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the dilemma whether he shall betake bimself ried off two first prizes, that for the Grand | laux undertook to reply to him. His arguto work which leads in the end to solid domes- Opéra and that of the Opéra Comique. She ment was that it was too late for economy, ticity, or to the public house which not unfre- is graceful, intelligent, and unaffected, and her that the opera-house was built, and that it quently leads to the galleys. A mere glance double success called forth enthusiastic plau- must be finished. Another deputy, M. Testeat this figure leaves no doubt that it represents dits. The class of tragedy was lamentably lin, joined in the protestations of M. de Lor• Labor. Monteverde at first intended to car- small. Six gentlemen and one lady only pre- geril, but in vain. The amount was granted ry out his design by means of a group; he, sented themselves, and there was no first prize by a large majority. The great art - failure however, destroyed the figure, nearly finished, awarded. M. Marais, a pupil of M. Minuse, of our century is consequently destined to of a genius showing the right way; the sec- obtained the highest recompense accorded, swallow up three more million francs. ond figure, which the destroying hammer that of a second prize, and the solitary female A few weeks ago I gave an extract from a spared, speaks for itself and fully expresses was not adjudged worthy of even honorable forthcoming work entitled “Curious Papers the artist's idea."

mention. The men fared as badly in the of a Courtier," by the Vicomte de Beaumont

comedy class, wherein there were many more Vassy. Last Sunday the author stepped into A WRITER in Fraser on “ Artist and Critic"

competitors, but Mademoiselle Samary, a pu- his publishers' warerooms to confer with them has some just comments, we think, on the

pil of M. Bressant, carried off the highest about his just-published work, when a sudden disposition of artists to undervalue subject.

honors among the ladies. The small ball of rush of blood streamed from his mouth and he "Most painters,” he says, are so thoroughly

the Conservatoire was crowded to suffocation. fell dead on the floor. His funeral took place and all but exclusively taken up with the tech

Numbers of people got in that had no right yesterday. Sudden deaths seem to have been nique, that they care little for any thing be

there and no entrance-ticket, by a very simple unusually rife amid the literary and artistic sides. The artist loves the art in a picture so trick. To enter the vestibule it is me

celebrities in France of late. much that he is jealous of the subject. Praise

cessary to show one's ticket at the door. The At its next private sitting the Academy is the subject, and he had almost as lief you

lucky ticket-holder, therefore, would enter, to take into consideration the prize of six praised the frame. I have often heard artists

ramble around for a minute or two, and then thousand francs instituted by the late M. Guisay that, in looking at a picture, the subject pass his ticket through an open window to a zot for the best work, whether in prose or in made no difference to them. That might be

friend outside, the same manœuvre being re- verse, that has appeared during the past ten trivial or even ignoble, so long as there was

peated indefinitely. For be it known that it | years. How, in the name of all that is wongood color, drawing, composition. Now, in is very hard to gain entrance to the concours of derful, will they ever manage to come to a demy humble opinion, if the technique be the life

the Conservatoire, and the desire to be pres- cision? Of course, among the Forty, there of a picture, the subject is something even

ent is of course in due proportion to the must be a great diversity of literary tasteshigher-it is the soul of it. Besides drawing,

difficulty of obtaining the desired permis- some must admire Victor Hugo, while others composition, and color, there must be expres

sion. Fortunately the weather was not very detest him; there must be those who swear by sion. Drawing, composition, color, may be considered and estimated separately in a given would have been stewed in that hot, stuffy, warm, or pupils, jury, and audience alike, George Sand, others who adore Dumas, etc.;

“La Légende des Siècles" will have one set picture ; expression belongs to the whole work

little hall. The jury for tragedy and comedy of advocates, “La Marquise de Villemer" anand to every part; and that which is pictorially expresseil is the real subject and the soul of the merely to contemplate appearing before them; was enough to give any poor novice a chill other, and so on. I confess that I am quite

curious to learn the result of their deliberapicture.”

it was composed of such names as those of tions. But, if the prize were to be accorded The project for a monument to Byron has

Alexandre Dumas, Edouard Thierry, M. Per- to the work that had had the largest sale durassumed larger proportions. Instead of a slab rin, Director of the Comédie Française, and ing the period aforesaid, what think you would over his grave at Hucknall, it is now intended

Got and Delaunay, of the same theatre. be the winner of the Guizot prize? That alto erect a monumental statue of Byron in

A good deal of interest was excited the most unmentionable mass of filth, the "Masome public place in the metropolis, of such

other day among musical critics by the an- demoiselle Giraud, ma Femme," of Bélot, that importance as to assume the character of a na

nouncement that portions of a new opera precious novel having already passed through tional monument. The scheme bas not yet

called “Dimitri," by M. Victorin Joncières, forty-two editions ! A charming comment, taken a definite shape; still, not only is a mar

was to be performed before M. Halanzier at truly, on the moral and literary tastes of the ble statue in contemplation, but also a canopy

the Grand Opéra with closed doors, the public France of the present day! in classic style to protect it, and give impor being, of course, excluded. There have been Great men should have good memories, or tance to the work. For this purpose a sum of

many rumors afloat respecting this new opera, at least should look closely to their statements. ten thousand pounds is required; and it is

which is founded on the Russian historical le- The royalist and imperialist papers are now hoped that it may easily be raised among ad

gend of the pretender Demetrius, called in making merry over a slip of the pen of Victor mirers of the poet. The Scott monument at

the libretto Dimitri. The author of the libret- Hugo. In the preface to his last-published Edinburgh cost fifteen thousand pounds.

to is no other than M. de Bornier, in collabora- work, “ Avant l'Exil,” occurs the following tion with M. Sylvestre. The work was al] passage.

ready to be performed before M. Halanzier, “ One October evening in the year 1812, from Abroad.

when Madame Rosine Bloch, to whom the I was passing the Church of St.-Jacques du leading róle had been confided, fell ill. She Haut-Pas, holding my mother's hand. A large,

was replaced by Madame Fursch-Madier, and white placard was posted up against one of OUR PARIS LETTER.

the opera was finally gotten ready for the de- the columns of the doorway. My mother

cisive trial. But, after singing the fourth num- stopped me, and said, “ Read.' This is what I

August 3, 1875. ber of the petition, a duet between the soprano read : 'Empire Français. By sentence of the THE competition for prizes at the Conserva- and the tenor, Mademoiselle Daram was seized First Council of War, the ex-Generals Malet,

toire has come to an end. In some re- with a violent fit of hysterios, which put an Guidal, and Laborie, have been shot in the spects the classes this year have given very end to the performance. Pas de chance, M. Jon- plain of Grenelle.' 'Lahorie,' said my mothsatisfactory proofs of progress on the part of cières, no more than Madame Geneviève de er, ' remember well that name.

He was your the pupils. The lucky prize-holders have a Brabant!

godfather.'" good time of it. Those who get the first prize M. de Lorgeril, whose persistent and not Turn we now to “ Victor Hugo : Related for tragedy and comedy enter the Comédie unreasonable opposition to the expenditure of a Witness of his Life," a work that was Française at once, and the winners of the sec- the vast sums which have been lavished on written under the poet's immediate superviond prize go to the company of the Qdéon. In the new opera-house has been unvarying and sion, if not from his actual dictation-indeed, like manner, the first prize for singing entitles remarkable, came to the front again with a some go so far as to say that he wrote it himthe lucky holder to an immediate engagement fresh charge of extravagance and unreason- self, which is more than probable. We open at the Grand Opéra. The jury on singing able demands on the occasion of the late mo- at page 220 and find the following paragraph : comprised, among others, such well-known tion in the Assembly for a grant of three more " The next day Eugène and Victor were Dames as those of Ambroise Thomas, Gounod, millions (six hundred thousand dollars) to passing by St. - Jacques. One of the fine and Wartel, the teacher of Nilsson. M. Cou- complete the edifice. His passionate appeal penetrating rains of autumn was falling. The turier, who carried off the first prize, has a to the good sense and economy of his confrères rain was a pretext for the two children to most beautiful tenor voice, and was loudly ap- was only met by shouts of derisive laughter. linger in the street, and to shelter themplauded. The Grand Opéra takes also the sec- Finally everybody took to talking to his next selves under the colonnade. While they were ond prize-holder, M. Gally, who has a noble neighbor instead of listening to the speech of laughing and playing, the attention of Victor basso voice. There is promise of a new and M. de Lorgeril, and the feeble voice of the was attracted by a placard. It was the senbrilliant star in the galaxy of prima donnas in speaker was drowned in the hum of private tence which had condemned Malet, Lahorie, the person of Mademoiselle Vergin, who car- conversations. After he got through, M. Cail- and their accomplices, to death. The execu

son.

tion was to take place that very day. These “ Now it is worth nothing !'

Engadine,” yet are still left to their bears names revealed nothing to the children; they The theatres are beginning to display and Bergamasque shepherds ;” he dwells on only knew Lahorie under the false name which symptoms of the approach of the busy sea- the Punta Trubinesca, “ a noble peak, which, he bore when he was concealed at the Feul

The Variétés reopened its doors last seen from Monte Generosca, heads the army lantines. Victor recommenced laughing and night with Serpette's “Manoir de Pictordu." of the Rhætian Alps,” and “has been but playing, while his godfather was being put to Aimée and “ Les Brigands" are set down for once ascended, though it is accessible to death."

the 15th of this month. Notwithstanding the anybody who can cross the Diavolezza Pass What think you of the two passages ?-the continued success of the “Procés Veaura- or climb the Titlis ;” he dwells on many ancareless gayety of the unthinking child trans- dieux” at the Vaudeville, it is to be replaced other little-trodden spot in Ticino, Lombardy, formed a few years later into an indelible re- on Saturday by a drama in verse, called the Trentino, or Venetia. By-the-way, Mr. membrance which was to decide the whole fu- " Jean-Nu-Pieds." The arrival of Mademoi- Freshfield highly lauds some of the natives, ture life of the poet ? The simple fact is prob- selle Delaporte from Russia is anxiously those of the southern dolomites especially, ably this : In each passage there is an effect- awaited at the Gymnase. She is to make her whom he praises for their venturesomeness the effect of contrast in the earlier passage, rentrée in a revival of "Frou-Frou," in which (bave they not, asks he, “ alone and uninvited that of solemnity and impressiveness in the play she has had great success in St. Peters- by foreign gold, found their way to the tops later. False, if you will; but, oh! how es- burg. If she were only not so plain, but she of the highest peaks?") and for their intellisentially, how thoroughly French ! Never is downright ugly, and not with a picturesque gence and “ quick courtesy." The most enmind truth-be dramatic and striking at all or poetic ugliness either. However, she is tertaining chapter is, perhaps, that on “Men hazards!

one of the most delicately-pure of actresses--a and Mountains.” In this, our author pardons Michel Levy has just published “ La Bête chaste and naive talent, as some of her French the late Canon Kingsley's attack on mountains Noire," a new novel by Edouard Cadol, and critics define it. The production of Sedaine's in “Prose Idyls," on the ground that it was,

Pompeii-Herculaneum ; A Study of Roman “Philosophe sans le savoir,” at the Comédie after all, “ only a plea for flats," and warmly Manners," by J. de Seranon. Casimir Pont Française, has been postponed on account of eulogizes M. Loppé's paintings of Alpine has issued “ La Vie Parisienne," by Armand the illness of Maubant, who has been suffer- scenery. That artist, he assures us, “paints Lapointe ; and Dentu announces, among other ing from ophthalmia. The piece is to be with wonderful skill not only the forms of the forthcoming works, the last volume of “Les played according to the original text, the origi- séracs, but the shades and hues given by the Cinq,” by Paul Feval; “Les Belles Folies,” nal manuscript of Sedaine having been lately imprisoned light and retlections to this frozen by Jules Claretie ; and a new edition of " Les discovered among the archives of the Comédie mass;" in short, “so faithful,” according to Demoiselles de Ronçay," by Alberic Second-Française. Blanche Baretta is to sustain the Mr. Freshfield - and he ought to be a good this last work has received the prize of virtue character of the heroine. There is again talk judge — “are these pictures that Professor as being the most conducive to morality of any of producing “Faust” at the Grand Opéra. Tyndall would find in them fit illustrations issued within the last year. The last number This time it is said that the brilliantly-suc- a popular discourse;" while “ so perfect of the Revue des Deux Mondes contains a fan- cessful débutante, Mademoiselle de Reszké, is is sometimes the illusion that we should altastic tale, by Paul de Musset, entitled “Les to be the Marguerite. But Gaillard, the basso, most fear a modern version of Zeuxis and the Dents du Turco," and the first installment of has just gone off on a congé of a month, so birds, and expect to hear the lecturer cailing a novel, by George Sand, called “ Marianne." that the role of Mephistopheles will have to be on his assistant to drive stakes into the caoA propos of George Sand and her contributions confided to Bataille, who is a very inferior vas." I don't know whether any of Loppé's to that periodical, we are told that some years singer. Rossini's “Count Ory," and a new works have found their way to New York, but ago she quarreled with the editor, and only ballet called “Sylvia," are also in preparation, they are certainly full of realistic power consented to write for it again at a rate of but will not, it is said, be produced before aext grand in conception and execution. compensation theretofore unheard of in the October. The scenery for“ Robert le Diable" The other day there was witnessed in Westannals of the Reque-it paying worse, proba- is all ready, and there is talk of confiding the minster Abbey a solemn sight. It was one bly, than any other periodical of the same re- rôle of Alice to Mademoiselle de Reszké, who which made the looker-on recall to mind the pute and prosperity. The terms she exacted seems decidedly to be the rising star of the brave deeds of that bravest of arctic explorers, were one thousand francs (two hundred dol- Grand Opéra At the Théâtre Historique Sir John Franklin, for it consisted in the unlars) per printed sheet of the Revue—which, “Les Muscadins," by Jules Claretie, is in ac- veiling of the memorial erected to that famous as a sheet consists of sixteen pages, was only tive preparation. The scene of this new knight's memory by his just-deceased widow. twelve dollars and fifty cents per printed page drama is laid during the period of the French The memorial is of the best possible kind-it -by no means an exorbitant price when the Revolution. The great tragic actress Made- is a lifelike bust of Sir John himself, and the celebrity of George Sand as a writer is taken moiselle Rousseil is to sustain the leading fe- sculptor, Mr. Matthew Noble, has done his into consideration. Her only English-writing male rôle, and great things in the way of sce- work admirably. I should mention that a rival, George Eliot, could probably command nery and costumes are promised.

handsome Gothic canopy in alabaster surfour times as much. But the price was an un

LUCY H. HOOPER.

mounts the bust, and that beneath it is a marheard-of one for the Revue to give, and it was

ble ship, while the inscriptions (due to that not without many groans and sighs that the

most liberal - minded divine, Dean Stanley) publishers consented to her terms. It is a

run thus :

OUR LONDON LETTER. well-known rule with the editors of the Revue

"O ye frost and cold, O ye ice and snow, des Deux Mondes never to pay for the first ar- That most indefatigable of climbers, Mr.

Bless ye the Lord; praise him and magnify ticle of any author that appears in their pages, Douglas Freshfield, the author of “ Travels in

him forever." no matter how great or how well-founded the the Caucasus and Bashan," and the editor of renown of that author may be. The Alpine Journal, has just given us, through

Then comes the following verse by TennyI have been told that, all reports to the Messrs. Longmans, a volume descriptive of contrary notwithstanding, the elder Dumas his impressions and experiences of some of “Not here; the white North has thy bones; and was actually a married man. His wife was an the least-known parts of beautiful Italy. His

thou, actress. Their union was by no means a hap- work-which contains maps and illustrations

Heroic sailor-soul, py one, and they soon separated by mutual -is called “ The Italian Alps," and is written

Art passing on thine happier voyage now, consent. The mother of his celebrated son

Toward no eartbly pole." in a really very genial style. It is not devoid was of good family but reduced circumstances, of amusing anecdotes; it contains, moreover, On either side of the monument are the .and when she first met the great novelist she some capital word-pictures. Yet withal, Mr. following inscriptions : was keeping a small circulating library on one Freshfield is a modes: writer; he calls his

"To the memory of Sir John Franklin, born of the side-streets of Paris. And, a propos of present production a “guide-book.” A guide

April 16, 1786, at Spilsby, Lincolnshire, died June the elder Dumas, the following anecdote re- book, forsooth! Would that Murray were

11, 1847, off Point Victory, in the Frozen Ocean, specting him has been recently published: A written half so well! Though we have had the beloved chief of the crews who perished with friend once called upon him to request him to many volumes of late on Italy, most of it re- him in completing the discovery of the northwest indorse a note. This Dumas cheerfully agreed mains a terra incognita hoth to authors and passage. This monument was erected by Jane, to do, and, as he took up the pen, he glanced tourists in general. These are the places Mr. bis widow, who, after long waiting and sending at the note, and asked : Freshfield dwells upon. He dwells upon “the

many in search of him, berself departed to find him 6 How much is that stamped paper exquisite valleys round the head of Lago Mag

in the realms of life, July 18, 1875, aged eighty

three years." worth ?"

giore;" he dwells on the mountains of Val "Ten cents," was the reply.

Masino and Val Livigno, which, says he, A lady with whose nom de plume you are Dumas wrote his name, and, flinging down though “distant, respectively, only a day's familiar, “Stella,” of “Records of the Heart" the pen, he cried :

journey west and east of the crowded Upper | fame, is obviously a very energetic poetess.

son:

At any rate, she is determined not to hide her tial success are the many records of absolute A careful study of the anatomy of birds light under a bushel, wherefore she is actually failure. In the year 1772 the Abbé Desfarges, and their muscular structure has caused the advertising over here, on our “hoardings" by

canon of St.-Croix, at Etampes, announced modern physicist to assert that, if a man means of broadsides,” her recently-published

that he would make a journey in the air seated would carry his heavy body through the air " tragedy in five acts," "Sappho !" Yet very much afraid am I that she won't make it pay,

in a flying-chariot. The time arrived; the unaided by any buoyant medium, he will have and this notwithstanding that, as the Graphic

spectators appeared in great numbers; and to do it by means of wings having a surface says with some truth, the play “is full of fire

the clerical inventor took his seat in his of at least twelve thousand feet, which wings and force, and is thoroughly readable.” chariot, which rested upon the tower of must needs beat the air several times a sec.

Mr. George Rignold is having a successful Guitel. This chariot is described as a kind ond. These are demonstrable facts, and yet time of it at the Queen's. Understand, we of a boat or gondola, seven feet long and two the work of invention, experiment, and failure don't puff and laud him as you do; still, we and one-half broad, attached to which were goes on. like him and go to hear and see him. Within

broad wings, the weight of the whole being Of a somewbat different order from the the last few days he has assumed for our edi- forty-eight pounds ; this, added to that of the simple flying-man are several of the more fication the character of Amos Clark. Amos Clark, I have no doubt you know, is the hero

canon's body, gave a total weight of two hun- recently-proposed methods of aërial navigaof the late Watts Phillips's drama of that

dred and thirteen pounds. When all was in tion, which are designed to use gas and name ; moreover, it is one of Mr. Rignold's

readiness the signal was given ; the wings, steam as allies. We recently announced original parts, and be portrays it with both

obedient to the efforts of the man beneath, that certain English engineers, of recognized vigor and pathos. The young actor's wife, began to flap; but, alas ! the chariot did not position and professional ability, were ennée Miss Marie Henderson, is Mildred Vaughan. move, and has not moved to this day. Anoth-gaged in the construction of an air-ship of

WILL WILLIAMS. er record of failure is that of the flying-man, novel form, which promised to prove a suc

invented by Jacob Degen, a watchmaker of cess. No one, however, save those in the

Vienna, and here illustrated. This consisted confidence of the parties, is yet instructed Science, Ynvention, Discovery. of two oval-shaped concave wings, made of as to its special merits.

FLYING MEN AND MACHINES.

[graphic]

IT

was Goethe who said, “We feel in us

the germs of faculties which we must not expect to see developed in this life, and one of these is flying.” While the German poet and philosopher, even in his most prophetic mood, dared not hope for an achievement for man that would make him the companion of the bird, others more bold, if not more wise, have long been busy in the at. tempt to solve the problem of aërial navigation. We all remember the old Greek fable of “Dædalus and his son Icarus," how they made for themselves wings of feathers, fastened with thread and wax, and how the boy, heedless of the father's sage advice, flew too high, and so exposed his wax-fastened rings to the heat of the sun, which softened the wax, and thus precipitated the too bold navigator from the sea of air above into the sea of water beneath. This is but a fable, it is true, and yet the history of many subse. quent ventures, though verified by authentic records, seems hardly less fanciful. Hartwig, in his recently-published work,* notices sev. eral of the more important of these attempts at flying. In the year 1678, one Besnier, a locksmith of Sabié, in France, constructed a

canvas stretched over a light wooden frame- It is by no means a favorable sign in conmachine which consisted of four wings or

work, and attached by means of a yoke roundnection with these efforts that in every inlarge flaps, which were worked by levers rest

the neck. These canvas wings were set in mo- stance the inventors are prone to surround ing upon his shoulders, and moved alternate

tion by the aid of ingeniously-contrived hand- their work with a halo or cloud of mystery, ly by hands and feet. By means of this con

and-foot levers. So confident was Degen that through which the inquisitive world is intrivance, the inventor is said to have been he had discovered the secret at last, that, in structed not to penetrate or peer.

While able to descend slowly through the air from

the presence of a multitude, he made his first the Englishmen are at work, we, too, in great heights, but all bis efforts at ascent

attempt by endeavoring to rise from the level America are not idle, as appears by the many proved fruitless. Leonardo da Vinci is said

ground. Failing in this, he ascended in a though unsatisfactory accounts of the forthto have numbered a flying - machine among | balloon, and, suspended from it by a rope, coming Baltimore air-ship

. Of the form and his many mechanical devices. In 1742, the attempted to fly, but his best efforts were structure of this American invention little is Marquis de Bacqueville attempted to fly fruitless, and his name soon was added to the as yet known. The inventor is said to be from his residence on the Quai des Théatins, long list of “flying-men who failed to fly.” | confident, and, what is still better, to be supParis, to a point over the Seine. The voyage

In spite of these numerous failures, there are was bat half accomplished, however, when

ported by a rich patron. The Scientific Amer. yet many hopeful souls, and we doubt not but ican, which should know all about it, being the wings ceased to act, and the noble mar

that the patent records for each succeeding the leading American mechanical journal, quis came suddenly to earth. In addition to

year contain the name and claim of some confesses to knowing very little. This little, these somewhat doubtful statements of par sanguine inventor and his machine. While however, reads as follows:

we may find in our hearts some sympathy for * The Aērial World. A Popular Account of the

"So far as we can make out the construcPhenomena and Life of the Atmosphere. By G. the unfortunate Icarus, there seems to be

tion of the invention, it includes a boat, made Hartwig, M. and P. D. New York: D. Appleton & little wisdom or justice in granting it to those of oiled canvas and wire, sixty-five feet long Co. 1875.

of his imitators who sin, having greater light. This has two masts of steel, each twenty

eight feet high, between which is extended an whether it be the brain or spinal column, be- husband's grave. As the memory of his bold egg-shaped balloon, the points of the latter comes more energized by use. It is only dur- achievements and brave service in the cause being held in a wire net-work. Around the ing sleep that the brain is actually inactive, of knowledge has made the name of Sir John middle of the balloon are girdles and net- and hence, if we will not give it work to do, Franklin one which the whole world has come tings, the latter of which come down and sup- it will find that to engage its energy, even to honor, so will the memory of Lady Frankport the car, which, we suppose, is the boat. though in the end the labor be profitless. lin's devoted love and untiring zeal ever comAt each end of the boat is a propeller, also of After referring in a plain though hardly gen- mand the affectionate reverence of us all. We wire and canvas. One screw pulls and the tle manner to the men and women whom the learn from Nature that Jane Griffin, for such other pushes. These are independent, and frivolities of life keep " idly busy," the writer was her maiden name, was married to the great drive the boat in either direction.

contrasts them with those whose minds are and unfortunate arctic explorer on November “Besides, there are two large rudders, one never at rest, and yet who live to a good old 5, 1828, and accompanied him almost conat each end, and also independent. On each age. As the closing passages are not only | stantly in the fulfillment of his duties until side of the boat is fastened by hinges a wing truthful as to facts, but of value by the sug- his departure on his last arctic voyage of disthirty-five feet long by fifteen feet wide in gestions they contain, we are prompted to covery in 1845. She has naturally ever since front, ten feet wide behind, and concave be- quote them at length, and should there be taken the deepest interest in arctic exploraneath. These wings are driven at the rate of among our readers some of these overworked tion, and has herself directly done mucli to one hundred and seventy flaps per minute, brain-workers, they will find in these words forward it by fitting out expeditions either enand the propellers at twelve hundred revolu- sage counsel and encouragement. The writer tirely or partly at her own expense. It was tions, by an eight-horse hydraulic engine lo- refers to the honest, cheerful, but constant she who sent out the Fox, which in 1857–59, cated in the car.

workers as follows: “ Practically they bavo uuder Sir Leopold McClintock, did important “ The whole machine is to weigh eighteen no rest, for, when one object of study is com- service in arctic exploration and in the dishundred pounds and the balloon to hold eigh- plete, they commence to pursue another. It is covery of the records and relies of the unforty thousand cubic feet of gas; twelve thou- by the happy faculty of diverting the powers tunate Franklin expedition. That her intersand pounds of load are to be transported at into different channels that this is accom- est in arctic enterprise was strong to the very the rate of seventy miles an hour in still air, plished. Instances might easily be quoted of last is shown by the fact that she helped to and the ocean is to be crossed in fifty hours." statesmen, judges, and members of our own equip the Pandora which so recently left our It would be vain and faithless in this age

profession, who know no absolute rest, and shores to attempt the northwest passage un

who would smile at the suspicion of hard work der Captain Allen Young. For her services in of invention to say men never will navigate injuring any man. I make it a custom to ask this direction she received, on the return of the air, and yet we venture the prediction young inen what their second occupation is- the Fox, the gold medal of the Royal Geothat that result will not be accomplished by what pursuit have they besides their bread- graphical Society; she was the first woman on means of any known force as now applied | earning employment. Those are happiest who whom it was conferred, the only other one who for the generation of motive power.

possess some object of interest, but I am sorry obtained such a distinction being the late to say there are few who find delight in any Mrs. Somerville. Until within the last few

branch of science. The purely scientific man years, when incapacitated by old age and illA FAVORITE theme with the editors of so- finds his best recreation in literature or art, ness, Lady Franklin was herself an almost called health journals and household medical but even in intellectual work so many differ- constant traveler; she had made a voyage guides is that of “overwork," and so much has ent faculties are employed that a pleasant di- round the world, and visited many of the been written on this subject, and of such a na- version is found in simply changing the kind principal places in Europe, North and South ture, that, were we to believe and act upon the of labor. For example, a judge after sitting America, Asia, and Australasia. She was, as advice thus given, the world would become al- all day, and giving his closest attention to the might be surmised, a woman of superior intelmost a hive of drones. We confidently believe details of the cases before him, may yet find ligence, clear-sightedness, and great deterthat so far as honest brain-work goes the more relief in his evenings by solving problems | mination; her name will, no doubt, live along. we do of it the better, and, if owing to a reck- in mathematics. The subject of overwork, side that of her renowned husband. less disregard of recognized hygienic and san- then, is one of the greatest importance to itary laws an occasional “student" finds an study, and has to be discussed daily by all of The occasional reports from the exploring early grave, let the blame be put where it be- My own opinion has already been ex- ship Challenger are mainly of interest in conlongs, and not credited to the worthy zeal pressed, that the evils attending it on the firming facts already announced. The results tbat some call "overwork." Having long community at large are vastly over-estimated; of soundings made between the Admiralty held to this opinion, and believing that facts and, judging from my own experience, the Islands and Japan are reported briefly as folwould sustain us, we are gratified to find that persons with unstrung nerves who apply to lows: The deepest trustworthy sounding was an eminent English physician has given ex- the doctor are, not the prime-minister, the four thousand five hundred and seventy-five pression to a like view, and, coming as it does bishops, judges, and hard-working profession- fathoms (over five miles). The tube of the from one liigh in authority, we trust it will re- al men, but merchants and stock-brokers re- sounding-machine contained an excellent samceive the attention from both students and tired from business, government clerks who ple of the bottom, which was found to consist drones that it deserves. We condense from work from ten to four, women whose domes- almost entirely of the siliceous shells of RaDr. Wilk's communication as it appears in the tic duties and bad servants are driving them diolaria. As illustrating the difficulty of obLancst as follows. After answering the simple to the grave, young ladies whose visits to the taining true results as to temperature at these question “ Are people suffering from over- village school or Sunday performance on the great depths, it is said that three out of four work?” with a decided “No!" the writer organ are undermining their health, and so on. Miller - Casella thermometers sent down to says: “Medically speaking, I see half a dozen In short, and this is the object of the remarks these depths were crushed to pieces by the persons suffering from want of occupation to with which I have troubled your readers, that enormous pressure-between five and six tons one who is crippled by his labors. Very in my experience I see more ailments arise to the square inch. The fourth registered, at often, when a business man complains of being from want of occupation than from overwork, fifteen hundred fathoms and below, the usual overdone, it may be found that his meals are and, taking the various kinds of nervous and temperature of 34.5° Fahr. From this it apirregular and hurried, that he takes no exer- dyspeptic ailments which we are constantly pears that there is a layer of water of uniform cise, is rather partial to brandy-and-soda, and treating, I find at least six due to idleuess to temperature occupying the ocean's bed having thinks it is not improper to poison himself one from overwork."

a depth of eighteen thousand four hundred and with nicotine every night and morning."

fifty feet. This temperature seems to be uniPassing from man to woman, the case is made Our readers who have watched with inter- | form, whatever may be that of the surfaceto appear even more severe. It is not over- est the progress of the English Arctic Expedi- currents. This fact, with that of pressure, inwork, therefore, that is to be deprecated, pro- tion, and who are now waiting cagerly for the

dicates that the sea is in by far its greater porvided the work is legitimate, and such as to first official report from the Alert and Discov- tion tenantless, because not fitted for the enclaim a normal excrcise of the functions. The ery, will learn with an almost personal sorrow couragement of maintenance of the higher brain is an engine of many horse-power; its that one of those whose best blessings went forms of marine life. energy must be accounted for in some way; if with the brave explorers no longer listens for not used for good purposes it will be for bad, tidings from their ships. Lady Franklin is It is announced that both a zoological and and “mischief will be found for idle hands to dead; and though, at the good old age of eigh-botanical collector will form a part of the ret

So the work is actually a safeguard. ty-three, her time had come to die, yet it was inue of the Prince of Wales in his approachThe human body is made for work, and just as an almost universal hope that she might have ing visit to India. Should this prove true, the the muscles are better prepared for work by remained at least long enough to hear the final ] popular interest in this proposed visit will be previous training, so the nervous system, ' tidings they promised to bring her from her greatly enhanced ; and, acting as they will be

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under the direct patronage of the prince, these It would be edifying to contrast Saxon sol- is the traditional heroism of the soldier to be collectors will be atforded opportunities which, diers with other nations, point by point, and done away with. Women persist in loving it improved, will result in a decided gain to so arrive at a practical comprehension of their those who make a business of getting killed, the sciences which they represent.

superiority. Much is signified in the fact that more fondly than those who get killed in the their captains address them as “ children," way of business. Such preference is not only while we Americans and our English friends irrational-it was always that-it is now fountry to inspire our warriors by appeals to their dationless. When will our wives and daugh

“manhood." Men, forsooth! Such is the ters learn to believe that he who, with unfalNOTEWORTHY THINGS GLEANED HERE

fruit of illogical sentiment. But persist in tering resolution, takes the train to the city AND THERE.

calling a person child, and treating him so, every morning, or calmly spends the day in his and presently he will share our view of the confined study, and trembles not at the din

matter, and thus become fit for the camp. But ner-bell, is more valiant than the man who Mr. Julian Hawthorne resumes, in the

my business is not so much with comparisons leads a healthy life in camps, and goes to bat

as with the incomparable Saxon soldier him- tle with a telescopic rifle once in twenty August Contemporary Review, his series of self.

years? But no, to her mind the soldier is en1 “Saxon Studies,” his subject in this paper Even his uniform is admirable, and, after gaged in daily hand-to-hand encounters ; his being the Saxon soldier, which he considers

the sloppy productions worn by our Seventh life is ever next door to a violent end ; there

Regiments, and still more by English Guards is something heroic and perilous to himself the finest in the world :

and Grenadiers, truly refreshing. It is mainly in his own sword and gun. I am compelled The world is ancient; there have been dark, the darkness enhanced by narrow lines to admit that even Saxon soldiers have their many ages and races of men; but, of all, the of red adown the leg and round the throat and sweethearts, who lavish upon the lucky dogs Saxon soldier is the flower. It were rash to wrist. His head-gear, though called helmet such looks as the poor Kellner or shop-tendaffirm that the future may not produce a war- for lack of a better name, is not imposing, but er can never hope to obtain; and the nerior better yet than be; the automatic theory | eminently practical; while as to his cap, it is cessity of being in barracks by a certain hour holds out high hopes of possible progress in | positively made and worn to cover the head, adds a romance to the daily parting which this direction. Wher we shall have disem- and scarcely inclines more to one ear than to makes it worth a dozen optional ones. barrassed ourselves of the notion that we live the other. What a pregnant subject for analyas we please, a rigid system of discipline will sis, by-the-way, is that matter of wearing the The drill looks absurd enough, but it is trebecome our dearest comfort; for it will tend hat aslant instead of upright! Some seer, mendous, and it works wonders. Not a drup most strongly to put us out of the way of fan- one of these days, will draw a deep moral of the man's blood, not an ounce of liis flesh, cying our actions self-willed. The new gospel from it. The head itself is not propped fierce- not a breath of his body, but feels the imshall be the manual of drill and tactics. What ly up in unrelenting collar, but sits as easily press of the manual. What a stretch of the a humiliation to man's conceit-the thought as the heads of ordinary men. We look in leg was that! and now what sharp angles, that soldiers are nearer the eternal verities vain for the stiff-kneedness, out-chestedness, short corners, starts, jerks, dead pauses,

sudthan any other bodies! Let the fools of senti- square-elbowedness, high-mightiness, which den veerings, dashes, balts, thumpings, clankment hasten to range themselves on the win- we are accustomed to associate with the thought ings! The man is beside himself, and that ning side. But, whatever our haste, the Sax- of things military. This model child of battle grotesque caperer is some puppet whose ons are still ahead of us. Though they may seems so comfortable in his uniform, he might strings the sergeant is pulling.

This perinot, as yet, have put in words the awful truth have been born in it. He can stoop, kneel odic fit or seizure—they may call it drill, but of automatism, they have nevertheless done down, run, or vault a fence, without bursting in fact it is possession of seven devils, recurmore to verify it in nature and conduct than a button. His belt is leathern-no pipe-clay ring at a certain hour every morning, lasting have the philosophers who set the theory go- on his conscience. He can be very dirty with- a fixed while, and then the devils depart, and ing.

out much showing it. Padding and lacing presently the victim appears, rehabilitated : It must not be forgotten, however, that are unknown-at least to the private. His but we know his secret now, and all his quitheir preěminence is owing quite as much to short sword seems as natural an appendage as etness fails to impose on us; we discern his the age they live in as to their intrinsic quality. a monkey's tail; he would look maimed with- mad-pranks ill concealed beneath the most In short, we are called on to admire an exquis- out it. He walks the streets—with measured innocent actions. The mark is on him; the ite harmony of times and traits. These sons tread, indeed, for he is drilled to the marrow, Seven will rend him again to-morrow. Skelof the drill-book would scarcely have suited but with an infantile self- unconsciousness etons are seldom attractive spectacles; but the days when personal prowess was an essen- subversive of all precedent. He looks of a this skeleton of drill, once seen, is not lightly tial soldierly requirement. Their best recom- race distinct from the civilian, it is true, but forgotten. The discovery of so grisly a submendation to the modern and still more to the quite at home in his distinction.

structure to the pomp and circumstance of future recruiting-sergeant must be their un- Soberness of uniform is so far from being a war is impressive in its way. It is kept dislikeness to the old Greek and Roman giants trifling matter (things being as they are) that, creetly secluded within the barrack-walls, only of sword and spear. Not hot blood and youth- should the English be beaten in the next war, venturing thence in the guise of commonful fervor are wanted; rather a thin, colorless, they may safely lay the blame on their own place marching and rifle-exercise. To the meek, mechanical habit. What has been red coats. In the time of Marlborough or of barracks, too, are confined the more flagrant called soul and individuality is to be got rid Wellington these may have had their use; but tyrannies of the drill-master, whose cuffs, of: an unbounded stomach for discipline is nowadays scarlet, added to the vicious my- shoves, and beratings, make the onlooker's the desideratum.

soul's-my-owo doctrine which even yet ob- | blood to boil, and him to marvel at the silent,

tains but too widely, gives the private soldier unretaliating meekness of the berated one. Meanwhile I take pleasure in repeating too much of an opinion of himself. He es- It is odd to see that one of mankind whose that Saxon soldiers are the best in the world. teems himself too grand a being to be cuffed avowed business in life is retaliation thus They can swallow most discipline. They sub- by corporals, and unceremoniously bidden to outdoing the forbearance of the mildest counmit to so much stuffing with rules and regula- right about face and present arms. Moreover, try clergyman. But a soldier's spirit is bound tions, great and small, that little of the original his ruddy splendors attract the feminine eye strictly to the rules of the manual; when not creature is left save organic life and uniform. and heart, and women are not wholesome for quired in the way of business, it inust reThey are a docile sort of Frankensteins. This modern warriors. Such individual inspiration main prostrate in the mire. Soldiers are genis well, so long as they remain in the service; as they may once have given is not needed in erally credited with elasticity of spirits, and but picture the sad plight of a being thus battles fought out of sight of the enemy. from this point of view it is no wonder. But drained of his proper entrails, and inspired That army will be found most efficient whose in many cases, I fancy, the spirits are broken solely by the breath of Mars, when Mars no uniform is least seductive to the female mind. betimes, and what afterward passes as such is longer needs him! Mars recreates men show- | I am far from asserting that the Saxon uniform merely a kind of galvanization produced by ily enough ; but he lacks the constancy of an is perfect in this respect. No; it has a dap- fear. Doubtless galvanism is better than couroriginal maker, and by-and-by leaves his re- per appearance, a snug neatness, a sparkle of age, being mechanical, and a safer factor in creatures dismally in the lurch. Even the helmet-spike and sword-hilt greatly to be de- calculations. uniform is bereft them. Let who becomes a plored. Still there is none homelier, so far as soldier reflect that he enlists for life; and, I am aware; and we may cheerfully trust to whether he be killed in his first battle, or hon- the natural instincts of the Saxon mind to

THE Rev. Julian Charles Young relates orably discharged after half a dozen cam- make it uglier yet. paigns, his life still ceases with his soldier- To be rid of women, however, we must

the following amusing incident of his par. ship.

take thought not of the uniform only; there ish-life:

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