic American finds gratification in bacco is a relic of barbarism, the gift of THE task to wbich Professor Cocker has the thought that he is sitting in the house savages to civilization; he forgets that cofwhere Kean stormed and Kemble strutted, fee, and spices, and green corn, and a hun.
Conception of the World" * is no less than which echoed the peerless voice of Malibran, dred other things, are presents to us from
to vindicate Christianity and the Christian
conception of the origin, method, and gov. and on whose boards tripped the lightsome the same humble source. What he does not
ernment of the universe against all assailEllsler. Yet the Londoners have gradually prove is that the use of tobacco palpably and
ants, whether the attack be based on metaawoke to the fact that their two great bis-seriously diminishes length of life, stature, physical or a priori grounds, or on the “pretoric theatres are wofully dismal and barn- / physical or mental vigor. It may be that an visions” of physical science. To the perlike; that their seats are cramped and angu- / analysis of tobacco-smoke betrays the pres
formance of this task he brings carefullylar; that they too often fail to render up to ence of a number of acids with long Latin
trained logical powers, wide general culture, the listener's ear tire sound sent forth from Dames, “ethylamine,” “ pyridine, “viridine," thorough familiarity with Biblical exegesis
and the copious literature of metaphysics, the actor's throat; that the modes of ingress and other elements no less terrible than mysand egress are curiously inconvenient; and terious to the ordinary smoker; but nearly * The Theistic Conception of the World. An
Essay in Opposition to Certain Tendencies of Modthat the neighborhood in which they stand three centuries of smoking in England has
ern Thought. By B. F. Cocker, D. D., LL. D. New is one of the murkiest and dreariest slums in í not perceptibly deteriorated the race which, York: Harper & Brothers.
considerable acquaintance with the methods cal Americans of the period, to bind whom observer and a good relator; be carries his and data of the leading sciences, a vigorous in the fetters of romance would require rather reader into the spirit of his experiences, and and lucid style, and great fervor of convic- more ingenuity on the part of the author paints the scenes that he witnesses in colors tion. He evidently believes that the issue than was displayed by Theodore Hook in bis that transfer them effectively to the imagina. between himself and the “advanced think- derivation of pickled cucumbers from the tion of his listeners. The general outline ” of the period involves the very founda- prophet Jeremiah.
of his travels is as follows: Starting from tion of all religion ; and he addresses him- Aside from this fundamental error, the the Himalayan Sanitarium Mussoorie (Masyself to its discussion with every species of story is well constructed and fairly readable ri), he proceeded via Umballa to Simla, and argument, and all the force of eloquence that throughout. Miss Johnson conceives her thence struck off northeast, across the Himahe can command.
characters clearly, and possesses considerable | layas, toward Chinese Thibet, which it was As a specimen of skillful dialectics Pro- power of delineation. Anstice is, perhaps, his first intention to explore. After passing fessor Cocker's book is admirable, but it is too pale-hued a heroine to catch the reader's through many hardships, he reached the open to criticism in several minor points. It | fancy, but Andrew Keith and his daughter town of Shipki, a Thibetan frontier-city of was incumbent upon him to deal with science Maggie are thoroughly good portraitures, as considerable importance. *Here he was met as it really is, and not merely with his par. are also the three Buckley Calderwoods, and by determined opposition from the natives, ticular version of science; yet we doubt very the star-gazing clergyman and his wife. We whom nothing could induce to allow him to much whether scientific men would, with any never expect the hero of a woman's novel to proceed into Thibet, or even to remain in degree of unanimity, accept his dicta con. be more than a highly-respectable aggrega. Shipki itself. He was obliged to turn abcerning the “ tendencies” and “conclusions" tion of epithets, and Eugene Dillon acts his ruptly westward toward Cashmere, and set of science, for it would be easy to establish part in the present story about as well as forth on a novel route for that famous valley. almost any conclusions if we followed Pro- most other characters of his type. The ser- He skirted the northern slopes of the Hima. fessor Cocker's plan of stating a proposi- vant, Ann, would be a very good portrait but layas, at an elevation of nearly ten thousand tion, citing in support of it those who it is for a touch of grotesquerie at the close. Irish- feet, often traversing remote valleys and gid. well known advocate such opinions, and ig- women don't go mad nowadays over the dy passes never before trod by the foot of noring the fact that others equally eminent death of a mistress, and, if they did, their a European. All around him was an ever. hold radically opposite opinions. Another madness would hardly take the form of dec-changing scene, which for grandeur could be similar feature of the professor's argument orating a grave with flowers.
excelled by no other on the face of the globe. is the facility with which be will quote an au- Miss Johnson's style is so good that Now the reader descends with the adventu. thor in support of some proposition which would really be worth all the trouble it would rous traveler into a dark gorge overhung by he wishes to strengthen, and ignore him cost her to eliminate a few pet mannerisms precipices, with a foaming torrent for its bed, when he comes to a cognate proposition into which she has fallen-for instance, the dimly seen through shadows and a film of which he wishes to refute. For example, Mr. perpetual linking of her “scenery” to the rising spray. We are then taken along the J. S. Mill is quoted with great satisfaction in particular mood of some one of her charac- crisp snow more than sixteen thousand feet support of the argument that the uniformity ters, or to some critical circumstance of her above sea-level, and given a glimpse of a disof Nature is an induction from experience story. We might, indeed, renew our quarrel tant giant of the Himalayas towering some and not a primary intuition, but it is nowhere with the word “ knightly;" but Miss John. ten thousand feet higher still above us. We intimated that Mr. Mill held that the other son, like other Southern writers, evidently pass through Lahaul and solitary Zanskar, so-called “primary intuitions," for which uses it as a local euphemism for a man who till the broad waters of the Jhelam appear Professor Cocker is more zealous, are “in. keeps his face and hands clean, who lifts his before us, and we enter the charming vale of ductions from experience" also.
hat to a lady, who resists all temptation to Cashmere. Thence Mr. Wilson continues his "The Theistic Conception of the World" | lie, cheat, or steal, and who indulges in fine journey into British territory, and, passing is an able book, well worth the attention of sentiments toward the gentler sex.
through Abottabad and Peshawur, visits the thoughtful readers; but its chief value lies,
Khyber Pass and a small part of Afghan ter. perhaps, in the indication which it affords of The papers which for some months past ritory. the extent to which Christian metaphysics have been appearing in Blackwood's Magazine The American publishers have evidently are being influenced by the progress of scien- under the title of “The Abode of Snow" rechaptered the book, and in doing so over. tific discovery.
have been gathered into a volume, and re. looked some of the references in the preface,
printed in this country by G. P. Putnam's where we are referred to chapter twenty-nine “ THE CALDERWOOD SECRET," by Miss Vir. Sons. During the course of the publication for an explanation of how the phrase "abode ginia W. Johnson (New York: Harper & of the series in Blackwood we several times of snow" is a literal translation of the SadBrothers), is another illustration of the in. gave our readers a proof of their quality by skrit compound “ Himalaya ;” and to chapter congruity which results from the attempt to extracts published in our department of thirty-five for another matter, whereas the construct a romance out of the crude mate. “ Miscellany." “The Abode of Snow American edition contains but ten chapters, rials of our every-day American life. Some- title derived from the literal meaning of
all told! how an old family, with a long pedigree be- Himalaya (hima, snow, and alaya, abode)-is ginning with a mysterious emigré, a venera- the result of “observations on a tour from The concluding paragraph of the Acadeny's ble family mansion slowly crumbling into Chinese Thibet to the Indian Caucasus, excellent notice of General Sherman's "Meruin, an ancestral curse operating through through the upper valleys of the Himalaya," moirs" (written by Colonel Chesney) is as
follows: '“ There were those among us, at the two or three generations, and a century-old a ground of which the world bas hitherto will disemboweled from the interior of a known very little, and which Mr. Andrew
time of the great Civil War, who hoped that
it would end in the independence of the South, Chinese idol, refuse to harmonize with the Wilson, the present traveler, describes with
not so much from sympathy for that side, as clatter of machinery, the broad daylight of a good deal of spirit and graphic power. Mr.
from the belief that, in the spectacle of two common schools, and the fever of speculation Wilson is the son of the Rev. Dr. Wilson, of rival nations in the West facing each other on Wall Street. Had the scene of Miss Bombay, one of the oldest and most respect- across several thousand miles of border, there Johnson's story been laid in Virginia, it ed missionaries of India, and had made lit- would be found a guarantee for the continued might perhaps have been acquiesced in ; but, erary reputation previous to this work by a independence, if not the political supremacy, when the locale alternates between a thriving history of the suppression of the Chinese
of England. Those who are still in that way manufacturing village on the banks of the Tai - ping rebellion. His trip through the
of thinking must surely, we may hope, be few. Delaware and St. George's Square, New York, upper valleys of the Himalaya was under
Whatever may have been the merits of the the obstacles encountered are too much for taken partly for his health's sake, partly for
quarrel, in the first place, the final issue of the
war has been a blessing to the world. When the imagination. The sense of incongruity pleasure, and partly, no doubt, in order to
we look at the state of Europe, and see bow is deepened, moreover, by the characters to make a contribution to the world's knowl.
one great war becomes merely the forerunner whom is intrusted the working out of the edge of an unfamiliar region. Mr. Wilson of another, to be still more momentous and plot. These are, or are intended to be, typi- ) is an admirable traveler. He is a good | destructive; how we seem to be getting farther