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galleries of that institution, of the works of | mirth-provoking opera will probably never be pared for Continental circulation, that is to its associates from the period of its foundation performed in Paris again. The authorities say, a thoroughly English newspaper deprived in 1704 to the present time. The managing have forbidden its reproduction on account of of all its Continental and cosmopolitan teat
committee announces that the object of the its satire on the petty princes of Germany, So the Register remains the only really | exhibition is to give a representation of the and its general dealings with German sub- American newspaper in Paris. Those Ameri
development of art in the Austrian dominions jects. It is feared that General Boum and cans abroad who can read French (and their since the beginning of the last century.
Baron Puck might be made the object of a name it is not legion) usually peruse the popular demonstration more ardent than agree- saucy, witty, mendacious Figaro, notwith
able. The vew comedy by Messrs. Meilhac standing its Legitimist propensities. From Abroad.
and Halévy, which is intended for the Comédie repository of all the news, scandal, and caFrançaise, is nearly finished, but its title and nards of the Parisian world, it is certainly
subject have not yet transpired. I believe I very amusing, but about the world of outside OUR PARIS LETTER.
before informed you of the fact that it had barbarism it troubles itself very little. Noth
July 28, 1875. been sold to an American manager before it ing that is not Parisian, or at least French, is THIS is emphatically the dull senson in was half finished. The new comedy by Ale- of sufficient importance to be noticed in its
Paris as in New York. The fashionables xandre Dumas, which is destined for the same columns. For instance, when the Schiller was have gone out of town; two-thirds of the the- theatre, is to form a pendant to his “Demi- | lost, the Figaro declined to publish a list of atres are closed, and the other third is drag- Monde," and is to trace the influence of ces the passengers, for the good and sufficient reaging out a precarious existence, aided by stray dames upon the literature, the society, and the son that there were no French persons among contributions from transient foreigners. Even politics of the day—a wide-reaching subject, them. Very amusingly, too, it called attention ttc Sultan of Zanzibar is about to take his de- and one that methinks is not specially fitted solemnly to the fact that the three German parture. The presence of his dusky highness for dramatic treatment. Dumas has shut him- lines, the Adler, the Hamburg, and the Northhaz brightened up matters for a week past. self up in his country-seat, and is hard at work German Lloyd, had lost six steamers in the He has been going round sight-seeing, has on this piece, which he declares is to be his course of twenty years, ignoring or forgetting had a superb pair of vases presented to him at chef-d'ouvre, Sardou's "Remorse" is already another fact, namely, that the single French depres, and received a beautiful chair-cover in on rehearsal at the Gymnase, though it is not line had lost three steamers inside of one tapestry on the occasion of his visit to the Gobe- to he produced before October or November. year. Though the Figaro can boast of so lins. Fancy wasting such artistic treasures on a The leading roles have been confided to M. many American readers, it cherishes a bitter barbaric African! He is by no means a beauty Worms and Mademoiselle Tallandiera.
dislike against Americans in general, and to look upon, being thick-lipped and woolly- before it is produced there is talk of reviving American women in particular, and never lets bearded atter the manner of his race in gen- “La Dame aux Camélias," with Tallandiera slip a chance of abusing and of slandering eral, though his complexion is far from that as Marguerite Gautier.
them. of a negro, being yellow, or rather coffee-col- The Plon lawsuit has come to the surface The great Fluvial and Maritime Exhibition ored. Some of his suite, however, are as black again. It may be remembered that M. Plon, at the Palais d'Industrie is nearly in ordere ebony. He seemed greatly to enjoy his the celebrated book-publisher, instituted some not quite, though it has been open now for visit to the Jardin d'Acclimatation, and was time ago a suit against the estate of Napoleon nearly two weeks. But the noise of hammerparticularly amused with the gambols of the III., to obtain payment for a large portion of his ing still rises over all the din of the machinesta-lions. As to the Opéra, he evidently edition of the “Life of Cæsar." He, or rather ry, and workmen are still to be seen rushing thought very little of the performance, and his heirs, for M. Plon himself is dead, accuses to and fro with beams, and pipes, and boxes, with reason, for it was very, very poor. One the late emperor of a breach of contract in not striving to get things in order. The title of act of “ La Juive," and the ballet of " Coppe- having finished the work. Twenty-two thou- the exhibition is ludicrously inaccurate-of fia, filled out the programme of the evening. sand copies remain on hand, for which an in- course there are some things there that pertain The sultan evidently admired the pantomimic demnity of one hundred and sixty-seven thou- to rivers and maritime navigation, but the part of the ballet, but he yawned over the sand francs is claimed. The lawyers for the bulk of the articles exhibited has about as opera, and seemed totally unimpressed by the other side sought to prove that the literary | much to do with navigation as with the moon. dancing. The performance was very brief, and pecuniary success of the work had been Clocks, bronzes, bird-cages, rat-traps, gilt and beginning as it did at balf-past eight, and great, and instanced the fact that the firm had inlaid furniture, chocolate, soap, fire - proof terminating at eleven-a short allowance of paid to the emperor one hundred and nine- | safes, and patent beds, such is the variety of amusement for those who had paid three dol- ty-two thousand francs as author's royalty. articles that crowd the long nave of the Palais. lars and three dollars and forty cents for their But none the less did the fact transpire that It is, in fact, a regular Franklin Institute disstats. There are grave complaints afloat about from 1867 to 1870, inclusive, not one hundred play, only not so varied as are those at home, the management of the Opéra at present. It and fifty copies of the work had been sold. though probably more tasteful. One of the most is said that M. Halanzier is running it simply Evidently paying court to literary sovereigns imposing attractions of the place is a gigantic to make money. The extremo economy with is a costly game for publishers to indulge in. piece of rock-work towering nearly to the roof which the musical part of the organization is The English newspapers in Paris are of the Palais, with a cascade dashing and sparmanaged, none of the great French singers of not very numerous. First, of course, on kling down the front of it and falling into an orthe day, with the single exception of Faure, the list comes the time-honored Galignani, namental basin at its base. Back of the cascade forming part of the troupe; the very few op- which would be very nice if it was not so a cool, deep, dark grotto affords an entrance eras that comprise the répertoire, and the man- thoroughly British in tone and selections, for those who wish to enjoy the view of the azerial indifference to novelty or artistic en- and if we were not obliged to pay ten cents crowded nave through the veil of falling water. emble, make up quite a list of well-grounded for it. Nor are its dimensions proportioned to Mosses and evergreens garnish the clefts of complaints. It is whispered, moreover, that its price, for it is a mere single-sheet affair, the mimic rocks, aquatic plants bloom in the the manager is in league with the speculators containing about as much matter as the Phila- pool, and the whole affair looks like a permatbat infest the precincts of the Opera House, delphia Ledger. Next comes the American nent and natural decoration, instead of an effort and that the alleged scarcity of seats at the Register, with its twelve pages, its full and of decorative art. A monster aquarium, in regular prices, which Heaven knows are high complete lists of American arrivals abroad, and the same kind of artificial rock-work, extends enough in all conscience, is owing to this com- its exhaustive and entertaining summary of for some fifty or sixty feet along one of the . plicity. Be this as it may, it is generally con- news both foreign and domestic. Its New side-avenues. There is a monster clock that oded that M. Halanzier is far less concerned York correspondence is peculiarly fresh, tells the simultaneous time in all the principal for the artistic than for the pecuniary success sparkling, and interesting. Six cents is the cities of the world. There are many swimof the Opéra.
price of this flourishing Yankee production. ming and diving suits, Captain Boyton having Schneider is positively to return to the The Continental Herald, originally published made that style of thing extremely popular stage next season. She has been impelled to in Geneva, but transferred to Paris a few over here. There is a boat all of solid mathis step by the cost of her superb hotel on months ago, bade fair at one time to become hogany, hollowed out from a single log, and the Avenue de l'Impératrice. The price of a popular and thriving institution, But it polished and varnished outside so as to show that bas made quite a hole in her investments, got into difficulties, and about six weeks ago the grain and color of the wood. In this boat, nnd she wishes to repair the breach. She is was sold out to the London Hour. It comes so runs the legend, Juarez once made his esto create the leading character in a new piece to us now from London, dated a day ahead, cape when hard pressed by the soldiers of by Messrs. Meilhac and Halévy, at the Varié- and with a column or two on American and Maximilian. The English division of the extés-probably the long-promised piece of "La French topics, but, apart from its heading and hibition contains some curious and interesting Boulangère a des Ecus." There was some talk the additions aforesaid, it is nothing more or models of vesselş, some beautiful sail and row of reviving “ La Grande-Duchessc," but that less than an edition of the London paper, pre- | boats, and a very curious model of a life-sav
ing apparatus, intended to transport ship- an invitation to dinner at a certain house, ar- his pen. Even for the short story - "The wrecked passengers from a stranded vessel to rived in due course. It was observed that he Marriage of Moira O'Fergus"—which he wrote the shore. The upper ends of the cords are was rather excited and strange in manner, but in the Cornhill, he received two hundred attached to the galleries of the Palais, and the as he is known to have a singularly high-pounds. Princely pay, this-worthy of the exhibitor is kept busy hauling up and down strung, nervous temperament, 'no particular days when Thackeray was the Cornhill's edithe miniature basket that runs so deftly along attention was paid to this circumstance. Din- tor! Great indeed has been the falling off in the cords. It is a pity that the full-sized ap- ner went off in the usual way. The guest of this magazine's circulation since that time. paratus itself is not exhibited, for, if a regular the evening was particularly brilliant; his Thackeray got it up to nearly a hundred thoucar with a full-grown man in it were to be rapid, discursive conversation never ceased. sand; now, under Mr. Leslie Stephen's editorhoisted up and let down occasionally, the at- After dinner, in the drawing-room, he con- ship, it sells about twenty-five thousand. Still, traction would have been far greater. As to sented to read some sonnets from his most this circulation is nearly double that of any of the furniture, porcelain, etc., the display is not recently-published volume, and he was good our other shilling monthlies. nearly so good as it was at the Exhibition of enough to expound in most eloquent and lu- Mademoiselle Zare Thalberg's lines have Fine Arts applied to Industry which was held minous language the subtler meanings of these certainly fallen in pleasant places. As I relast year. Among the edible products, which poems and their connection with each other. marked the other week, she has already become are exhibited in great numbers, the Margarine His audience were delighted. Here and there, immensely popular over here; and not only Mouries, or imitation butter, is probably the of course, there was a touch of extravagance is she a great favorite, but she is doing what most curious. The counter, piled with pale- in his speech, but to a poet some poetic license Albert Smith boldly confessed his desire to do yellow pots and rolls, each in its clean linen must be granted. Before going he requested -“turning a few coppers.” Mademoiselle is cloth, looked very tempting, and the butter the lady of the house to accept the volume, and in great demand for private parties. She sings resembled the real article à s'y méprendre. At inscribed her name in it. All this was very and warbles at them exquisitely, to the chathe back of the stall was piled a row of kegs well, but some two or three days afterward he grin, no doubt, of many an old dowager whose marked “Geneva Butter," "English Butter," called upon his host, and immediately began to daughters hang on hand—and each time she “ Belgian Butter,” etc., each country, it ap- pour forth a whole string of apologies. He had attends one of these she gets, I am told, somepears, having a fancy for a particularly fla- mislaid the card-he had mistaken the night-thing like a hundred guineas. By-the-way, vored article, which the imitation butter is he had had to go down into the country. This thie Times has just accorded a meed of praise prepared to supply. The prospectus issued by astonished person now discovered that his to the young songstress. In its “few general the manufacturers declares that the materials guest of the evening was absolutely in igno- observations on the season" at Covent Garemployed are simply beef-tallow purified by a rance of his ever having been near the house, den, it says, in its usual ponderous style: particular process, and milk or cream. The that he had come to apologize for having “Mademoiselle Zare Thalberg, Mr. Gye's advantages of the Margarine over the real ar- neglected the invitation, and that he was anx- youngest artist, although she has only apticle are claimed to be cheapness (the best ta- ious that the lady of the house should accept peared in three characters, may be looked ble-butter costs twenty-five cents a pound, a copy, to be sent from the publishers, of upon as his most promising recent acquisition. and cooking-butter twenty-two), economy in the very book which he himself had given In each part she has made a highly-favorable quantity, and the property of remaining sweet her."
impression.” In these “few observations," for a much longer time. America seems to be From my knowledge of the author of too, the leading journal remarks, again in represented at the exhibition mainly by the “ Chastelard," I have not the smallest doubt stilted phraseology, “That Madame Adelina canned fruits and oysters, the pea-nuts, the that the above story is true. Mr. Swinburne Patti, on legitimate grounds, enjoys more than cocoa-nut cakes, and the buckwheat-flour, ex- is one of the most nervous men-he is very ever the favor of the public, is an unquestionhibited by Cardinet, the well-known Ameri- slightly built, and not more than five feet two able fact." It also assures us that Mademoican grocer of the Rue de Seze.
in height - you could possibly imagine. I selle Albani has progressed, and is progressMadame Louis Figuier, the wife of the cele- shall never forget seeing him at the poeticing, and that M. Faure has “maintained his brated author of " The World before the Del- readings given by the poet Buchanan, some position as the first dramatic barytone"-with uge," has written a play called “La Dame aux year ago,
in the Hanover - Square Rooms. which observations opera - goers in general Lilas Blancs," which has just been brought There, in a corner, his intellectual face now will, I am sure, agrec. Further, we learn from out at the Vaudeville. The plot is very sim- wearing a scowl, now a beatific expression, this article in the Times that, “ from the 30th ple and extremely improbable. There are two as he was pleased or displeased with his broth- of March to the 17th of July—the opening women who resemble each other as closely as er-poet's elocution, did he sit twirling his fin- night and the closing night-there were eigbtwo peas in a pod. One is a proper and pious gers and thumbs in a ludicrously-excited way. ty-three performances, fifty-nine conducted by widow, and the other is an improper Indienne Ere long he became the observed of every Signor Vianesi, and twenty-four by Signor named Jaguarita. One man loves them both, “Who is that?” whispered a mercan- Bevignani. Both conductors," goes on the the first purely, and the latter passionately. tile friend to me, nodding toward him. “ Thunderer," “must have shown exemplary Jaguarita elopes with a lover whose principal “ That,” replied I, wishing to surprise the diligence, seeing that no less than twentyrecommendation seems to be that be beats man of figures, “is one of our greatest poets, nine different operas were produced, and for her, whereupon the hero marries his other Mr. Swinburne.” “Indeed!" was the reply. the greater part in the most effective manner. love. Madame Figuier does not appear to pos- “Well, I've always he that poets were a The largest number of representations sess any particular vocation for dramatic writ- rum lot; now I've no doubt about it!"
(fifteen) were devoted to three of Mozart's ing, her present effort being weak, bald, and A paragraph regarding Miss Mulock (Mrs. | operas— Don Giovanni,''Il Flauto Magico,' improbable. The parts of the two heroines Craik), the authoress of “ John Halifax, Gen- , and 'Le Nozze de Figaro;' Meyerbeer (fourare played by one actress, a débutante, Made- tleman,” that has been going the “round" teen) coming next, with Robert le Diable,' moiselle Melvil, who displayed therein no in- of the American press, contains more than one the Huguenots,' 'Dinorah,' and 'L'Etoile du considerable share of dramatic talent. Poor blunder. For instance, it says that Mrs. Craik Nord ; ' Verdi next (ten), Rossini next (nine); Bressant will probably dever appear on the is a widow; this is not so—but I can tell you Auber, Donizetti, and Gounod, each counting stage again. He is in wretched health, and is what has probably given rise to the statement. seven. So, notwithstanding the idea prevasaid to be threatened with paralysis. Ap- A short time before his marriage to Miss Mulock, lent here and there"-I am still quoting from parently Mademoiselle Broisat's assumption Mr. Craik met with an accident which neces- our representative journal—"that the coming of the character of Gabrielle de Belle-Isle was sitated the amputation of his leg. By-the- of Wagner, with his · Lohengrin,' was to be at not successful, for the play has recently been way, you have read Mrs. Craik's “The Little
least the temporary annihilation of our old and performed with Sarah Berubardt as the gentle Lame Prince ;" that charming children's story cherished masterpieces, the reverse has proved and calumniated heroine.
was suggested in some slight measure by the to be the case. Mozart, Meyerbeer, Rossini, LCOY H. HOOPER.
authoress's own experiences. Yes, she has a and Verdi, are more than ever popular; and, living romance in her house. In her family though Mozart died in 1791, Rossini left off
is a little girl who, for aught she knows, may composing in 1829, and the 'Huguenots' was OUR LONDON LETTER.
yet turn out to be of royal blood. This little produced in 1836, they are likely to retain the THE London correspondent of one of our maid was found some time ago upon a beap of popularity so well earned by their composiprovincial papers gives what he calls a “strik- stones outside Mr. and Mrs. Craik's door. The tions, in which rhythmical melody, the esing instance" of "the eccentricities of genius kind couple took her in, nursed her, and made sence and soul of music, everywhere prevails." with which literary history abounds." Why much of her (they have no children of their I, for one, hope that this predictiou will come disguise matters? It refers to Mr. Swinburne; own), and now the tiny outcast has become true. I earnestly hope that the reign of "the he is the young poet alluded to. But let me their adopted daughter.
music of the future” will be very remote inquote the anecdote. Here it is:
To use a vulgar expression, Mr. William deed! “One of our younger poets, having accepted | Black must be making “a mint of money" by
cartridge after each discharge. Many ingen. | character. So clearly do the accompanying Science, Invention, Discovery. ious and effective plans have been devised illustrations define the form of this gun, and
to adapt the repeating principle to the rifle, especially its cartridge-magazine, that but a THE EVANS REPEATING RIFLE. and by this means render a more rapid meth- brief description is needful. In the first il
od of firing possible. The Henry, Spencer, lustration we have the gun as it appears THE THE signal triumphs of American rifles
and Sharp rifles belong to this class, and to when loaded and ready for action. The and riflemen in the recent Irish and in
these may now be added the Evans repeating special feature or peculiarity here appears ternational contests have served to direct pub- rifle, which, though still awaiting that final only in the form of the stock, which consists
decision that comes only after long trial, ap- of a metallic cylinder below, upon which pears to possess advantages of a marked rest the wooden portions that partially in
In the second figure a sectional view of this magazine is given, and it is here that the ingenuity of the inventor is displayed at best. The metallic cylinder incloses a solid spiral, which is divided into longitudinal sections, each section being of sufficient size to contain a single metallic cartridge; and, as there are thirty-four of these chambers, the magazine when full contains this number of loaded cartridges.
When this magazine is to be loaded, the cartridges are introduced through an opening in the butt. Each lowering of the lever attached to the breech causes a partial rotation in the spiral case and a consequent forward movement of the cartridge. A return of the lever to its position against the butt at the same time closes the breech against the back of the inserted cartridge, and the weapon is ready for firing.
As it is our purpose simply to direct attention to the novel features of this weapon, viewed only as an ingenious mechanical device, we will not enter into a discussion of its claims to favor as set forth by the manufacturers. Enough has been said to direct attention to the principle of the gun; as to the nature of the methods by which this princi. ple is applied, we leave it for the reader to determine by experiment or professional opinion.
The recent long duration of rain-storms which has so greatly injured the hay and corn crops will add an increased interest to all suggestions having in view even a partial or late remedy of the evil. As science is powerless to avert disasters of this nature, all the service that can be rendered must partake of the nature of a cure rather than prevention. It appears that this necessity has been felt also in England, and the English Mechanic notices one of these timely inventions as follows: “The unseasonable spring renders the prospects of a good hay-crop very problematical, and the recent heavy rains have done much to spoil what little grass there was to cut. The present seems, therefore, a favor able opportunity for calling attention to a method of making hay by means of artificial heat, recently introduced by Mr. Gibbs, of Chingford, Essex. The drier consists of a sheet-iron trough, six feet in breadth, and varying in length from twenty to sixty feetthe shorter length when mounted on wheels, as a portable machine; the longer when stationary, or as a fixture in a suitable house. The trough is raised slightly at one end, so as to form a moderately-inclined surface, down which the hay slides, being assisted in that motion by the reciprocating motion given to the trough. Running up the centre of the latter is a ridge of triangular section, with openings on each side at the base, through which the hot gases may pass into the grass, which is kept constantly stirred and lightened up by
lic attention not only to the skill of our marksmen, but to the power and efficiency of the American rifle. With the generalform and construction of the single-cartridge breechloading ride our readers are doubtless familiar, and there seems to remain but one direction in which these weapons are open to improvement. We refer to the satisfactory adaptation of the repeating system. As at present constructed, the most accurate ri. files are those which require the removal of the old shell and the introduction of a fresh
able changes in the color of plants, M. Becquerel ascribes this result to the rupturing of the cells containing the coloring-matter. This opinion is sustained by the fact that when the cellular envelope is washed the leaf becomes white.
It may be of interest to our unprofessional readers to learn that, at the last meeting of the Göttingen Royal Society of Sciences, a paper was read by P. Ebell on " Mononitrobenzonaphtylamides, Dinitrobenzonaphtylamide, and their Derivatives."
NOTEWORTHY THINGS GLEANED HERE
means of a number of small iron stirrers, The success of the Merriman life-saving which imitate the action of the fork in the suit, as worn by Captain Boyton and recenthands of a hay-maker. A stove constructed ly described in these columns, has stimulated of iron plates supplies the heat, the gases be- English inventors to effort in this field. We ing drawn from it by means of a fan, which now learn from an exchange that a dress somedrives them through the jacket surrounding what on the principle of Captain Boyton's has the stove into the ridge, passing up the centre lately been invented by Mr. C. M. Lloyd. It of the trough, the temperature attained being is intended to be used in cases where, from 500° Fahr. or thereabouts. The fan is driven
expense or other causes, the more elaborate by a belt from a portable engine, but may, of costume of Captain Boyton is not available. course, be worked by horse or manual labor
It consists of an ordinary coat fitted with rewhere an engine is not at hand. The machine ceptacles, which can be readily inflated with is not intended to supersede the old-fashioned air, but when empty presents no apparent difplan, because the direct rays of the sun yield ference from any other coat. This may be the cheapest heat extant, and combined with worn by itself as a preservative in case of aca drying wind will probably be found useful cident, or, if put on with a pair of water-proof for many years, but is intended to be used in overalls, it serves as a Boyton dress. A somewet weather, in curing both fresh-cut grass what more complicated apparatus is formed, and that which has been partially converted like the bow and stern of a canoe, so that the into hay. It is stated that grass can be cut, wearer is practically supplied with a small caplaced in the trough directly, and converted noe, which he can propel and direct with a into the finest hay at once, at a cost of about paddle in the ordinary manner. An emitwo pounds per ton of hay made; but if the grant's bed is formed on a somewhat similar grass has been partially dried in the ordinary principle. The inventor has lately made some way and then wetted with rain, the hay can practical trials of his various appliances in the be saved at a cost of about eight shillings a Thames, by going from Waterloo to Lumbeth ton-not a very serious item when compared on them, and he states that he has spent as with the pounds saved on the hay thus cured." many as seven hours in the water thus dressed
witliout suffering any inconvenience. An English journal, commenting upon the fact that machinery is now being applied to WHENEVER the lakes, mountains, or skies the manufacture of watches in France, gives of Switzerland are visited by any unusual disthe following brief sketch of one or two of turbance, the scientific world may rest assured the more ingenious machines now in use at that the phenomena will be made the subject the famous watch-manufactories at Waltham, of searcbing and thorough investigation. We Massachusetts. With regard to the common are now informed that the extraordinary hail notched or cog wheels we learn that they are and thunder storms which preceded the recent first stamped in outline from thin ribbons of disastrous floods in France extended over the metal. A number of the disks thus formed city of Geneva. Here we learn that the pheare threaded on a fine rod and clamped to
more satisfactorily observed gether. The bar thus formed is placed in the
than elsewhere. At first the hailstones fell tooth-cutting machine, where a reciprocating upon a belt about three miles in brendth, knife cuts a groove in it; the bar is turned which belt increased in breadth toward the automatically a sixtieth or other portion of a lake, where it was about nine miles wide. In turn, according to the number of teeth, and a a recent letter, M. Calladon states that hailsecond groove is cut; the process is then re- stones weighing three hundred grammes each peated till the required number of teeth is had been collected. The path of the storm formed. For cutting the escapement-wheel, will be investigated by the meteorological with its curiously-formed teeth, a more elabo
boards, and accurate maps prepared. rate apparatus is required. Each tooth requires six cuts to finish it. For this purpose
The forthcoming Paris International Geothe little rod of steel disks is fixed diametri.
graphical Exhibition promises to prove a succally across a circular plate, round the edge
cess, both in the departments of scientific inof which are six knives, each mounted so as
quiry and popular enlightenment and instruc
tion. It is announced that an immense numto be capable of traversing across the plate. The rod is acted upon successively by these
ber of photographs have been received from knives, it being turned radially so as to come
the English Palestino Exploration Fund,
which will serve to illustrate, in a complete opposite each in turn. When all six have
and graphic manner, the work already accomoperated, a single tooth is completed, and the rod is turned on its axis to present a fresh sur
plished by the English explorers and engi
The Russian and Austrian Govern
neers. face to the knives. This is continued till all the teeth are finished, when the apparatus is
ments have caused special and elegantly-fitted automatically thrown out of gear. The jewels pavilions to be erected for their occupation as
exhibition-rooms. Among the Danish contriare cut, by saws of iron faced with diamond
butions will be a complete collection of the dust, into proper shapes, and drilled by a wire
dresses used by the natives of Greenland. hair covered with diamond-dust, all by machines. Even the screws, of which two hun
A NEw quality ascribed to ozone by M. Boildred and thirty are made from a thirteen-inch length of steel wire, the waste being more
lot is its bleaching power, as shown in the
action of chlorine. Ozone, he says, employed tban the amount actually worked, are formed
directly acts as an oxidizing agent, daying by a machine which makes the thread nuts off the screw, makes the slot in the head, and which it is in contact. When chlorine is al
hold of the hydrogen of the substance with delivers the screw complete. About one hun
lowed to act on any vegetable or animal matdred and fifty thousand of these screws go
ter it decomposes a certain quantity of water, to the pound troy, so that the minuteness of
taking the hydrogen to form hydrochloric the mechanism may be imagined. All the rest
acid. The oxygen thus set free is changed of the watch, except only the dial, is con
to ozone, which in turn lays hold of the hystructed by machines of equal delicacy. The dial has to be painted by hand, though it
drogen in the organic matter, the result being would seem as if so simple a printing opera
a bleaching of the fabric. tion ought to be done readily enough by mech- Having observed that the discharge from a anisın.
powerful electrical machine produced remark
"T has so often been argued that art is in
dependent of morals, that a writer in Cornhill takes up this “pretentious fallacy,” as he calls it, and discusses the question with no little acumen :
The duty of the moralist, it may be said, is to keep emotions under due restraint; the duty of the artist is to find them a voice and embody them in appropriate symbols. Since every emotion is right in its proper place, there is none which should be excluded from artistic utterance. We should know what all men think and have thought about themselves and the world; the skeptic and the believer, the enthusiast and the cynic, the man of strenuous ambition and the indolent epicurean, should each express himself in art and song. There is a time for all things; a time to be sad and a time to be merry; and, as in Mr. Tennyson's “ Palace of Art," the imagination should contain a gallery hung round with pictures “fit for every mood of mind.” To par of this doctrine we must emphatically demur. There are passions which ought to be suppressed, however little we may be inclined to the ascetic theory. The progress of the race is a process of eradicating brutalizing and antisocial instincts. He who keeps them alive is doing harm, and more barm if he has the talents of a Shakespeare, a Mozart, or a Raphael. There are sentiments which imply moral disease as distinctly as there are sensations which imply physical disease. Cynicism, and prurience, and a voluptuous delight in cruelty, are simply abominable, whoever expresses them, and however great his powers. Human nature, unluckily, is not all that could be wished. There are people to whom it is a pleasure to dwell upon foul and cruel impulses, who hate virtue, and therefore deny its existence. They are simply a nuisance; and, if they can't be stamped out by sterner measures, they should at least be kept in order by public opinion. The artist, it is often said, should not be condemned to write for school-girls. Certainly not; but to use such an argument on behalf of vice is simply to say that we ought all to get drunk because we are not all bound to retire to a cloister. “You,” we say, “ are a wretched debauchee.” “Well," it is replied, "I can't be a milksop.” There are, luckily, other alternatives. To the doctrine that norels should be written for men as well as schoolgirls we should add that there is only one class of human beings for whom they should not be written. That is the class who have become men, but have ceased to be manly. Nobody should compose poems for human beasts. Prudery is a bad thing; but there is something worse.
To leave that unpleasant topic, however, men lug in their morality rather awkwardly, are proverbially detestable, for a novel with a let us admit that, as a rule, all healthy phases and forget that a poet is something different purpose means a book setting forth that a of human feeling may be rightfully represent- from a preacher. That is a blunder in art; villain is hanged and a good man presented ed. Keats is not to be condemned because but the blunder is, not that they moralized, with a thousand pounds — that is silly and his poetry is the expression of a sensuous tem- but that they moralized in a wrong way. In- | really immoral; for, in the first place, the imperament. A keen delight in all external stead of leaving their readers to be affected by aginary event is no guarantee for the real beauty of form and color, even the lower pleas- the morality which permeated the whole struct- event; secondly, a particular case does not ures of the animal appetites, may bo fitly ex- ure and substance of their poetry, they chose prove a rule; thirdly, it is not true that virpressed in art. We will not condemn the con- to extract little nuggets of moral platitudes, tue is always rewarded and vice punished; vivial poet who sang the praises of “jolly and so far failed, because taking the most ob- and fourthly, virtue should not be inculcated good ale and old;" we will continue to love vious but least effective mode of preaching. with a simple view to money or the gallows. our Burns, and Béranger, and Horace, and
But even a novel should have a ruling thought, Herrick, epicurears though they may have The conclusion of the article is as fol. though it should not degenerate into a tract; been at times, and will agree with Sir Toby lows:
and the thought should be one which will Belch that cakes and ale shall still be con
help to purify and sustain the mind by which sumed, and ginger be hot in the mouth, though The poet and the great artist of every it is assimilated, and therefore tend to make Malvolios. may still exist in the world, and kind partly expresses his own sentiments, and society so far healthier and happier. though Sir Wilfrid Lawson may propose to is partly the mouth-piece of the social order shut up all public-houses in the most genial and of which he forms a part. The greatest art is facetious terms. This is the doctrine which is only produced in periods when some strong
The papers in Blackwood entitled “The really advocated by persons who deny the re- intellectual or social impulse is stirring the letions of art to morality, when that avowal is foundations of the established order. That,
Abode of Snow” conclude in the July numnot meant to cover a cynical denial of all mor- as all admit, was the explanation' in general | ber with a description of the “ Afghan Bor. al obligation. There is here a real difficulty terms of the poetic outbursts in the Eliza- der.” The writer gives a graphic picture of upon some theories. We feel that, in spite of bethan and revolutionary periods. So far,
the Afghans, which we copy: all his interpreters, it is hard to make Shake-| then, as the art is the imaginative projection of speare a moralist. He is terribly tolerant to the great forces which are renovating or devel- I had made a good deal of acquaintance Falstaff and Sir Toby Belch. He does not oping society, whether the forces be intellect- with Afghans before this journey, and must turn round upon us to preach morality like a ual or social, it is healthy and admirable. A say a word in regard to their character. They religious tract; and, indeed, we find it rather delight in the beauty of human beings or ex- are a very strange mixture of heroism and hard to extract any definite moral from his ternal Nature is in itself a healthy sentiment, cowardice, fidelity and treachery, kindness works. Nor is Keats, the great favorite of a though it may be accidentally associated with and cruelty, magnanimity and meanness, highmodern school, very strong as a preacher. He baser elements. So far as the poet is himself sounding morality and unspeakably atrocious is not one of the straight-laced; nor could any a man of healthy nature and powerful mind, viciousness. Though their language affords of his poems be read with good effect at a he will be qualified to act as a mouth-piece no countenance to their own belief that they meeting of Messrs. Moody and Sankey. And of the forces which make for good, and to in- are sons of Israel, and the linguist scoffs at yet we could not give up our Falstaff, or tensify their action. He may be imbittered this supposition in his usual manner, I think “Romeo and Juliet," or even the “Sonnets," by the difference between his ideal and the there is something in it. In physical appear. or the "Ode to a Nightingale," or the “Eve actual; his love of beauty or his strong capa
ance and in character they resemble the Heof St. Agnes," at the bidding of any number city for pleasure may partially pervert his brews of bistory; and it is unscientific, in of Moody and Sankeys. How can we justify character; and he may be himself utterly un- judging of the origin of a people, to place exour prejudices, or can they be justified, with- conscious of any thing beyond his immediate clusive reliance on one particular, such as lanout admitting that the obligations of the mor- purpose of expressing overpowering emotions. guage. Much meditation over this subject al law cease in the region of art, as the obliga- | Many sickly and wrong-minded and immoral has also convinced me that our modern writers tion of the fourth commandment is some- men may unknowingly coöperate with the are far too much given to drawing hard and times considered to be limited by the English powers of good. But whatever is morbid in fast lines when treating of ethnology. They Channel ?
them is so far a disadvantage, though it may get hold of a race or a nation somewhere in the Let us first get rid of one or two confusing be a collateral result from the excessive devel- / past, and virtually, indeed often unconsciousassociations. The theory, as thus stated, does opment of certain natural gifts.
ly, assume that it has become sterootyped for not assert that art should never be moral, but We need not, then, ask in all cases wheth- all time, leaving out of mind that circumthat this is an artistic sphere which lies, so to er a poet or a poem is moral, only because we stances similar to those which form a race are speak, outside of morality. If the poetry of have to ask a wider question. Is it, on the continually modifying its peculiarities. As to Keats were directly demoralizing, it would be whole, an expression of sentiments developed the Afghans, I deem it likely that there is sone condemned by our previous statements. The by the invigorating and regenerating pro
truth in all the theories which have been allegation is, in fact, that it is neither moral cesses ? Morality, on one side at least, is started as to their origin. They are probnor immoral. Richly colored in an artistic nothing but the system of rules laid down to ably partly Semitic, partly Aryan, partly Asisense, it is of a neutral tint in an ethical sense. secure the healthy growth of the social or- atic, and partly European. There is nothing Keats introduces us to a region where we do ganism. Every.impulse which comes into improbable in the supposition that their Henot deny the advantages of virtue, but simply conflict with these rules must therefore of brew blood has been mingled with that of the forget that such things as vice and virtue ex- necessity be pernicious and morbid. No pos- soldiers of Alexander the Great and of the ist. But to limit art to this sphere would be.sible cxcuse can be valid for transgressing | Greek colonists of the Græco-Bactrian kingas narrow-minded as to exclude it. If the ar- them. But the rules generally express the doms, and also of the Asiatic Albanians, who tist should express every sentiment, he cer- negative conditions, and are necessarily limit- were driven across Persia. The Indo-Bactritainly should not omit the noblest. He should od in their scope, because in many cases the ans, again, may have modified the race; and provide utterance for the heroic, the patriotic, instincts are a better guide than a tabulated this theory of a composite origin affords some the social, and the religious, or his field will series of rigid directions. We do not think explanation of the inconsistencies of the Af. be limited indeed. Dante, one may assume, it necessary to order a man to eat when he is ghan character. was a moralist; or, to confine ourselves to hungry; and we leave him to choose of two Afghan history is a dreadful story of cruEnglish literature, men like Milton, and harmless pleasures that which he sincerely elty, faithlessness, perfidy, and treachery. Wordsworth, and Cowper, were moralists; prefers. Poetry, therefore, which is capable Though they may understand the matter nobody can love Scott who does not assimi- of expressing all human emotions, very often among themselves, yet it is impossible for the late his most manly morality. All our great expresses them in cases where no moral rule European to draw any line within which the novelists, indeed, were moralists. “Richard- can be applied. We may, in that sense, say Patháns may be trusted. The tomb of Cain bon," says old Johnson, “ taught the passions that it may and ought to be extra-moral, is said to be in Cabool, and the popular belief to move at the command of virtue.” Fielding though not immoral. But in every case, with- is that the devil fell there when he was thrown can scarcely tell his story sometimes for mor- out exception, it should stimulate the healthy, out of heaven. Those are the views of the alizing; and Dickens is perhaps too deliber- not the morbid emotions; and, in that sense, Afghans themselves, and a double portion of ately moral. Pope was almost exclusively a all art and poetry should be moral and even the spirit of Cain seems to have descended moralist; and Pope's boast that he “moral- didactic, though it generally sets before us
In one small village through ized his song" is adopted verbally from Spen- symbols of the innocent and ennobling senti- which I passed, there had been twelve secret ser, whose great poem is formally intended to ments instead of formally deducing them assassinations within nine months. Among be an ethical treatise. Some of these great | from logical axioms. Novels with a purpose these people you have perpetually-recurring