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stand, how he shall sit, how he shall do this
| heads. It was necessary to summon the turnand that piece of “business," how and where
keys, and they were saluted by cries of Vive
From Abroad. he shall deliver this and that line-but there
la République! is no subjective insight, no heed of the fires
"That we have been permitted the use that burn within, no psychological study, no
of speech,' the prisoners had said among OUR PARIS LETTER.
each other, is a sign that great events have imaginative grasp of the character of the
August 17, 1875. taken place; the empire must have been overmelancholy and philosophic prince. His conception is that Hamlet is wholly sane, but he THE
warm weather, which has set in a: thrown and the republic proclaimed. Let us last, has rather hindered any artistic or
salute this new revolution !' never succeeds in catching even the spirit of
literary developments for the past week. Peo- " It was hard to persuade them that Nathe assumed madness; no “antic disposition ” | ple are thinking of getting out of town more poleon III. still occupied the throne of France, confounds the court; he never unpacks than of enjoying new books, new pictures, or
and that it was to the intervention of the emhis heart with words,” for his heart carries new plays. But summer is wellnigh over, press that they owed the favor which they had no burden. So sedate, so calm, so sane, so
and I, for one, will not be sorry to say fare- just abused.” balanced, so fine and courtly a Hamlet would
well to its dullness. For summer is a dull Among these female prisoners were several never bave given king, queen, or courtiers, a season in all cities, even in Paris.
criminals of peculiar atrocity. moment's uneasiness. He listens to the play.
Nevertheless, there is some small activity “ The only one who was put into solitary
manifested by the publishers. Michel Lévy confinement was La Quiniou, who, after havers in their trial-speeches coolly, and when
has just issued a new novel by George Sand, ing tried to set fire to the prison at Rennes he finds himself alone gives no hint, in the
entitled “Flamarande.” The “ Tales of a without succeeding, managed, on the 5th of most impulsive and passionate speech in the Grandmother," by the same celebrated au- June, 1871, to burn down the female prison at play, eitber in manner or expression, of the thor, is now running as a feuilleton through Vannes by means of placing hot coals under tumult of feeling which the words describe. the columns of one of the leading journals of packets of rags. One prisoner was suffocated, In the play-scene lie makes a telling picture Paris. Degurce-Cadot has published “The and the establishment was totally destroyed, by graceful posing on the floor; and in fact
Mystery of Westfield," an American romance For this crime La Quiniou was condemned to throughout this actor is always good in a
in the style of Edgar Poe (they pronounce the death, but her punishment was commuted to
poet's surname as a word of two syllables over perpetual imprisonment. She would have stage-sense, but never really any thing more.
here, by-the-by), by Emile Desbeaux. The been suffered to remain amid the other prisonHe is not vigorous enough to please the un.
twelfth number of the “Geography" of Elisée ers, and would have lived side by side with tutored, nor introspective enough to charm
Reclus has just been issued by Hachette, and them, had she not had the impudence, when the lovers of Shakespeare's great crea- the fourth volume of Houssaye's “Mille et in the car that was conveying her to the Maition.
une Nuits Parisiennes" (" La Dame aux Dia- son Centrale, to say to her companions :
mants"), by Dentu. From the same publish- They had better look out, or I'll burn down The current tone of amusements has had er we have a very remarkable novel by Bélot, Clermont, as I have burned Vannes!' This an agreeable and unique variation in the which is interesting as containing sundry cu- speech being repeated to M. Baille, he deperformance of the juvenile Mexican Opera
rious details respecting the houses for female manded and received permission to place his Troupe at . Daly's Theatre. For the most
correction, or feminine prisons, of France. dangerous charge in solitary confinement.
This work, which forms the fourth volume of “ Among the criminals of a higher station part, we associate with childish performers a
a series entitled “ Mundane Mysteries,” bears of life might be mentioned the famous Madame pretty naïveté, merely a lisping, stammering the name of “Une Maison Centrale des Fem- Frigord, who was condemned to perpetual im-. approach toward art, with which we sympa- mes.” The details respecting the regulations prisonment for having poisoned one of her thize as with the every-day gambols of child- of such houses have been carefully collected | friends in the forest of Fontainebleau, and hood, or else we are pained with watching from authentic sources, and the work abounds Mademoiselle Doudet, the English governess, the results of some drill, prematurely imposed
in curious information and authentic anec- who was sentenced to ten years' continement for the construction of a formal mechan- dotes. We give an extract which may prove for having inflicted atrocious tortures on the interesting :
children confided to her care. ism.
The case of Neither of these feelings found place in
“In these prisons for women absolute si- this last was a curious one, on account of the
lence forms a portion of the penalty. Any in- protection and sympathy which were accorded listening to the childish artists of this troupe,
fraction of this enforced dumbness is severely to her. A Protestant clergyman, an embassawhose ages range from six to fifteen years.
punished. Even during recreation, which is dor, three cabinet ministers, a lord, and a royal The whole performance, while showing the
merely a promenade in the yard, it is forbid- personage, were all interested in the fate of marks of a fruitful discipline and hard work, den to the prisoners to communicate with that creature. Solicited on all sides, forced at had none of that cold, metallic click ordinari. each other. The greatest favor that can be last to obey formal orders from those higher ly found in child-actors. In some respects,
conferred on them is to restore to them, if but in authority, the director was obliged to sepindeed, the performers indicated a large
for a moment, their liberty of speech. Yet, arate Mademoiselle Doudet from the other share of the genuine artistic spirit. This they never fail to abuse the privilege. To women, to give her a spacious apartment as a
prove that statement we have only to cite the bedroom, and to sup came out specially in the singing and acting
her table with deliof Carmen, Guadalupe, and Estevan U. Y. Mo. following official anecdote:
cate food. In the interests of discipline, M,
“M. Baille, the director of the most im- Baille soon obtained the removal of Maderon (Grande-Duchesse, Wanda, and Frilz). To
portant of these prisons, was, in 1869, invited moiselle Doudet from his establishment." hear their childish voices “pipe out” such
to the fétes at Compiègne, and was questioned M. Julian Klaczko, in the current number marvelous imitations of the best persormers by the empress respecting certain details rela- | of the Revue des Deux Mondes, continues his of the school of French opéra-bouffe, was as tive to the regulations of the establishment of interesting sketch of Prince Bisniarek. He quaint and amusing a thing as can be well which he was the director. On learning the gives an account of a little incident that ocimagined. It was no soulless mimicry, but a
rule of enforced silence, the empress said, curred in 1865, and which created at the time reproduction exact and finished, colored and pityingly : 'Poor women, that is a severe pun. much talk. The convention of Gastein had
ishment. I desire that your sojourn here and brightened by a genuine childish quaintness.
just been concluded, and the famous intermy conversation with you should be of some view of Biarritz bad not yet taken place, when, All the chic and flexibility in acting, all the
service to them, and I request you to permit in the month of August of that year, happened vocal tricks and graces, so far as the organs of
your prisoners to converse freely together dur- what was called the Lucca affair. The great children could execute them, were charming ing twenty-four hours.'
future prince-chancellor of the empire, then ly effected, even to runs and trills.
“Of course M. Baille was obliged to give merely the Count von Bismarck, sat for a The entertainment was one of so much orders to that effect. At once a number of carte-de-visite photograph in company with interest, so far apart from the commonplace private conversations were organized. But Madame Lucca, then prima donna of the Royand familiar, that we regret it could not have one hour later the conversations were changed al Opera-House at Berlin.
Our author says been lengthened to an engagement of another
into arguments. Cries and screams succeeded, that they were taken in a romantic attitude, week. The many children in the audience,
heads grew hot, and all these unhappy creat- a story in which there is not u word of truth,
ures, habituated to silence, became drunken as I possess a copy of the photograph in ques. and the deep interest shown by them, would
with their own words, like a usually sober tion, and the pair are seated as prosaically as seem to indicate that there is an untrodden
man whom one glass of wine intoxicates. They possible, one on either side of a little table. field in the way of standard amusements which
disputed, they quarreled, they struck each oth- M. von Bismarck, whose profile is turned might be profitably filled.
er, they flung the earthen pots at each other's toward the spectator, is indeed looking at the
lady, but she is gazing forth into space in the Three;" but it has one strong qualification-it most unsympathetic manner imaginable. The is interesting. The piece opens on the 9th of picture was taken, it is said, at the earnest August, 1792, the day of the taking of the Tuisolicitation of a poor photographer at whose leries by the mob, and, by an odd coincidence, roomas M. von Bismarck and Madame Lucca
the first representation took place on the chanced to meet, and who saw in such an un- 9th of August. The Marquis de kardigan, a asual combination of personages an opportu- venerable Bretón noble and a fanatic royalnity for making a sensational picture. The ist, has three sons. The eldest is slain in the picture did create a sensation-not only a sen- massacre of the 9th of August; the second, sation but a scandal-so much so that all the Jean, is an ardent republican ; while Henri, pictures and the negatives as well were bougbt the youngest, is devoted to the cause of the up and destroyed by the police. Some stray monarchy, like his father and his eldest brothcopies, however, found their way into Austria, Jean de Kardigan is in love with Ferwhere the great Prussian was far from being nande, the daughter of the republican deputy very cordialiy beloved, and it was in Vienna Hevrard. He becomes a general in the service that my copy was purchased. It must be re- of the republic, and gains the sobriquet of membered that Pauline Lucca in those days Jean-Nu-Pieds by an heroic deed, which renwas far from being the scandalous personage ders him popular. His brother becomes one that she atterward became, especially in these of the chiefs of the Vendéan insurrection, and later days of many husbands and many di- wins the heart of Jean's love, Fernande le
A letter concerning the affair from vrard. The Marquis and Henri are captured the
pen of M. von Bismarck himself is given by Jean's soldiery, are tried by a court-marat length, and it is rather amusing to see how tial, and are sentenced to death. By means he goes round and round tbe subject without of his own passport, Jean contrives that his giving any positive answer to the queries of brother shall escape, and, taking Henri's place his correspondent, who is evidently quite ex- in the prison, he dies in his stead, blessed and ercised about the matter.
pardoned in the last hour by the father whom Mr. D. R, Knight is still hard at work at he accompanies to execution and whose doom Poissy on his “ Market Scene" and " Harvest he shares. This last situation is peculiarly Scene.” Both these pictures are already sold, strong and striking. But the great mistake the first to Mr. Anthony Drexel, the well- of the dramatist is made by depicting Jean as known Philadelphia banker. The studies for false in this last moment to the republican the Market Scene" were made from actual life, principles, which had led him to forsake bis the artist sitting, with his sketch-book on his father, his family, and the olden cause of his lap, in the open street, on market-days, and,
The character of the stern republiwhenever any picturesque group struck his can, Hevrard, is probably the best-delineated ege, rushing to secure the immobility of the one in the piece. The company of the Vaudepersonages by some small payment. The ville is hardly suited to the personation of the painting will thus have all the vividness and rhymed drama. Stuurt, who played in New vitality of real life. The “ Harvest Scene" York last season in that disastrous failure, the was almost literally painted in the open fields. “Hero of an Hour," personated Jean de Kar
There is a continual talk of forthcoming digan fairly well, but his features lack mobilinovelties at the Grand Opéra, but, somehow or ty and his voice is unpleasant. Charly, from other, they do not come. Mademoiselle de the Ambigu, played Hevrard admirably; and Reszké is to create her second character to- Madame Dupont - Vernon, a recruit from the morrow night; it is Mathilde in “William Comédie Française, lent the charm of her culTell.” I question much whether her roice tivated and polished diction to the utterances and style will be found as well suited to the of Fernande, but she is plain in person and music of Rossini as that of Thomas or Verdi. lacks fervor as an actress. Favre is to make his rentrée in the character Poor Sophie Hamet, the original Frocharde of Don Juan, which opera is to be brought out of the “Deux Orphelines,”' is dead. She was for the occasion. The scenery is all ready, sixty years of age, and has been ailing for and rehearsals are proceeding briskly. Ver- some time past. She used to be known on the gnet, who has a good tenor voice, but is as vul- bills merely as Madame Sophie, till, on assumgar as a boiled cabbage, is to be the Don Otta- ing the role of La Frocharde, she took also hier ri. Midan-Carvalho, who is forty-five if she
On being asked the reason of her is a day, is to personate Zerlina ; and poor, old, so doing, she made answer, “My son is studyfat
, voiceless Gueymord will play Donna Elvira. ing at the Conservatoire, and I thought it If ever a Don Juan was justified in running might aid him before the judges when he came away from his wife, it will be he of the pres- to compete for a prize, were it known that he ent cast. The scenery of “Robert le Diable" had a mother ho was already a successful is all ready, and it is said that this will be the actress.” Poor Sopbie Hamet! She was a most gorgeous of all the operas as yet per- good mother and a good woman, and yet she formed at the Grand Opéra. Camille Doucet's played the part of the atrocious old hay pretty comedy of “Le Baron Lafleur" has in “Les Deux Orphelines” with such strikbeen revived at the Comédie Française, and is i ing realism that the excitable audience of admirably played by Coquelin and Dinah Fé- the upper tiers used to hurl insulting epilix. Strange that this last, the sister of the thets at her, and once, even, a band of stronggreatest of French tragic actresses-the won- armed dames de la Halle waited outside the drous Rachel-should be the most vivacious stage-door to give her the thrashing which and sparkling of French stage soubrettes. The they thought that her treatment of poor blind play itself is a successful attempt to revive, on Louise richly merited. Fortunately, their purthe modern stage, the style and personages of pose was discovered, aud Madame Hamet was the Molièresque comedy.
smuggled out of the front door, thus escaping The dramatic erent of the week has been her ferocious would-be assailants. the production of " Jean - Nu-Pieds” at the
LUCY H. HOOPER. Vaudeville. It is a four-act drama in verse, from the pen of a comparatively young author, M. Albert Delpit. In construction and char
OUR LONDON LETTER. acterization it betrays the inexperience of an " Baron" Grant's new investment, the litunpractised hand, and the plot reminds ono tle evening Echo, which rumor-and rumor is too much of that of Victor Hugo's " Ninety- i very busy at this dull season-says is to be
made into a morning publication, like its big rivals the Standard, Telegraph, and Daily News, has been giving us some information about Mr. Carlyle which is not generally known. Every thing anent the great Chelsea sage is of interest, wherefore I quote the Echo's remarks:
“It is” (runs the article)“ generally supposed that Mr. Carlyle studied at the University of Edinburgh for the ministry of the Church of Scotland, and that it was only when he was on the point of receiving license'the Presbyterian equivalent to holy ordersthat he shrank from becoming a clergyman. This now turns out to be a mistake. Mr. Carlyle passed from school to the University of Edinburgh at a very early age, and studied the subjects embraced in what is known in Scotland as the Arts curriculum-that general and comprehensive course of culture which forms the prelude to special professional study; but whatever may have been his own original intentions, or those of his father, a shrewd Scotchman and sound Calvinist, the future author of Sartor Resartus' never attended any theological classes. From college he went to Annan, obtaining, by public competition, the post of mathematical teacher in the burgh school there, at which, singularly enough, he had received his early education. After two years, he exchanged this situation for a similar one in Kirkcaldy, where his boyish acquaintance with Edward Irving developed into a memorable and now historic intimacy. Tired of the school-master's life, he left Kirkcaldy in two years more for Edinburgh, where he devoted himself to reading enormously in the University Library, and to literary work of that lower order which he himself has called the stray-ground husbandries.' At length, release from drudgery came in the shape of the tutorship to Charles Buller. But at no time after his university studies came to an end did Mr. Carlyle contemplate entering the ministry. However interesting it may be, therefore, to speculate upon the influence a Reverend Thomas Carlyle would have had upon religious thought in the present time, there is no basis of fact for such speculations. Any attempt to make an inference as to Mr. Carlyle's opinions -his orthodoxy or heterodoxy-from a supposed refusal on his part when a young man to subscribe certain theological standards, is, of course, equally idle.”
Quite so; but, then, some writers are so fond of speculating! Why, aren't there people up to this very day speculating what Shakespeare would have become if he liadn't been the son of a butcher?
We have a phenomenon in London just now-the “smallest man in the world." I don't know whether he has ever been in the States or not. His real name is Jean Hannema, his nick name Admiral Van Tromp, and his native place Francker, in Holland. His height tallies with the number of his years-he is twenty-six years, and he stands just twentysix inches in his stockings. Yes, he is actually half a foot shorter than Tom Thumb, and is, moreover, it is said, quite as accomplished. In sooth, he is a very Elihu Burritt, for he can converse fluently in English, French, Dutch, German, and Italian. Probably, like Porson, he thinks in Greek.”
TIere is an anecdote which has just been told me of " Owen Meredith," the present Lord Lytton ; I shouldn't like to vouch for its authenticity, but 'twill serve: Walking down Ludgate Hill, not very long ago, a low fellow pushed rulely against him, and made some unpleasant remark. “Sir,” said his lordship, sternly, his “dunder" rising immediately, “ do you know whom you're addressing?”
“No, I don't,” replied the man, insolently. | accepting the paternity, which Octave refuses, “Then I'll leave you to find
out," continued though he is compelled to sign it as a witness: Science, Invention, Discovery the young nobleman. " Meanwhile, go to the Some complications arising from the arrival devil!" And the fellow went; that is to say, of Madame Guicharde, who has been to the his lordship looked at him so defiantly that he mairie meanwhile and declared herself to be A NEW PETROLEUM-FURNACE. walked away.
Your late guest, Mr. J. L. the mother of Adrienne, are followed by the Toole, is at present “starring" in the British fall of the curtain, with the discomfiture of provinces, previous to his “first appearance in the villain, discarded for his heartlessness
oil refiner, who was deploring the fact London since his return from America,” at the rather than his perfidy."
that there was
so poor a market for his Gniety, on November 8th. Mr. Toole makes Mademoiselle Beatrice's comedy company wares, we took cecasion to remark on the quite little fortunes by these provincial tours. sustain the various characters, mademoiselle efforts now being made to devise some means The managers of even the minor theatres pay herself enacting the heroine. She is a fin
for burning petroleum under boilers, in fur. him fifty pounds a night-ay, and find the ished and graceful actress. Mr. Frank Har
naces, etc.-in a word, for using it as a fuel. speculation pay, too. You've no idea how vey as Octave, Mr. J. Carter-Edwards as M.
Well, I wish they would hurry up and dispopular he is among us; let me whisper it, de Montaiglin, and Miss C. Saunders as Madame he's a much-overrated man. A far abler come- Guicharde, are all fairly good. So, altogether,
cover it,” was the reply; "for what we prodiun, Mr. Charles Mathews, but who“ draws”! " Love and Honor” may run right through
ducers want is a market for crude or refined nothing like so well, will also appear at Mr. this "dead" season--this season of gigantic
oils, and any such discovery as you suggest Hollingshead's theatre soon. Well may Mr. gooseberries and sea-serpents.
would create a demand at once." Nor is it Mathews be dubbed “the evergreen!” Though Mr. Frederick Maccabe had a most enthu- the producer alone who would be benefited seventy-two years of age, he is as hale and siastic reception at the pretty little Philhar- by this discovery. The advantages of oil as active as many a young man of twenty. I monic Theatre, at Islington, a few evenings a fuel, if it can be safely and effectively may tell you here that Boucicault opens with ago. At present he is giving his “ Begone,
adapted to this purpose, are self-evident. “Shaugbraun" at Drury Lane, on September | Dull Care," there, and the evening alluded to
Here we have, in a compact and readily-man4th, and that Mr. Jefferson will impersonate was the occasion of his first performance since Rip Van Vinkle on the 2d of November, at his return from your shores. I never saw a
aged form, a heat-producing substance of the Princess's. more densely-crowded house; I never heard
greater relative strength than coal, the supAn adaptation of the younger Dumas's more hearty and spontaneous applause.
ply of which, for the present at least, is fully "Monsieur Alphonse” has been produced at He whom Walter Savage Landor dubbed" a up to any reasonable demand. the Globe. The adapter-he has changed the noble poet” has just put forth a new and re- Engineer • in-chief Isherwood, United title to “Love and Honor”-is Mr. Campbell vised edition of his verse. I refer to Mr. Ed- States Navy, having conducted a series of Clarke, the Paris correspondent of the Daily ward Capern,“the rural postman of Bideford.” experiments “ upon various systems of utilizaTelegraph. The same gentleman's version of Mr. Capern is in some respects a remarkable
tion of petroleum as a fuel," states the ad“Rose Michel" met, you will remember, with man; humble though his calling has been, the
vantages of its use as follows: a disastrous fate at the Gaiety some months “ divine afflatus” is certainly his. Passing,
1. A reduction of the weight of fuel ago-a fact in a great measure owing, it is only letter-bag at side, to and fro along the beaufair to add, to Mrs. Gladstane's inadequate tiful Devonshire lanes, he has drawn inspira- amounting to 40.5 per cent. personation of the title róle. However, Mr. tion like Burns, like Hogy, like Tannahill,
2. A reduction in bulk of 36,5 per cent. Clarke's new play bids fair to be a success. It from tree, and bush, and wild-flower.
3. A reduction in the number of stokers is much more compact than “Rose Michel;" rude bar of a stile or field-gate las often," in the proportion of four to one. then, again, it does not touch on such delicate as he says in his preface, “served him for a 4. Prompt kindling of fires, and conseground. In sooth, as French plays go, it has writing-desk; or, seated on the side of some quently the early attainment of the maximum almost a moral tendency. Of course you know friendly hedge, his post-bag resting on his
temperature of furnace. the plot: here it is in brief: knees, he has penciled out bis thoughts in the
5. The fire can, at any moment, be in“ Before marrying M. de Montaiglin, a cap- rough, to be polished up in the little cottage at tain in the French Navy, Raymonde de Mon- the end of his outward journey.” The years
stantaneously extinguished. taiglin has been the semi-innocent victim of
With such decided testimony, from so are beginning to weigh heavily on Mr. Capern Octave, an unscrupulous young rake, who now, and no longer is he a humble letter-car-high an authority, in favor of petroleum has persuaded her into a false marriage and rier, but, like Goldsmith's parson, “passing
as a fuel, the reader will doubtless be inabandoned her. She has borne him a child, rich on fifty"--or rather sixty—“pounds a duced to inquire why, if petroleum be such Adrienne, thirteen years old in the opening of year,” a sum which is allowed him from the a good thing, it is not used at once? To the play, and then living with some peasants Civil List. Do your readers, by-the-way, this query we are prompted to reply as was at Rueil, her father having visited ber from know Mr. Capern's poetry? In case not, let the wont with our good Professor of Chemis. time to time under the alias of M. Alphonse ; me quote a specimen lyric from the volume I
College, who, on the failure of while her mother, who has been less cautious, have referred to—“Wayside Warbles"-pubis known to her and her foster-parents. Oc
some promised experiment, rould advance lished by Messrs. Varne & Co.: tave's approaching marriage with Madame
timidly to the desk, remarking, “ Young gen.
" MY LITTLE LOVE. Victoire Guicharde, a wealthy and good-heart
tlemen, the experiment is a failure, but the
“I have a love at Aston Hall, ed, but withal jealous and vulgar widow, leads
principle remains the same." So it seems to
A little prattling darling; him to explain to Madame de Montaiglin,
have been with the numberless experiments
She's very, very, very small, whose husband, a late companion-in-arms of
And chatters like a starling.
to effect the economical burning of petrohis father, he visits on friendly terms, that
Her hair is light, her eye blue-bright, leum. We use the word economical advisedsomething must be done with their doughter,
Her cheek is like a posy,
ly, though in a chemical rather than mercanlest his prospects of comfort might be com
And if you wish her name outright,
tile sense. promised; and ultimately the wife, who
'Tis little Baby Rosy.
The one obstacle to the solution
of the problem has been the deposition of struggles violently against deceiving her hus- “She's such a sweet, wee, winsome thing, band, consents that her betrayer, whom she de
That, spite of my endeavor
soot—that is, the failure to effect a complete spises, shall ask him to receive the child. This
To give the witch the cruel fling,
combustion of the oil; and it is to the sucis done, Octave confessing his paternity with
I fear that I must have her:
cessful accomplishment of this that the ef
She comes and peers into my eyes, out compromising the lady, and Adrienne
forts of inventors have been chiefly directed.
And climbs up o'er my shoulder, helping to keep the secret by repressing her
Or snares me by some fond surprise,
The question as to how the oil may be safely caresses save when in private. But now Ma
Till I am forced to hold her.
introduced into the furnace from the supply. dame Guicharde intervenes, her curiosity and
“ And then she pulls me by the beard
tanks, though an important one, has been suspicion aroused, and eliciting the admission
Or clutches at my glasses,
satisfactorily answered. The plans for effectfrom her admirer that he is the father, and the
Till I begin to be afear'd
ing a complete combustion of the oil may be falsehood that the mother is dead, resolves to
She'll beat my Devon lasses. take charge of the child herself. Thereupon
God keep her little loving heart;
classified under two general heads. The first a 'scene' ensues, for Madame de Montaiglin,
I wish her well and cozy,
relates to the burning of liquid oil directlı, at first kindly, and then so energetically as to
And may no evil bring a smart
and the other to the previous conversion of it open the eyes of her husband, protests against
To my sweet Baby Rosy."'
into gas, the combustion of which gives the the separation. He, comprehending all, for- Surely there are real tenderness and genu- heat desired. As this subject is one of very gives her, and fills up an 'acte de naissance,' ine poetic feeling in that. WILL WILLIAMS.
general interest, and as the success of any
invention may result to the advantage not ing a cellular wall, of fire-bricks placed on tributed to the fact that forests serve to check only of large consumers, but in every in- end, along the line G. While the gas is enter- the too rapid melting of the snow, while they stance where heat is needed, we are in
ing from the generator, a blast of air comes in also serve to hold the surface-water and preduced to lay before our readers the accompa
at E, and mixes with it, the whole passing in vept its too rapid flow down the hill-sides to through H. Here the combustion begins, and
the streams below. Theu, again, the irregunying illustration of one of the more recent
the flames are projected against the pile of larities of surface, caused by the elevation inventions. While not being understood as
iron I, and finally pass in along the line indi- around the base of each tree-trunk, and the indorsing this or any other patented device
cated by the arrows, heating the boiler above, intervening depressions thus caused, would to which we refer in these columns, justice to and passing out at the chimney."
seem to act as so many basins, in which the the inventor induces us to state that the
falling water might collect, and from which it Engineering and Mining Journal, the author
This description is sufficiently explicit must pass either by absorption or evaporaity of which in this and kindred questions will
to illustrate the main principle of the in- tion. The leaves also present an extended not be gainsaid, in referring to the Eames fur- vention, which consists in the volatilization
surface, upon which a certain amount of water nace, states that “it promises to be one of of the oil by the aid of superheated steam, is always retained, and from which it is again
returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. and its subsequent union with an air-blast. the most important inventions of our fruitful
We are thus prompted to review our reasons By this means it is claimed that a complete times."
for believing that the removal of forests incombustion of all the carbon is effected. By a reference to the illustration, it ap
creases the liability to Preshets and consequent Whether this is actually the case may yet be pears that the Eames furnace belongs to that
inundations, in view of the fact that a recent class where the petroleum is first converted
a question, though the evidence at hand is French writer, M. Vallés, in a work entitled into a gas, which gas, or mixture of gases, is certainly most favorable. Whatever may be
“Etudes sur les Inondations," takes opposite conduc:ed into the furnace, where it is con
the fate, good or bad, of this special furnace, ground. The main argument advanced in supsumed. Professor Henry Wurtz, having the final solution of the problem, with its port of his opinion that forests do not dimin
ish the violence of inundations, is that over made the Eames system of furnace-working important effect on the industries of the coun
wooded districts “mosses and plants abound, try, is certain to come in due time. In the with petroleum a special study, embodies his
beds of dry leaves accumulate yearly, and fill meanwhile we have accomplished some serviews in an extended report favorable to the
up all the interstices; the roots of the trees inventor, from which report we obtain the vice in laying the subject before our read
themselves fill up the fissures in the rocks." following description of the furnace, as now ers, who, in spite of many failures, may yet
On the other hand, the writer claims that in in constant use in Jersey City: rest assured that “the principle remains the
the cleared regions the ground is kept ploughed “The novel feature of the Eames furnace is same."
and clear of weeds, while the countless numthe vapor-generator, shown in the illustration
bers of furrows and ditches give the soil more by letters A, B, J, D. Here we have a cast- DURING the early stages of the discussion | time and opportunity to absorb the water. iron vessel, A, inclosed in brick walls. With- regarding the influence of forests 'upon the Or reviewing this argument, it is evident that in this vessel horizontal shelves project from annual rainfall, we were induced, by what was the writer, in support of his theory, is led opposite sides; the oil conducted from the deemed most significant testimony, to take into certain evident inconsistencies. For insupply-tanks enters this iron vessel at D; at the ground that as yet there was not sufficient stance, it is claimed as against the forests that the same time a jet of steam, under a pressure evidence at hand to justify the popular opin- | the roots of the trees fill up the "fissures in the of ten pounds per square inch, and heated to ion that the removal of forests resulted in the rocks;" and yet immediately afterward and incandescence, enters from below through the diminution of the annual rainfall. On the in the same connection, we are informed that superheating coil B, the heat for this coil being other hand, we have the testimony of Professor in the cleared regions the ground is kept obtained from a fire, as shown. I indicates a Draper and the meteorological records to prove ploughed, although the ploughing and furrowcharge of three thousand pounds of iron, for that the average rainfall over the United States, ing of rocky slopes is a rare occurrence. It is the reheating of which the furnace is de- taken year for year during the last fifty years, true that the vineyard districts along the signed. When the oil, having entered at D, has neither increased nor diminished, though Rhine are often the most barren of bill-sides, begins to fall over the shelves, it at once en- the removal of timber has been rapid and con- and yet they are hardly such as the term counters the rising current of heated steam; stant. Although we were inclined to consider “rocky fissures” would indicate. Granting, the result is that every trace of oil is taken up this opinion regarding the annual rainfall as however, that in exceptional cases the effect and swept into a mixing-chamber, which occu- sustained by abundant evidence, we were also may be as stated, it is evident that to us in pies the space which in the old method would ready to admit that the clearing of forests did America the conditions may be altered. It is be used for the fire-box. Between this cham- result in an increase in the violence and num- a demonstrable fact that the removal of forest ber and the furnace proper is a brick wall hav- ber of our local freshets. This effect was at- in many of our wooded districts is not followed
locusts tied to sticks. In Leviticus and else
by the subsequent cultivation of the land, and 3.40° east longitude. In the central portion of locusts." In spite of the character of the hence the leaf-covered surface, now hardened of this area the depression varies from sixiy last dish mentioned, it is evident that the natby the direct action of the sun's rays, soon be- to ninety feet. It was also ascertained that uralists did not • fritter" away their time in comes an impenetrable table, from which the the Chotts Rharsa and Melvir were suffi- a vain endeavor, but made of their meal a water runs without impediment to the streams ciently depressed to admit of submergence. scientific and a culinary success. Though below. We would not have given to the dis- Should this great work be ever accomplished, prompted to review this paper in a semi-secussion of this question so extended a space the fine oases of the Souf would be converted rious spirit, it is evident that the service renwere it not that the subject is one of gen- into islands, since the lowest of them, Debila, dered by Professor Riley is no mean one. We eral interest, the recent floods in Europe hav- is nearly two hundred feet above the sea-level. all have been taught to commend the bravery ing served to direct public attention to it, and The engineering problem seems thus to be of the man who ate the first oyster, and yet we already active measures are being taken to answered in the affirmative, and, should the may now search the world over for him who prevent the indiscriminate destruction of tim- report of Captain Roudaire be favorably re- would not gladly take a second. So may it ber, and in cases of cleared lands the owners ceived, we doubt not an early attempt to ac- prove with the locust; and, instead of the are advised to begin a regular system of tree- complish the work will be made.
truly pathetic appeals for food which recently planting. While those who are now suffering
came to us from the locust-invaded districts, from these causes are engaged in devising a Of the many papers read before the Ameri- may we not yet receive during the time of the remedy, we of this country would do well to can Association at their late meeting at De- next invasion equally urgent invitations to adopt the wiser course, and by “prevention” troit, that by Professor Riley on “ Locusts as come out and share with our Western friends avoid the need of " cure."
Food for Man" deserves special mention. in that royal and well- authenticated repast,
From a brief report, we condense as follows: “ locusts and wild-honey?" The scheme for flooding the desert of Sa- Before recounting his own experience, the hara still continues to attract the attention of writer refers to certain historic records as sup- We recently directed attention to the fact engineers and meteorologists : of engineers, porting his-the affirmative--side of the ques- that a severe case of blood-poisoning had been since with them rests the solution of the di- tion. Among the Nineveh sculptures in the reported in England, the cause of which was rect problems relating to levels, canals, etc.; British Museum are representations of men proved to be a hat-band which had been coland ot' meteorologists, since, whether with good carrying various meats to a festival, including ored by some poisonous dye. It appears that reason or not, the question of the possible cli
this incident has given rise to a more extended matic changes consequent upon the changing
investigation as to the constitution of many of of a desert into a salt sea seems to be wor- clean meat fit for man's food. Herodotus names the more-commonly-used dyes. That green thy of consideration. As we have already an Ethiopian tribe which fed on locusts, and wall-paper acts injuriously upon the health of noticed in the discussion of this subject, there Livingstone confirms the statement. In Mo- those occupying rooms hung with it, seems to are certain observers who do not hesitate to rocco, where the insect appears in such num- have been clearly proved. It has now been proclaim that the flooding of so great an area bers as to threaten the crops, they are killed ascertained that many blue papers have also will result in such modifications of tempera- and eaten, and roasted locusts are to be found arsenic in the composition of the dyes used. ture and wind-currents as would change the for sale in the markets of Tangiers and other The recent introduction and extended use of whole climatic condition of Europe. Among cities. The Jews of Morocco regard the mark- colored or striped stockings, and the evil efthe prominent observers who take this ground ings under the thorax of the female locust as fects experienced by the wearers of them, bave is Mr. Kinahan, of the Geological Survey of Hebrew characters, placed there to indicate that served to direct the attention of the physician Ireland, who thinks it a subject worthy of at- the food is clean, and thus a preference is and analyst to the question of the dyes used in tention as to whether the submergence of Sa- given to the females — not altogether a vain coloring them. The Pall Mall Gazette, in nohara would not cause the snow-line in Southern superstition, we would say, since it creates a ticing the evil effects of wearing colored hose, Europe to descend to its ancient limits, and demand for the mother-locusts, and thus checks cites several instances where the first sympthe Rhine, Danube, and other rivers, be changed an undue multiplication of the pest. It is also toms were intense irritation in the skin of the into great glaciers. From recent reports, it said that many tribes of American Indians feet, swelling, and an intlamed appearance ; is evident that these dismal forebodings have make use of this food.
then an outbreak of watery blisters of all sizes, had little effect upon the ardor of the original Regarding the methods by which the locust from groups of the size of hemp seed to single projectors of the scheme, and, while the one is rendered palatable, we learn that those of blisters on the sole of the foot larger than a party has been busy with its weather-maps the Old World being large are easily prepared five- shilling piece. This condition was acand rain - gauges, the other has been going by first detaching their wings and legs, and companied by general feverishness, rigors, over the ground with tripod and level, wisely then roasting, boiling, broiling, frying, or loss of appetite, and a sensation of pervading determining to first settle the question as to stewing them. The Romans are said to have malaise. In a severe attack the patient was whether the land of the desert be, in fact, low- roasted them to a bright-golden yellow. In rarely able to walk for three weeks, and after er than the adjacent sea. It is to the results Russia they are salted and smoked, and the one attack passed off it was often followed by of these special observations that attention Hebrews of Morocco use the salted insect as another of a milder type. In one case a genmay at present be fitly directed. At the time an ingredient of a mixed dish, which is cooked tleman was obliged to wear cloth shoes for upthat M. de Lesseps first directed the attention on Friday and eaten cold on the Sabbath-à ward of eight inonths, and with other patients of the French Academy of Sciences to the sub- la Boston baked beans. With such established the system has been so impregnated with the ject, an expedition was appointed to take the records and worthy precedents in mind, it is poison that blisters have reappeared at interlevels of the region of the Chotts (flats) in order not surprising that so wise and enthusiastic an vals, not only on the feet, but on the hands, to determine the extent of the area which was entomologist as Professor Riley, since he knew ears, etc., for more than three years. There capable of being submerged. This expedition every thing else about locusts, should wish to was no doubt as to the cause and method of was organized under the leadership of Captain know their flavor, and this zeal becomes the this blood-poisoning, for the blisters first came Roudaire, the original projector of the scheme; more worthy when it is remembered that, as in stripes corresponding to the colored stripes with him were associated two captains and a lieu- an incident to the meal, the learned epicure of the stockings, and the laundresses comtenant of the Etat Major, au infantry-captain, might discover the final remedy for extermi- | plained of the irritation and inflamed condia surgeon-major, deputed by the Geographical | nating the pest—that is, to eat them as they do tion of their hands after washing these poi. Society, and a young mining-engineer. We in Morocco. Be the motive what it may-and sonous articles. A Scotch lady who suffered notice the constitution of this expedition so we doubt not it was a wise one-the result was from a like cause brought a successful suit fully, since the further consideration of the that he found the flavor of the cooked insect, against the firm which supplied her with the matter was dependent upon their report, and prepared in almost any of the methods de- | goods, and it was formally announced by them it is from this report that we condense as fol- scribed, quite agreeable. Fried or roasted in that henceforth the use of arsenic in the comlows: Four months were consumed in the nothing but their own oil, they had a pleasant, position of the dyes would be discontinued. prosecution of the work; during this time anl nutty favor, peculiar but agreeable. All the Although having no wish to appear as alarmentire tour of the Chotts was made, and El more credit is due the professor from the fact ists,” yet it is evident that the occasion is one Ould and Negrine connected by a transverse that, owing to a prejudice begotten of igno- calling for watchful care on the part of both profile, the whole distance being over four hun- rance, the cook and servants deserted the kitch- | purchaser and manufacturer. As we have sugo dred miles. As the result of this survey, it en, leaving the naturalists masters of the turn- gested above, these facts are worthy of special was determined that the region in Algeria ing-fork and griddle. “But,” says the report, consideration at present. For, wbile the fashwhose depression below the sea-level renders “the savory messes they concocted converted ion of wearing striped stockings will, without it capable of being flooded has an area of six the kitchen, and cooks and guests alike agreed doubt, soon be confined to gentlemen alone, thousand square kilometres, included within upon the excellence of the soups, fricassees, yet the use by them of questionable colors may 34.389 and 33,51° north titude, and 4,51° and
which were materially composed result in the disastrous effects above described.