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tenegro, Bulgaria, and Bosnia, in Europe, other side. It shows that juries are fallible; / by Judge Caton; but his personal observaand in Syria and other provinces in Asia. and happily, where a jury palpably errs,

the

tions and experiences are fresh, and reveal There are two Christians to one Mussulman law and the judge are there to set it right,

much of the inner life of a people whoin we

like better the more we know of them. The in European Turkey; is it supposable that with power to annul its decree if it manifest

popular idea among " the most favored nathese will long endure the odious yoke? | ly effects a miscarriage of justice.

tions” is that these Scandinavians are little Meanwhile the sultan spends one-eleventh of

better than barbarians, whose virtues, if they the entire revenue of his dominions on his Even to the city man, who never smells a have any, partake of the rough and sturdy household. As has been sharply said, he “ex- ripe apple-orchard or dances at a corn-husk- qualities of vikings, whom unkindly circumpends less money in making roads than in ing, there is something welcomely refreshing

stance has converted into fishermen; and this maintaining an opera.” Sultanas and court- in the accounts of the merry-makings which

idea continues to prevail, notwithstanding the

uniform testimony of travelers that they are the pageants, gorgeous apparel and extravagant attend the garvering of the barvest. Just

most amiable people in Europe. From the befeasts, are wasting the revenues which might now the agricultural fairs are in full career. ginning to the end of his book, Judge Caton possibly-though it is now probably too late Orators from the town are gracefully sound- is constantly recurring to this feature of the -redeem the existence of the Osmanli Em. ing the praises of peace and the ploughshare ; national character, especially to the courtesy pire for another century. Corruption is uni- the peddler is in clover; the monster pump

and politeness which mark every class from versal; the beys and pashas are so many

the peasant to the noble. He says: kins and prize cheeses turn aside the bucolic leeches sapping the life-blood of the once- thought from politics and floods; and bap.

“I bave traveled much and have carefully

observed many peoples, and, beyond all comfair provinces of the Danube and the Ægean. pily there is little reason, in any part of the

parison, the Norwegians are the politest people It is the anticipation which foresees the break | land, to do other than rejoice at the boun- I have met. There is a heart, a soul about ing up of Turkey that constitutes the pith teous yield of the earth, guided by the skill

their politeness, without rigid formality or af

fected frigidity, which I have nowhere else and danger of the “ Eastern Question ”-the and patient labor of men. On both sides of

If politeness in French society is more eager question, to whom the spoils shall fall; the ocean the long-waited and worked-for elaborate, it is more formal, and on its face the fear of one great power lest its rival harvest is being gathered. Rural England is tells you it is false and mere affectation, while should get the largest morsel; and the prep- given up to the merry old customs and hos

in Norway they make you feel that every thing

they have is quite at your service, and that aration to struggle over the shattered re- pitalities of the harvest-home, while down in

they are ready to go to any trouble to oblige mains lying on three continents.

Kent and Sussex the bop- pickers are en- you, without saying the least word to that

camped in festooned fields of the slumber. effect. If they promise nothing and profess The stupidity that may characterize a

nothing, they perform every thing." tempting herb. Grapes are being danced upon jury is illustrated by a ludicrous scene which in tbousands of French and German troughs

It is due to Judge Caton to say that his recently took place in an English court. A by urchins and maidens with wooden shoes;

own overflowing good-humor and amiability lady, baving been injured in a railway-ac. while in Italy the fancy pictures a yet richer

would secure a certain reciprocity anywhere,

but he gives examples enough to prove con. cident, was taken to an hotel, where she was garnering of grapes, of olives, figs, and

clusively that among the Norwegians polite. laid up for several weeks. When the bill

pomegranates. The summering season is ness is truly a national trait. Here is an ilwas presented to her she refused to pay it,

over; but, if we only knew it, there are lustrative incident which occurred during his and referred the landlord to the railway com

country pleasures at harvesting - time better stay in Trondhjem (pronounced Tronyem): pany for settlement. Thereupon the land

worth enjoying than the vacation pastimes “After dinner, I took a stroll through the lord brought an action against his guest to

town. of the fashionable.

It was a time when laborers, merThe question whether she was lia

chants, and bankers, were either walking for

recreation or passing to their homes, so that ble for the claim was submitted to her

many were on the streets, which before seemed peers " in the persons of twelve substantial

Literary.

quite deserted. Whoever I met, whatever his and rural jurymen. After solemn conclave

social rank, the hat was removed and brought

down to a level with the breast, and I was sathey returned to court with the verdict that JCDGE CATON'S “A Summer in Nor- luted with a bow, which I returned as best I the railway company was liable. The judge way »* is evidently just what he de

could, but the hod-carrier could do this with informed them rather sharply that it was the

clares it to be in his preface—a record of so much more grace and ease than I could

travel noted down from memory and intended command, that I was really ashamed of my liability of the defendant, and not of the

for private circulation only; but, though it awkwardness, although I never before felt the railway company, that was in question. An.

partakes of the usual deficiencies of such | deficiency. Constant practice from childhood, other solemn delay resulted in a verdict for work, we are not disposed to quarrel with the with careful training by the mother, must sethe defendant for one hundred pounds! The friends whose advice induced him to put his

cure to all a high degree of proficiency in this

act of courtesy, so universal here among all judge, waxing impatient, told them that the manuscript into print. Norway lies outside

classes. I had walked hut a little way defendant did not and could not claim any

the usual routes of travel, and any fairly in-
telligent man spending six months in the

when a young gentleman addressed me in thing, and sent them out again. A third ver

English, and inquired if I were an American, country, and using his eyes with reasonable dict was to the effect that the railway com

and volunteered to give me any information diligence, could hardly fail to observe much

about the place which I might desire. He was pany was responsible for every thing except that would prove interesting to the general a clerk in the bank of the British vice-consul, the luxury items. Once more they had to public.

The

perpetual day,” the “mid- and was now taking his evening walk for march off, to come back at last with a ver- night sun," the endless twilight, and other

exercise. He spoke English very well, was dict of a few pounds in the landlord's favor. similar phenomana of the far North, are not

evidently well educated and intelligent. We There is a flavor of such persistent stupidity so novel, perhaps, as the author seems to sup

walked together for perhaps an hour, while he pose—they have been described many times, During all this walk the same salutations were

furnished me a great fund of information, in the anecdote that it will be no wonder if

and more vividly and picturesquely than the advocates of the abolition of juries seize

exchanged with all we met. I asked him to

show me where I could get some matches, and upon it as an apt illustration. But it should * A Summer in Norway ; with Notes on the

he took me to a tobacco-shop. The man beIndustries, Habits, Customs, and Peculiarities of be remembered that the very fact that such the People; the History and Institutions of the

hind the counter was uncovered, while his glaring blunders are rare, and that this case Country; its Climate, Topography, and Produc

bair was carefully dressed. The moment we tions. has occasioned remark by reason of its unu

Also an Account of the Red Deer, Rein- entered the door my conductor removed his

deer, and Elk. By John Dean Caton, LL. D. Chi- bat, and remained uncovered till we left the sual character, is really an argument on the cago: Jansen, McClurg & Co.

shop. Of course, I did the same and this I

recover.

found to be the universal custom throughout tion to their height, which is several inches These quotations give a fair idea of the Norway. It is considered very rude for any below the Norwegians among whom they literary quality of the book. It is easy to one-except he be an Englishman--to wear

live. They have in general broad faces, see that it is not the work of a ready writer, his hat in any store or shop, precisely as in

short chins, and high cheek-bones, dark com- or of one who labored much after effect; but the parlor of a mansion."

plexions, brown hair, and some light and is, in truth, just such a record of a summer's This universal courtesy, however, never some dark (but never black) eyes. They journey as a good-natured and well-informed degenerates into mere formality, for no peo- look more like smoked white men than men gentleman might write down for the amuseple are more entirely easy and unaffected in naturally tawny, and he is inclined to think ment and instruction of his friends and the their social intercourse than the Norwegians. that they owe their dark complexions to public. They are, moreover, intelligent and usually smoke and mountain-soil. Some of the men well educated. Substantially every one above have a wonderfully pleasing and winning ex- Professor ANDERSON claims for his work on ten years of age can read and write, and pression of countenance, but the women are the “Norse Mythology"* that it is “the first among the wealthier classes several of the generally extremely plain, and not over-par- complete and systematic presentation of the modern languages are nearly always spoken. ticular in the matter of dirt:

Norse mythology in the English language;" This, indeed, is to a certain extent a matter

“ The Lapps have no tribal organizations,

and it is this and more too. It is a treatise os necessity, for no young man can hope to and affect no independent form of govern

on the science of education, and a singularly obtain official position or any desirable busiment, like our Indians. The patriarchal in

powerful plea for giving the preference to the ness occupation without being at least toler- fluence is pronounced among them. While Scandinavian languages as against Greek and ably proficient in English, French, and Ger- individuals do not acquire titles to the land Latin in the curriculum of American colleges. man, as well as Norsk. In addition to all they occupy, in general they confine their

The greater part of the introduction, which this, the hotels and modes of conveyance are

range within certain limits more or less broad, fills considerably more than a third of the better than one might reasonably expect, and

and their preferred right to their camping- 1 volume, is occupied with his argument (prethe charges are ridiculously cheap. The be.

grounds is respected, while they are not jeal- sented under many different aspects) on this

ous of those who wander into the territories nighted condition of the people in this rethus occupied.

point; and, indeed, the entire book may be spect could hardly be more forcibly demon

6. There are distinctions of rank among

said in a certain sense to be designed to give strated than by the fact that as yet they have them, arising largely from considerations of emphasis to this thesis. For Roman mythol. not learned to practise extortion even upon wealth. Their wealth consists almost exclu- ogy, as for Roman literature, Professor AnAmericans; and a stranger can actually pro- sively of reindeer, which are bought and sold, derson expresses profound contempt. Of cure lodgings, a boat, a carriole, or a car- inherited and given as marriage - portions. Roman mythology he says that, “properly riage, on about the same terms as a native. Some of the most wealthy have many thou-speaking, there is no such thing;” and he Still more surprising but true is it that in sand reindeer, and have hired servants to tend

declares it to be “an historical fact that any of the rare cases of misunderstanding on

them. But their aristocracy is of the primi- nearly the whole of Roman literature, espethese matters, the spectators are more likely

tive kind, and does not depart from the sim-
ple habits and modes of life of their ancestors.

cially that part of it which may be called than not to take the stranger's part, and, at The rich man lives in the same smoky and belles-lettres

, is scarcely any thing but immi. worst, are genuinely anxious to defeat any filthy hut as the poor, only it is larger, be

tation. It did not, like the Greek and old attempt at palpable fraud.

cause it must be so to accommodate his larger Norse, spring from the popular mind, by Mr. Caton's itinerary was from Hull by family; for his servants or herders are strictly which it was cherished through centuries; steamer direct across the North Sea to Trondh- members of his family, and live on an ap- but at least a large portion of it was produced jem, the ancient capital of Norway; thence parent equality with himself. The great ket- for pay and for ornament, mostly in the time by coasting-steamer to Bodo and Tromsö, tle is hung over the fire in the middle of the

of the tyrant Augustus, to tickle his ear and above the Arctic Circle; thence, also by

hut and filled with the flesh of the reindeer, gild those chains that were artfully forged to

and when it is boiled all go up and help themsteamer, to Hammerfest, the most north

fetter the peoples of Southern Europe." He ern town in the world, lying within excurselves alike, with fingers or sticks, or with

concedes that Greek should be studied, " for forks and spoons made of the bones or antlers sion - distance of the North Cape; thence of the deer, or their sheath-knives, which al

that is no imitation. It is indigenous. It is southward to Bosekop, at the head of Alten ways hang at the hip of young and old. All a crystal-clear stream flowing unadulterated Fjord ; thence back to Trondhjem ; thence sleep together in the hut, on the pallets of

from the Castalian fountain of Parnassos." by railway to Stören, in the interior; thence deer-skins, wherever they can find room. After all, however, we free-born Goths, the by carriage over the Dovre Fjeld to Lille. " The most wealthy as well as the poorest descendants of Odin and Thor, ought to be. hammer ; thence by steamer to Eidsvold;

dress in the deer-skin trousers and coat, which gin our education and receive our first imand thence by rail to Christiania. It will

comes nearly to the knees, and are girded by pressions from our own ancestors,” and the

a broad belt about the waist. These skins are be seen by this that Mr. Caton did not di.

true medium for this is the study of the Scantanned and made into garments in each houseverge at any point from the beaten high- bold. All that I saw were tanned with the

dinavian languages, and especially of Iceland. ways of travel (if highways can be dehair on, and were made up with the hair on

ic, “which is the only living key to the hisscribed as “beaten " which are so little trav- the inside. ... Their shoes are a kind of moc

tory of the middle ages, and to the Old Norse eled); but he made the trip in a leisurely casin, made from the skin taken from the legs

literature. It is the only language now in manner, stopping long at all important places, of the deer where the hair is short and firm, and use in an almost unchanged form, through a and acquainting himself thoroughly with the much more durable than from other parts of knowledge of which we can read the litera. history and antiquities of the people, as well

the deer. They are constructed with the hair ture of the middle ages. We must by no as with their present habits and customs. outward. They come up around the ankles,

means forget that we have Teutonic antiqui. have a seam under the hollow of the foot, forOn all these points his book is instructive as

ties to which we stand in an entirely differ. ward of which the bairs have a backward set, well as entertaining, and to any one propos

ent and far closer relation than we do to and behind which the hairs have a forward ing to make the tour of Norway we can com

Greece and Rome. And the Norsemen have set, which prevents slipping. They differ mend it as likely to prove a serviceable guide from the Indian moccasin in having a regular

an old literature, which the scholar must of in more ways than one. The author seems to sole, which, however, is but one thickness of necessity be familiar with in order to comfeel an especial interest in questions of natu- the skin. . . . The Lapps wear them con

prehend the history of the middle ages. ral history, and his remarks on the red deer, siderably larger than the feet, so that they When we have thus done justice to our own reindeer, elk, etc., and their correlation with can wrap the feet in a good coating of dried Teutonic race, we may turn our attention to American members of the family, are not grass, which is placed in most of them. Near

the ancient peoples around the Mediterranean without scientific value. His anxiety to see ly all the Lapps wear caps of a uniform style,

Sea, the most important of which, in literary the reindeer in their natural baunts brought mostly made of cloth, so far as I saw, but

some of skins. They consist of a heavy broad him into contact with that peculiar people,

* Norse Mythology; the Religion of our Foreband around the forehead, surmounted with

fathers. Containing all the Myths of the Eddas, the Lapps, who inhabit Northern Finmark. a large, square crown, with sharp points or

systematized and interpreted. With an Introduc. He describes them as a race of small, hardy angles, to some of whick small tassels were tion, Vocabulary, and Index. By R. B. Anderson, men and women, stocky or stout in propor. attached."

A. M. Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co.

he says :

and historical respects, are the Hebrews, more interest should attach to the views of MR. WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT is said to Greeks, and Romans."

an editor as to the details of his work, than have completed his introduction to the “HisFor Greek mythology Professor Ander- to those of a lawyer as to the discipline and

tory of the United States” which Messrs. son entertains a hearty admiration, but his practice of law, or of a butcher as to the

Scribner, Armstrong, & Co. are to publish, and

the first volume of the work is nearly tinenthusiasm is reserved for the Norse mythol- slaughtering, preserving, and serving of meat.

ished. The work is to be richly illustrated, ogy, which he regards as the grandest sys. Journalism is no cult. There are no esoteric

and will be sold by subscription. ... Edtem of cosmogony and theogony of which we mysteries connected either with its objects, mund Yates is said to have already made a suchave record. Perhaps the finest of sereral its processes, or its methods. It has a sphere

cess of his new London paper, The World. very fine chapters in the book is the one in peculiar to itself, of course, but so has bank- The Pall Mall Gazette is informed that which he draws an elaborate comparison being; and, exactly as in banking, the indis- a royal commission on copyright, eminently tween the two systems; and after reading it | pensable condition of success in it is a judi. representative in character, and with Earı -especially after reading the fuller exposicious application of industrious and intelli- Stanhope for its chairman, has been appointed tion to be found in the body of the work—the gent effort.

by the government, and awaits the royal sancreader will agree with Carlyle's verdict when The truth is, Mr. Wingate's book is a bad

tion, prior to its session, about January next,

for the consideration of the direction and exexample of that uneasy self-consciousness on

tent to which international, colonial, and do" To me there is in the Norse system somethe part of journalists, that straining after

mestic copyright can be improved. ... A thing very genuine, very great and manlike.

effects outside of purely professional success, lady writes to the Athenæum, from Vienna, to A broad simplicity, rusticity, so very differ

and that evident desire to compel public rec- give various reasons why Mr. Murray should ent from the light gracefulness of the old Greek Ognition, instead of earning it, which have change the color of his guide-books (they are paganism, distinguishes this Norse system. done more than any thing else to retard the red), one of which is that she has been nearly It is thought, the genuine thought of deep, progress of journalism to its due position tossed by a bull for carrying them. . . . In his rude, earnest minds, fairly opened to the

will the late Hans Christian Andersen leaves among the professions. Even if the plan of things about them, a face-to-face and heartthe book had been well carried out, it would

the bulk of his property to the Collin family, to-heart inspection of things—the first charnot have been worth doing, but, as it is, it is

in gratitude for the aid Mr. Collin gave him in acteristic of all good thought in all times.

early life. He also makes bequests for the Not graceful lightness, half sport, as in Greek a poor piece of book - making. There are

benefit of the school and workmen's library of paganism; a certain homely truthfulness and scarcely half a dozen genuine interviews with

Odensee, his native town. He gives the Royal rustic strength, a great rude sincerity, dis

men whose opinions are of consequence; and Library of Copenhagen a large album, two closes itself here."

in these the questions put are singularly com- smaller ones, and four copies of the complete

monplace, futile, and monotonous; the rest works of Charles Dickens, with inscriptions The exposition, analysis, and interpreta

of the volume consists of extracts from edi. in the author's handwriting. He directs that tion of the Norse mythology, which constitorials and addresses, rehashes of old bio

his correspondence, which was very large, shall tute of course, the most important feature graphical sketches, and inferences from pub

be placed in the hands of M. Bille, who was of the book, leave nothing to be desired. Jished opinions. Aside from the personal

formerly an editor, and of M. Būgh, a literary The whole structure and framework of the

young man with whom he read over the letgossip, which is plentiful and not seldom ensystem are here; and, in addition to this, ! tertaining, we can discover no particular in

ters, and who knows his wishes in regard to copious literal translations from the Eddas

them. ... Mr. George Sauer, who has for which the book rises, in point of interest, and Sagas show the reader something of the

several years represented in Europe the interabove the level of the ordinary newspaper ests of the New York Herald, is engaged in the literary form in which the system found perscrap-book.

preparation of a book on European commerce, manent record. Occasionally entire songs or And the mechanical execution is on a par wbich will serve as a guide to the manufactpoems are presented, and, at every point where they could be of service, illustrative

with its literary character. The proof-read. uring districts of Continental Europe. ing is very bad, a considerable proportion of

The London Examiner pays the following extracts accompany the elucidations of the the proper names, even, being misspelled;

handsome compliment to Professor W. D. text.

Whitney: “ As a comparative philologist and the printing seems to have been done in Professor Anderson, indeed, has left little

Professor Whitney has many peers and some an office where commas are habitually substi. to be performed by future workers in the

superiors; in the general application of the tuted for periods. special field covered by his present work.

results of comparative philology to the soluKeeping in view the fact that it was not de

tion of such problems as have been enumer

ated, he is, as yet, unequaled." signed to be a record of original investiga

Little remark seems called for by Mr. tion or speculation, but simply to present the

Gladstone's new pamphlet on the “Speeches fruits of the labors of other scholars in a

of Pope Pius IX.” (Iew York: Harper & systematic and popular form, his work is

The Jrts. Brothers). It is strictly controversial in very nearly perfect. Imperfections of style, character, and is the latest word in the beatindeed, might be pointed out; but it would

ed discussion evoked by Mr. Gladstone's NE of the most promising of our young be churlish to insist upon verbal infelicities

“ Vatican Decrees." This whole discussion artists is George Inness, Jr., whose in an author who is writing in an alien

has seemed to us unnecessary, and extremely specialty is the painting of animals and of tongue, and, at the worst, these do not affect

unlikely to be productive of good results, landscapes. He is the son of the well-known in the slightest degree the value of a highly either in the religious or the political field; landscape-painter, and has evidently inherited instructive and interesting book.

and the present pamphlet, beyond furnish- much of his father's genius. Last spring we

ing those who have always believed Pio Nono gave some account of his pictures, made We can easily agree with Mr. Charles F. to be an exceedingly foolish, quick-tempered, principally in Italy, of the long-horned cattle Wingate in his estimate of the preëminent and deluded old gentleman, with chapter and of the Campagna, and of his studies in Paris importance of journalism in our day, and still verse for their belief, and enlarging the pop- under Bonnat, and with his father. The past fail to perceive how the good cause-namely, ular knowledge of the “cursing vocabulary" season he has spent in Conway, New Hampthe public recognition of that importance-is of “the living Christ,” can subserve no use. shire, and an examination of his summer's to be aided by a performance such as his ful purpose. There is no doubt, however, work justifies our first impression of his tal. “ Views and Interviews on Journalism "(New that it furnishes some very lively reading, In his portfolio are to be found a mulYork: F. B. Patterson). No doubt young and it is amusing to note how skillfully Mr. titude of large sketches of cattle, sheep and men, with journalistic aspirations, will find it Gladstone defeats the attempts of his antag. pigs, horses and dogs, in a great variety of useful to know what ideas, as to the aims and onists to place him on the defensive. His attitudes, and with very varied accessories function of journalism, and the conditions of tone fully as aggressive as at the begin. of light, and shade, and color. Among the success in it, are entertained by those who ning; and he certainly offers Cardiual Man- most interesting of these are a pair of oxen have attained eminence in the profession; ning some nuts which that hardy contro- yoked together in an old country wagon. but for that general public to which the versialist will find it somewhat difficult to The creatures are reddish brown and white, book evidently appeals, we cannot see why crack.

big and lazy. They stand nearly facing the be

ONE

ents.

holder, who observes above their long, crooked skilled in the necessary duties of teachers arrangements in New York for the collection horns the irregular, bony ridges of their of the State drawing-schools to be able to fill of the works were made under the supervi. backs, and the pointed hip-bones powerfully such situations.

sion of Mr. William H. Beard, the well-known indicated under their loose bides. Anotber In connection with this subject, we sub-animal-painter. Mr. Beard was also selected vivacious picture represents a dog gazing join an extract from the “ Circular in Rela- to supervise the exhibition generally, but through the boards of a fence at a rat on the tion to Industrial Drawing,” by the Superin- more particularly to attend to the hanging of other side, which be cannot get at. The tail, tendent of Public Iustruction at Albany, in the pictures. This duty he has successfully the paws, and the wriggling back of the ani. which he says: “The act takes effect on the accomplished. About thirty of our leading mal, all equally express his intense interest 1st of October next, and by that time the artists contributed from four to six paintings in the prey which he is prevented from reach. Board of Education of each city and the lo. each to the display, and these have been ing. In another of these sketches a long- cal board of each normal school, in which hung in groups, that is to say, the works of legged, shambling calf stands sucking bis drawing does not now constitute a part of each artist are grouped by themselves. The mother, and, though not one of his limbs the regular course of study, should be pre- effect is said to be very striking, as each seems to have any particular shape to give it pared to comply with its requirements." group is tastefully arranged and appropri. distinctiveness, long lines, which, analyzed, The Woman's Art - School will also this ately draped. At Cincinnati the art-departlook like crooked sticks only, have yet a tout year have a special class for instruction in ment of the Industrial Exposition contains ensemble of grace and impatience at once com- porcelain - painting and for tile- painting in four hundred and sixty paintings; and at ical and pathetic.

oils, the latter to be used chiefly for decora- | Indianapolis and Louisville the displays are Many of Mr. Inness's pictures possess a tive purposes.

The photograph - class has equally large. Great efforts will be made grim humor entirely distinct from caricature been an entire success for the past three during the progress of the several exhibior the exaggeration which gives piquancy to years, and from the Cooper Institute have tions to make sales of the contributed works, works like those of Beard or F. C. Church. gone out many drawing - teachers of pri. but none of the artists appear to be very One of these, for instance, is of a rough hog vate classes and into the public and private sanguine in regard to a successful result. rooting in her sty. The animal, with point schools. By the addition of these new brancb- In Chicago, last season, an attempt was made ed snout, the curved back coming nearly to es of industrial art, it is hoped to increase

at the close of the exposition to make a gen. points at the shoulders, the hips, and along still further the usefulness of this institution. eral sale of the contributed paintings by the spine, shows a great deal of rugged

auction; it was a failure, however, as nearly strength, which is well represented in the The thirty-first reception, preliminary to all of the paintings were held at a high limit, firm drawing and in the steadily anatomized the opening of the usual autumn exbibition of and were bid in. the twelve hundred structure of the skeleton beneath the massed paintings and sculptures of the Brooklyn Art paintings sent West last year, not more than flesh. The sight of the beast's avaricious Association, is announced to take place on five per cent. of the number were sold. This greediness gives one a sense of cynical | Monday evening, November 29th. The exhi- result was unsatisfactory, as may be inferred, amusement at the same time laughable and bition will be continued two weeks. Circu- and it is to be hoped that it will not be resad. The hog might be a transmigrated sin- lar letters announcing the proposed exhibi- | peated this year. ner from Dante's Inferno.

tion will be issued to artists during the comThe expression of grace and strength in ing week. The announcement is made at The events lately occurring in Herzegovina horses, and timidity and delicacy, with rest- this early date so as to enable our artists to and the neighboring provinces will probably lessness, humor, and grand power, in some paint new pictures, if they are so disposed, recall to the minds of many persons who visof the other animals, exhibits a range of for the occasion. The exhibition committee, ited the Paris art-exhibitions and galleries last appreciation very rare among animal-paint- however, do not apprehend any difficulty in

year a picture by E. Gautier, which was then Young Inness has inherited his fa- securing enough new pictures, or those

exhibited for the first time in that city. The ther's brilliant talent for color and a per

picture was entitled “Une Jeune Fille de which have never been exhibited in New

l'Herzegovine," and was one of the favorites ception of combination of forms, which, set- York or Brooklyn, to make a good display.

of the Paris Salon of that year. The subject ting aside the highest faculty—the expres- The exhibitions of this Association are

comprises the figures of a young girl, the sion of the distinctive life of his subjects— largely made up of paintings selected from daughter of a wealthy Herzegovinian cattlewould insure him a high place among artists. the private collections of its members. From breeder, and of two horses belonging to the His pictures show strongly the influence of this source some of the finest foreign pict- very bandsome and serviceable breed, usually the modern schools of painting with which ures owned in this country have been exhib. of a fine white color, with which the country his residence abroad has made him familiar, ited from time to time, and the call for the

abounds. According to the common custom Alis technique is already excellent, far beyond coming exhibition will also be extended to

in that part of the world, the girl has led the

horses to drink at a fountain pear her father's the average, but the animation, grace, and the owners of this class of works both in

house, and stands holding one of them by the sense of beauty shown in his works, are such New York and Brooklyn. During the past

mane as they quench their thirst. Her attitude as make it certain that with perseverance and summer the Association has maintained a

is admirably free and graceful: her back restindustry he is capable of reaching the high- summer exhibition comprising about two ing against the shoulder of the horse whose est eminence as an artist.

hundred and fifty paintings. This will be mane she holds, while her other arm hangs

continued until the middle of November. negligently at her side. But the steady, forThe Woman's Art-School of the Cooper The exhibitions of the Association, except on ward gaze of the eyes, and the somewhat fixed Institute, which opens October 1st, will add the occasion of the receptions, are main

expression of the whole face, are rather too to its former branches a class for preparing tained at all times free to the public.

suggestive of the artist's pose to be quite in

unison with the ease and naturalness of the teachers of drawing in the public schools of

figure. Her face is a little too square to conform the State, for wbich the Legislature at its The demands made upon Eastern artists

to the most orthodox notions as to female last session made provision, by the act passed this year, by the art and industrial exposi

beauty ; but the features are good, and the May 14th. As a result of the law, it is ex- tions at Chicago, Cincinnati, Louisville, and

large, dark, expressive eyes, shaded by their pected that there will be a great demand for Indianapolis, have been unprecedented, but long black lashes, and overarched by very drawing-teachers, and accordingly a special all appear to have been well filled, and at- shapely brows, harmonize well with the sunclass will be organized at the Cooper Insti- tractive displays of pictures are now in prog- bronzed skin, and the whole effect is very tute, of which a competent teacher will have ress in all of the places named. The exhibi. striking and attractive. Her costume is pictucharge. The class will be composed chiefly tion at Chicago contains upward of nine hun

resque and becoming, and is remarkably rich, of graduates from the Woman's Art-School dred works; of this number, at least one-half according to our ideas, for a young wonian

who has the care of horses : for the necklace and from pupils of the Academy, whose long are by American artists, and the display is

that hangs down upon her bosom is composed study in those schools have prepared them said to be the finest ever organized in this

th gold cordage, and the embroidered to readily acquire the technicalities of this country. It embraces some old pictures, but frontlet of the velvet hood which crowns her particular class of work. It is hoped that a large proportion are new works, and were forehead is stiff with heavy threads of gold. by the 1st of January they will be sufficiently painted expressly for the exhibition. The The horses are splendid animals, and the one

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the girl holds has much of that suggestiveness i form, the production of “Lohengrin our familiar surroundings to permit music to of speed and endurance wbich pervades the England and America within the last year be the artistic expression of the life of emowild steeds of our far Western prairies, and

has opened the eyes of the lovers of music tion and sentiment. But with the vague, the almost equally untamed coursers of the

in a notable fashion to its astonishing pos- heroic shapes of legend, the case is widely South-Russian steppes.

sibilities. The latest work of the poet-com- different. Here is found a drama of the demiThe scene of M. Gautier's picture is in the neighborhood of Trebigne, and the background

poser, based on the great German Iliad, the gods with a distinct poetic atmosphere of is formed by a wide - stretching open plain.

Epic of the Nibelungs,” is the final develop its own, and the medium of music ceases to The fountain at which the horses are rirink- ment of the school; and, to present it prop- be an artificial medium for those who dwell ing is adorned with some remains of ancient erly, a national theatre has been built, and in the magic land of the imagination. Roman sculpture, and is evidently one of the the whole resources of Germany taxed, the In the old German epos, the “Lay of the Vestiges of eurly Myrian civilization which most eminent vocalists and instrumentalists Nibelungs,” Wagner found the subject which are still found in many parts of Nortliwestern having contributed their services.

The ac

alike suited his æsthetic theories and his Turkey.

counts of the progress of rehearsals now national love. The story is vast and comThis picture is one the results of the

going on have been such as to fully justisy plicated, and it is impossible to do more than artist's travels in Eastern Europe, and shows him to be possessed of much talent, as well as

expectations of the extraordinary nature of to give some general indications bow it has of a very praiseworthy capacity for faithful,

a work so colossal in proportion as to re- been treated for musical purposes. The latconscientious labor. It has been reproduced, quire four days for its presentation. Before ter portion of the “ Nibelungen-Lied," relatin the form of engravings, in several French saying something of the “ Nibelungen-Ring," ing to purely human scenes of bloodshed and and English illustrated journals.

a few words about the general characteris- vengeance, is entirely untouched, and Wag

tics of the Wagner music, as opera, will be ner's use of the legend ends with the death An article in a recent number of the Gaof value to make the matter clear.

of Siegfried and Brunhilde, which in the zette des Beaux Arts, on Mohammedan art, by M. Lavoix, gives new light upon the question

The apostles of the new musical philoso- original is followed by a long and intenseof the employment of figures by the Mussul- phy hold that the art is something more than ly dramatic sequel. The trilogy of operas, man artist. It is generally thought that the fola vehicle of the mere beautiful in sound; “Walküren," Siegfried,” and

" Götterlowers of the prophet are forbidden in the Koran that its highest function is found in its union dämmerung" (“Dusk of the Gods "), is pre. to make for themselves any graven image, or with poetry, making thereby something new ceded by a prologue, Rheingold,” which likeness of God, man, or beast, but the Arabic and different from both, a creation as unique furnishes the motive and gives the key of the word ansab, translated statues, merely applies and perfect as that typified by Goethe's char- whole drama. to certain sacred stones used as altars, and

acter of Euphorion, in the “ Helena.” Music, The first scene of “Rheingold" is laid on which oil was poured in sacrifice. It is

as speaking the most spiritual language of any in the waters of the river, where the naiads only in the commentaries on the sacred vol

of the art-family, is thus burdened with the watch over a great golden treasure intrusted ume that painters are assigned to perdition if they venture to represent any animate ob

responsibility of raising the drama, the high- to their keeping, with which mysterious Fate, jects. In spite, however, of this prohibition,

est form of poetry, to its ultimate possible superior in Northern as well as Greek myths and the fearful consequence of disobedience, beauty and suggestiveness. To make this to both gods and men, bas linked mighty there were many artists at different periods marriage perfect as an art-form the two part. | issues. The gnome Alberich ascends from among the Mussulmans who painted the hu- ners come as equals to the sacrament, neither his subterranean kingdom to gain one of the man form, and at last, custom becoming one being the drudge of the other. Each daughters of the Rhine to his amorous purstronger than religious prohibition, figures contributes its best to emancipate art from poses. To divert him from his purpose they were everywhere employed even upon the

its thralldom to the merely trivial, accidental, tell him of the fatal power of the gold, to exerArab money, on which portrait-heads of the

and commonplace. To accomplish this, mu- cise which all thought of love must be given up. calipbs were often represented. Animals also

sic is made to sacrifice something of its pow. The dwarf's desire of rule is excited, and he were often depicted in Moresque decoration.

er as a merely suggestive force, the key which steals the treasure from its guardians.

unlocks the vague pictures of fancy and feel. The spectator is next introduced to the Music and the Drama.

ing, and forced to something like definiteness domain of Wotan (Odin), the father of the of expression and meaning. In other words, gods, where the All-father is sleeping in a

it is not merely used as the organ of a lyric meadow. He is awakened by his spouse, who THE BAIREUTH FESTIVAL AND THE

emotion, but compelled to describe and color reminds him that Freia, the goddess of beauNIBELUNGEN CYCLE.

thought in strict consonance with the dra- ty, is in pledge to the giants for payment of THE interest felt by the world of culture matic purpose of the poetry.

their labor in building the castle Walhalla, in the art-battle fought by Wagner and In the development of his plan, Wagner and that they demand either payment or for. his disciples is culminating in the great na- was led, not arbitrarily, but by a necessity, to feiture. Wotan discovers from Loge, the tional stage - play, called the "Nibelungen. | do away with what was artificial and conven- Northern Mephistopheles, or Satan, that the Ring,” for which such extensive preparations tional in music. The utter variance of music only treasure the giants will accept is the are being made at Baireuth, Germany. It and poetry was a stunnbling-block, to remove Nibelung treasure, stolen by the gnome Al need hardly be said that for several years which required him to crush all the hard, arid berich from the Rhine maidens, which had Wagner has been devoting his whole ener- forms which had previously existed in the lyr. Į been transformed into a ring, at once the gies to effecting this end; that, after many ic drama, such as duets, arias, and finales, set means and symbol of universal power. disappointments and delays, there seems with an exact mechanical precision in a flim- Wotan and the other gods at first conevery probability that next summer will wit. sy web of recitativo secco, without reference to ceive the idea of stealing the gold for them. ness the consummation of what will gratify dramatic economy. The musical energy is selves, but at last conclude to accede to the a profound curiosity. The most bitter oppo- made to concentrate in the dialogue, and giants' wish, and descend to the subterranean nents of the new school of music, while firm fashioned entirely according to the require abodes for the purpose of getting the gold in the belief that for general use and pleas. ments of the action. For set forms is sub- either by fair or foul means. Alberich, in the ure it will never supplant the old established stituted the continuous flow of melody, and mean time, by the power of his ring, has forms, even if it modifies them, have been each dramatic element is characterized by a subjected all the other dwarfs to his comcontent to rest their judgment of the radical distinct musical phrase, which comes into mand, and compelled his broiher, Vime, to value of its pretensions on the test which the play whenever the movement of the story forge for him a tarn-cap, a helmet which has composer himself has invited and prepared. calls it forth.

the power of making him invisible or transThe Wagner music has gradually forced Wagner was made to believe that it was forming him into any other shape at will. its way to a recognized place in the world, rather in the land of myth and legend than The dwarf recognizes the gods, and threatens not merely by the determined pugnncity of that of history or every day life that he them with the powers of his ring. But the its adherents, but by its own intrinsic worth must seek the true material of his music- suave seductions of Loge persuade him to ex. and power. For orchestral purposes, its mer- drama, Characters even in the near back. bibit the possibilities of the magic helmet. its have never been disputed; as operatic | ground of history are too closely related to He transforms himself into a serpent or

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