« הקודםהמשך »
hended in their full force by those who have mental impressions that had previously passed in some of their aspects, but to be viewed patiently and thoroughly investigated the through my own mind, but was perfectly in- with apprehension and corrected by medical nervous traits and hereditary tendencies of capable of going beyond them.
treatment, if possible, not exhibited to gratify persons of this class. A case which I have Now for the sequel. On careful inquiry, the morbid curiosity of such as are always recently investigated will exhibit the whole Miss H— confessed that her attacks of hunting for miracles and mysteries. * group of facts in such a manner as to indi. clairvoyance were at first heralded by almost One or two points in reference to both cate their relation to each other. Sophia unendurable neuralgia, with pains shooting these cases should be noted, in order that
- twenty-one years of age, has been from the back of the neck upward and for- their bearing may be fairly appreciated. In subject to paroxysms of clairvoyance for five ward, and that these paroxysms still occa- each family the elder brother, who may be years. She is a native of Boston, of cerebro- sionally occurred. Her brother, Charles H- fairly presumed to have been the product of vital temperament, the sensuous predominat- eighteen years of age, and of vital tempera- the highest physical vigor of the parents, ing over the intellectual, and in apparently ment, has been for several years under treat- partially escapes the taint, which appears in good health. “Your theory, Fairfield," said ment for spinal epilepsy, and her father was the elder Eddy only as intellectual predispo& medical man, who is a little inclined to the a pronounced epileptic. An elder brother, sition, and in the elder H— as a tendency doctrines of spiritualism,“ breaks down in the thirty-seven years of age, is subject to parox- to vertigo. Again, of the two Eddy boys, case of Miss H — She is in perfect physical ysms of neuralgia very similar to those in who are mediums, the elder and stronger, a health.” Having been introduced, Miss — which the career of Miss H- commenced. man of vital temperament, and about thirty was so kind as to submit to any tests I might In a word, not to amplify tedio
years of age, produces the materializing pheselect, and to answer any questions I wished leptic predisposition is strongly marked in nomena, while the younger and punier of to ask. I accordingly provided myself with an every member of the family-an inherited them is a trance-medium. I speak convenassortment of drugs of various tastes, rang- nervous taint, showing itself in the younger tionally when I talk of the phenomena proing from the intolerably bitter and acid to the son in its most pronounced form, and in the duced by these mediums; for, having made exceedingly sweet and aromatic, taking the instance of the medium herself in a lar. it a rule not to trouble myself with investiprecaution to procure them in the form of su- vated form, without perceptible convulsions. gating public séances wbere the probabilities gar-coated pellets. The induced clairvoyance All three have, at different periods, been sub- are that all the necessary facilities for optical having supervened with the slight shiver usual ject to attacks of somnambulism; and yet, deception have been prearranged, I did not in such cases, I requested that the eyes of judging from superficial data, they are of ro- apply any tests whatever, and limited my in. Miss — should be bandaged with a heavy bust constitution and in full health.
quiries to the detection and description of black-silk scarf, personally supervising the The case of the Eddy brothers, whose the epileptic predisposition. And if any operation. I then requested the attendant to séances were noticed in my recent article, fur- reader sbould say that it is impossible for a sit in an adjoining room, where he could see nishes another illustration of the same state me, but not Miss H- ; and, seating my. of facts. The father was a Metbodist ex.
* What is styled credulity has its physiologica) self about six feet from the medium, I com- horter of the most emotional type. The
basis, in the majority of instances, so far as I have menced the experiments by putting a pellet mother was a compound of religious enthu- observed, either in the existence of peculiar nerof quinine in my mouth. For half a minute siast and fortune-teller. The maternal ances. vous experiences or in a predisposition that renders the expression on the face of Miss H
them possible. In the course of my intimacies try was actively concerned in the ancient
with students, and with highly-cultivated persons, was one of exceeding satisfaction; but the manifestations at Salem.
The two young
who were incapable of credulity in the ordinary acinstant the sugar was dissolved, and the qui- er brothers, mediums, have always been ceptation of the term, I have frequently observed nine commenced to affect the taste-buds, the subject to what the neighbors style “queer
the phenomenon of an inherited predisposition
battling for existence with the rational intellect, on satisfaction vanished, and, although I did not spells," and the father had fits. The elder
occasions when the nervous system was laboring move a muscle in indication of the disagree brother is a Swedenborgian minister — that under excessive exhaustion. At such times, or in able sensation, she began to expectorate spas- is to say, holds tenets peculiarly akin to periods of great nervous tension, inherited supermodically and violently, as if trying to expel the doctrines of spiritualism. I investigated
stitions very frequently assert themselves sponsomething from her mouth. I continued the the case in October last, some weeks after
taneously, with something of their original force,
even with persons of the highest intellectual cultexperiments with pellets of asafætida and the work on spiritualism had been submitted,
ure. A man who has had trance-experiences at a other sugar-coated preparations, with the re- and consequently was not able to include the period of nervous debility, or under the influence sult of convincing myself that the series of data in the forthcoming work—a thing to be
of an anæsthetic agent, knows experientially that
such experiences are real, and that they bring with sensations experienced by me was actually the more regretted because the facts are typ
them a train of very singular and inexplicable psyreproduced seriatim on the tongue of the pa- ically illustrative of the correlation that sub
chical impressions. In good health he may have tient. I then directed my mind to the table sists between epilepsy and the paroxysms of no interest in such things, except to say truthfully in my own room, and asked the medium to the spiritual medium. Into the laws that that they may occur, and to concede their existence describe it in detail, which she did, specify- govern this correlation I will not now in
as strange psychological facts — morbid but real
products. On the other hand, in a very large class ing one jar of alcohol as containing the brain quire, as I have had my opportunity on that
of persons, who, owing to favorable conditions in and spinal column of a cat; another as filled question. Physiologists cannot tell why it is life, know nothing of these phenomena experienwith yellow liquid, and containing the brain that a tomcat with blue eyes is always deaf, tially, the predisposition exists, and shows itself in of a mouse and that of a fish ; and a third as
what is generally termed credulity—that is to say, nor why gout is correlated with psoriasis.
in a tendency to accept and dwell lovingly upon being half-full of bugs and flies. She then The facts are matters of observation, for
the marvelous. In resolving this problem, it is described my Quekett microscope and the which, in the present state of physiological worth the while to remember that all our psychi. mahogany box in which it was kept; went on science, no rational explanation can be as
cal possibilities are potential in the nervous sys
tem, and that, comparatively speaking, these posto tell me about my dissecting-lens and how signed; but they are none the less facts of
sibilities vary exceedingly in different individuals, it was arranged (the instrument is one of frequent occurrence, and of unquestionable
are partly hereditary, partly acquired, and result very peculiar pattern, especially adapted to validity. Again, in the phenomena of spirit- in that variety of intellectual biases that contact insect-dissection); enumerated the titles of ualism, whoever will take the trouble to in. with men continually illustrates. The point I wish books lying on the table, among them a work vestigate the nervous states and hereditary
to impress particularly, however, is that the ten
dency to believe in strange psychic phenomena is on comparative anatomy and one of Huxley's predisposition of one medium after another,
generally the intellectual representative of an inrecent publications; and, after specifying until he has exhausted the list of available herent but often latent possibility of experiencing various glasses and minor instruments lying candidates, will find that the phenomena are
them. Dr. Maudsley styles this latent neurosis. in a green box (which I had forgotten about), so constantly associated with the epileptic premonitory dream must exist in the nervous or.
For example: the possibility of experiencing a finally concluded by describing a condensing-neurosis as to be justly classifiable with the
ganism before a person can concede the reality of lens, and telling me what it was for, adding symptoms of that special type of nervous de- such a phenomenon. In other words, strange beliefs that I often used it in dissecting mice, which generation. Such being the case, clairvoy. are the exponents of exceptional nervous suscepwas the fact. The séance occupied half, an ance and trance must be considered simply analysis, have been mainly instrumental in dimin
tibilities. Good physical conditions, not rational bour, perhaps. At subsequent séances she as the psychical exponents of certain morbid
ishing the popular interest in exceptional psychic exhibited the same singular accuracy as to states of the tissues of the brain-very strange
person to be indifferent as to the question such, psychological science cannot properly hair growing on the frontal part of the head. whether the phenomena produced by the disregard them.
The ball lay under fragments of the skull elder Eddy are genuine or spurious, I have This one warping let me give to amateur just above the right eye. I extracted it simply to answer that I had previously wit- investigators : unless you are thoroughly without relief to the symptoms, which were nessed similar phenomena in my own room,
trained to habits of exact scientific investi. as follows: under conditions of test prescribed by my gation, and have passed patient years in the " Although the man had walked sixteen self, and that the important point with me practical study of the anatomy, bistology, miles after he was shot, in a military attiwas to verify the epileptic predisposition in functions, and forces of the nervous system, tude, with his musket on his shoulder, he as many instances of spiritual mediums as I relegate this field of inquiry to men who was determined to keep on walking, and I could possibly or conveniently observe. Thus, make a specialty of neurological studies. If was compelled to have him thrown down and having verified the materializing phenomena you have had such a training, and can upravel his musket taken away by force, to prevent in several instances, and knowing, as a sci- the details of a nervous organism, centre by him from continuing his monotonous military entific verity, that they may occur, although centre, then, as a preliminary step, visit in. tramp. He would stop an instant, answer feeI have an exceeding interest in the nervous sane asylums and hospitals and prisons, and bly any question put to him, then walk on. traits and predispositions of a medium who make yourself familiar from life with all the Being turned about by force, he would walk can produce them, I am neither startled nor shades and varieties of morbid vervous pbe- on in the new direction until he was stopped curious as to the feats themselves. From
As an initial memorandum, you and turned again ; yet taking notice of obthe scientific aspect, they are the least im- will find that, in insane asylums, along with stacles in his way, avoiding trees, fording portant phenomena of spiritualism — star- every species of hallucination and delusion, streams of water with his usual care, and so tling, astonishing, adapted to captivate the the vision of spirits of the dead and the pe. When compelled to lie still he evinced popular imagination, and to the production riodical paroxysm of clairvoyance are of con- no disposition to get up, or even to alter his of sensational reports in the newspapers; but stant occurrence. I have seldom observed position. When I compelled him to eat, he mere nervous tours de force that no man cares an insane patient carefully through any num- went on with the motions of eating after the to witness after he has once decided whether ber of paroxysms without finding that the food was exhausted and until I stopped him they are real occurrences or not. Of course, fit was either preceded or followed-gener. | forcibly. But walking without the power to after witnessing phenomena of this type, and ally the former-by a period of clairvoyance, stop was the symptom that supervened whenwhile reviewing one's mental memoranda of during which the intelligence exhibited parti- ever he was excited. He slowly and feebly them, the question always comes up whether cipated in the same preternatural aspects that answered all my questions; stated that he they may not have been mere phantasms, are common with trance-mediums. Next, on had no pain, did not think he was in any dadoptical illusions, reflex spectra, or something comparing the physical symptoms that ac- ger, and was not badly hurt; expressed a of such nature. For myself, I will say that I company the trances of spiritual mediums wish to have his wound dressed and to return have lived in the world thirty-five years, and with the more pronounced series observed in to the field, but did not care particularly that, both as respects vision and hearing, I settled insanity, the investigator will find whether I dressed it or not; showed great have always been noted for accuracy and that they are substantially identical — the muscular strength, so that it required considdelicacy of perception, and for mathematical exponents of what may be styled a progres- erable force to compel him to obey surgical distinctness of impression as to objects cog- sive nervous dissolution. The conclusion will orders. After he had been held fast by me nizable by the senses. A delusive sensation thus be forced upon him that the phenomena and my assistants for a few minutes, he was is something unknown to me. I have been, of spiritualism are symptoms of nervous per- ordered to stand and present arms.
He did at various periods, subject to presentimental version and degeneracy, and that the singular so very promptly, and would have died, I dreams and to waking premonitions, but, ex- forces illustrated in these phenomena are the think, rather than stir out of his tracks, uncept in nervous fever, or under anesthesia, results of rapid molecular transformations less by some jar or concussion of the brain the nervous state known as clairvoyance is of the intimate structure of the nervous cen- he was set to walking again, when off he not within the circle of my experiences. As tres. Lastly, in order to verify this conclu. would tramp in military style, avoiding obto impunity from what is generally styled sion, he will direct his inquiries especially to stacles in his way with the usual care of a nervousness, I could, I think, shake hands the nervous states and hereditary tendencies conscious man.” with a ghost at midnight without the slight of the mediums themselves. I have no hesi- In this instance, with the ideo-motor cenest tremor, the fact being that I am so indif- tation in predicting the result of such a meth- tres of the brain completely contused, the ferent and unsympathetic in these matters that od of investigation ; for, in all the mediums inquirer has a case that offers a tolerably satI am often ashamed of my own apathy wben that I have examined as to these points, in isfactory illustration of the kind of actions in conversation with persons of more enthu- not a single instance have minute observation which occur in unconscious cerebration. The siastic temperament. The source of this in- and careful inquiry failed to detect and verify temporal lobes of the brain, the cerebellum difference lies, no doubt, in the fact that I the existence of the epileptic neurosis ; so or locomotive centre, the vital and spinal have an abiding and unfashionable sympathy tbat, strange as the phenomena appear, when centres, and the centres and organs of sensawith those higher spiritual forces and those superficially examined and regarded without tion, were still intact, with the possible excephigher aspects of spiritual culture that give reference to their etiology, the moment the tion of the olfactory organism. The whole religion its vitality and its historical val. inquiry is directed to their causes, they re- sensory and instincto - motor man was still ue and significance, and that, in view of the solve themselves into morbid products of uninjured ; but bis movements were purely latter, with their deep but silent influence in nervous disturbance. On the other hand, automatic, so far as could be gatbered from redeeming human life to the higher good and they differ in many respects from phenomena the symptoms. the higher beautiful, the phenomena of generally classed with the products of uncon- This dramatic case (Huxley describes at spiritualism seem to me but morbid and fan- scious cerebration.
length a very similar one in bis 1874-paper tastic mockeries of the really spiritualizing I will give an instance of the latter which before the British Association) indicates very and ennobling. I have, hence, a peculiar has just been contributed to my portfolio by minutely and distinctly the relative limits and immunity as respects illusion in regard to Dr. S. J. Parker, of Ithaca, New York, for- traits of unconscious nervous action, as comthese phenomena, because of a thorough merly a surgeon in the United States Army. pared with voluntary movements. In the contempt for the moral and intellectual atti. “In the great Grant advance of 1864," writes phenomena of spiritualism, on the other tude of persons who can pass their lives in Dr. Parker, a soldier came to me while act- hand, the physiologist has to deal, not with practising them. The investigation of them, ing as surgeon at the White House on York extirpation of the anterior lobes (ideo-motor indeed, bas been with me but one of the mi- River, with a grape-shot of two ounces in centres), but with the morbid function of nor aspects of a comprehensive series, with a weight imbedded in his forehead. The wound those lobes, which are the great centres of view to unfold and demonstrate the scien- and laceration were frightful. The whole perception, of volition, and of ideation, and tific basis of religion. But I must frankly forehead - skull was crushed from the hair | in which the multifarious activities of other own, nevertheless, that the phenomena are over the right ear to the hair over the left, ganglia of the nervous systein become sub. in many cases real and genuine, and that, as and from just above the eyes to and into the jects of cognition and consciousness. Clair.
voyance is thus one of the results of morbid not possibly have occurred to give point to ums, these facts are fatal to the system ; for, function of the perceptive centres of the hu- what physiology has to say on the subject. if spiritualism means any thing to the great man brain, while hallucination and illusion The result is, however, by no means an iso- problems that trouble human life, it means accompany morbid function of the sensory lated or even an uncommon one. The last that the persons who produce these phenomceatres, and are by no means symptoms of days of many a medium bave been passed in ena and have this faculty of clairvoyance are such weighty import as their more quiet cor- the insane hospital or in slowly-progressive persons of higher organization than their fel. relative. The latter often coexist with un- idiocy.
lows, and that, in the course of progressive impaired intellectual faculties; the former, What, then, is the last word that physiology ages, the century will come when the develparticularly in its settled stages, engenders has to say as to the phenomena and literature opment of this faculty will be general. If, an intellectual bias (aura), which is fatal to of spiritualism ? Simply this : that the phe. then, it is a morbid product, and if mediums mental soundness, and invariably predisposes nomena are invariably associated with the are persons of inferior rather than of supeits victim to accept such tenets as the litera- epileptic neurosis, either hereditary or ac- rior organization, the system has no real ture of spiritualism illustrates. In all my quired; that the apparently occult forces basis, and its phenomena are of no interest conrersations with avowed spiritualists, dur. and the strange sources of intelligence often except as data in scientific psychology. It is ing the last ten years, I have never commit- illustrated at séances are the exponents of an not incumbent on physiologists to construct ted the blunder of imagining that argument environing nervous influence, consequent up- a clock-work theory as to the manner in could be of any avail. To the few who were on degeneration of the nervous centres, and which nervous influence acts on environing drifting in that direction, and who have ex- engendered in a manner analogous to the objects. That will come by-and-by, perhaps, pressed the fear that they should become production of electricity by the decomposi- when the laws and properties of nervous inspiritualists unless certain phenomena they tion of zinc in solution of nitric acid ; that, fluence have been more thoroughly investi. had witnessed could be resolved, I have lat- finally, the predisposition to accept the doc- gated. At present it would be premature, al. terly ventured to suggest that the predispo- trines and tenets of spiritualism is one of the though it might be ingenious, to attempt sition to accept these doctrines is in itself consequences of such nervous disturbance, such an explanation in detail, and physiology something that calls for medical treatment and should be treated as a symptom of ner. has more premature theorizing to answer for rather than for argument, and to the eradica- vous disorder, not argued with after the man- already than is consistent with scientific extion of which tonics are better adapted than ner that one man argues with another on sci- actuess. talking. In the sad case of Robert Dale entific questions.* These are not statements
FRANCIS GERRY FAIRFIELD. Owen,* for example, an inherited predisposi- of a theory intended to explain the phenomtion existed in the first instance. Th intel- ena-that is, to tell ow they are produced, lectual bias that rendered him a life-long as one explains the swinging of a pendulum.
FLIRTATION. spiritualist, and partly vitiated the work of They are facts of observation that lay bare a brilliant mind, was but the natural result the causes, not of the phenomena only, but of this predisposition ; and the insanity that of the mental predisposition also, that has A ROSE-BUD in its first green coat, has at last overtaken him can be justly eventuated in giving spiritualism a distinc- You wrapped your shawl about your viewed in no other light than as the final tive and peculiar literature. However genu
throat, stage of the disorder. I had an hour's inter. ine the phenomena, and however real the
And crossed the lawn, when we went boating; view with Mr, Owen in the winter of 1873–74, superhuman intelligence exhibited by medi
I touched the fragrance of your hand; intending to discuss his case in connection with that of the late Judge Edmonds, and
* The citation from Mr. Lecky, page 20 of AP- The fog came down and hid the land,
PLETONS' JOURNAL, July 3d, illustrates the defects shall never forget the vivid impression I then
As white as snow, and we were floating. of the so-called philosophical (generalizing) manhad that the shadow of madness was already
ner of treating these questions. It is very true, orer him. It suffices to say that the impres- perhaps, that the phenomena of sorcery have nev- Its dew envelope shut us in sion led me to omit his name in the list of er been disproved, but it is quite untrue that they have ceased to exist as the rationalizing process
A brand-new world, where never sin cases, and merely to allude to it elsewhere,
has made progress, or by specific rational action. Had laid on man the curse of labor; lest some word of mine might hasten the
As respects name, these phenomena have suffered impending destiny, and that the sad finale
We saw, across its purple rim,
cery, now in the practices of the mystics and illu-
Flash four ways, like the angel's sabro. fate of this apostle of their doctrines could
But they have been substantially the same under
all their designations. The fakirs (mystics) of And as my dreamy fancy sketched Two days after the above was written, the fol- Hindostan and Arabia have depended upon them lowing note, on Mr. Owen's case, from the Super- for ages for their influence with their respective
A life on rainbow plumage stretched,
I touched the shy, reluctant glove;
And be between the earth and heaven? the benefit of the many persons interested, that, equaled in the phenomena of modern spiritualism. while I believe the merest assumption of personal The truth is, when the history of the Aryan races Soft fiction of the fickle mist! EETLE UO'LS communication with spirit beings is evi- is carefully examined, it is clear that this series of dence of insanity, Mr. Owen's present condition is phenomena has descended from the remotest ages,
The serpent, on your jeweled wrist, clearly attributable to other predisposing or excit- and that among the Greeks the mysteries unques- Flashed venom at my disappointment; ing causes than spiritualism, in any of its phases, tionably consisted mainly in their practice. It was theoretical or experimental. The whole subject thus, on account of the singular phenomena asso- For, like a pomegranate full of musk, of spiritualism seems, indeed, to have dropped ciated with it, that the ancients styled epilepsy the
Our world brake ope its misty husk, out of Mr. Owen's thought." I have put in italics sacred madness, and it is now quite well authena statement of opinion as to the symptomatic value ticated that candidates for priests were accepted And spilled the spice and precious ointment of the vision of spirits, which is almost word for or rejected on this basis alone. That is to say, the word coincident with the view I have expressed epileptic predisposition was essential to the office,
But ever in this world of ours in the work on spiritualism. The mere fact that and no candidate was admitted to the study of the spiritualism is not even alluded to in his ravings, mysteries who was not susceptible of the parox. Our sweetest wishes are like flowers however, by no means demonstrates the doctor's ysm. As the conditions of living have become
That lose their petal-bloom in labor; view that his specnlations and investigations have improved, the percentage of epileptics has diminhad no influence in inducing them. The predis- ished. This is the manner in which the progress Nor Eden'ş self were half so sweet posing cause of the break-down of the nervous of rationalism affects the issue and extirpates the
Did she not leave them incomplete, system was very certainly hereditary taint, and tendency to accept marvels. Men believe in their pronounced spiritualism was simply one of the own experiences, whether morbid or healthy, and Coquetting with the four-winged sabre. stages of the disorder, but assisted to bring on the cease to believe when the experiences cease to occrisis.
WILL WALLACE HARNEY. escape them.
addition to the Black Mountain of the pres. intense. They had then just gotten news of EDITOR'S TABLE. ent day, some level districts near the Adri. the outrage at Podgoritza, in Albania, where
atic. The victory of Kossovopolje, in 1389, two Montenegrins, flying from the rabble of SHOULD the present insurrection in Her having made the heirs of the last Servian the town, had sought refuge in the barracks,
zegovina prove to be an organized re- king the vassals of Sultan Bajazet I., the but had been thrust out by the soldiers, and sistance to the Turkish tax-collectors, Mon Montenegrins, led by their Prince Ivo the butchered before the eyes of the Turkish of. tenegro would, in all probability, swiftly join Black, a relative of the Servian royal family, ficers. Their countrymen were nearly wild in the fray. Late visitors to the latter com- retreated into their mountain-fastnesses, and with excitement at this report. Every man munity unite in declaring that the whole declared themselves independent. But they was armed to the teeth, and the strenuous population is burning with impatience for have never been recognized as a free state efforts of their rulers were hardly competent war with the Turk. Indeed, it is not at all by the nations of Europe, and the Turks to preveut their instantly seeking revenge at unlikely that the Montenegrins have excited have never relinquished their claim to au- the scene of the outrage. But the influence this new rebellion in Herzegovina in the thority over them. Yet, although the sul. of Russia helped to preserve peace, and satsame way that they fomented and brought tans quickly began trying to enforce this isfaction was afforded by the Turkish Gov. about the one which took place in 1860; ex- claim, it was long before even a semblance ernment. It was evident, however, that the pecting to take part, as they did then, in the of control could be obtained by them in the | Montenegrins were greatly disappointed at conflict, and hoping to be more successful Black Mountain. In 1516, the ruling prince losing this opportunity for war, and it is not than they were at that time. And, as Monte- of Montenegro resigned the secular power probable that they will allow another one to negro is the especial protégée of Russia, it into the hands of the vladika, or Greekwould not be very strange if this little con- Catholic archbishop, making the government That these bardy mountaineers are good federation of mountain - villages should, in purely theocratic. Russia became the pro- fighters is proved by their almost uniformly this way, precipitate that great war between tector of the country in 1710, agreeing to successful resistance for nearly five centuthe European powers which the most skillful pay it an annual subsidy of eight thousand ries to the armies which were for a great diplomacy has of late been barely able to ducats, the consideration being that it should part of that time the terror of Christendom. prevent.
keep a portion of the Turkish forces engaged Something is due, of course, to the natural Montenegro—or, as its inhabitants call it, by frequent incursions. Four years after. defenses of their country, through which Tzernagora, that is, “ Black Mountain"_has ward the Turks invaded Montenegro in great they have not, until very lately, allowed any rather more than eighteen hundred square force, and succeeded in conquering it; but roads to be made. But the people them. miles of territory, and a population of about they were obliged to retreat soon afterward, selves bave been its main defense. The Gerone hundred and thirty thousand souls. It and the little mountain state again pro- man traveler before mentioned describes a is a mere cluster mountains, covered in claimed its independence. In 1796, the band he saw in Rjeka during the Podgoritza most places by thick, dark forests. There Pasha of Scutari attacked it with a large excitement, which may be taken as a good are no towns really worthy the name: Cet- army, but suffered a disastrous defeat, losing specimen of their best fighting material. tigne, or Zettinje, the capital; Rjeka, a port no less than thirty thousand men.
They were splendidly-formed young men, apo on Lake Scutari, and the other most impor. attempts to carry the war into their country parently as strong and active as wild moun. tant places, being actually nothing more than were made until 1832, and the great expedi- tain-stags. None were less than six feet in large villages. The dwellings of the poorer tion against them in that year also signally height, and their leader was a giant of at people are miserable huts, and there is no failed. Since 1851, the secular and religious least seven. Each man carried a breech. truly wealthy class in the country. Cut off governments have been separate, as of old; loading rifle, and had two revolvers and a from the Adriatic by the Austrian province the vladika being the canonical, and the yataghan in the red scarf around his waist. of Dalmatia, they have very little commeroe; gospodar the temporal ruler. Yet, it has All were full of impatience to be over the their densely - wooded or bare and rocky been noticed by travelers that many of the border, and away into Albania. mountains are not suitable for grazing, and people still use the former title when speak- But these people are really fit for better the system of agriculture they pursue in ing of their actual sovereign, the gospodar. things than war and plunder. They are in. the little plateaus and valleys interspersed During the war between Russia and the al- telligent, hospitable, ardent lovers of free. through their land is, even today, too primi- lied powers of Europe, Turkey sent a strong dom, and, like the Slavonic race generally, tive in character to afford them much more army under the renowned Omar Pasha to
devoted to music and lyric poetry. Their than a subsistence. Game does not abound; bring Montenegro into subjection; but this piesmas, or war-ballads, are often full of true and only one stream, flowing into Lake Scu. attempt, like so many others of the same poetic fervor, and the Vladika Pietro II., tari (or Skadar, as they call it), offers any kind, was without success. In 1860, how- who succeeded to the sovereignty in 1830, advantages for fishing. Being thus restrict- ever, when the Turks had suppressed the in- was a poet of no mean capacity. He was ed in the most usual modes of supporting ex- surrection excited by the Montenegrins in also the originator of many of those improveistence, and, in a measure, besieged in their Herzegovina, they pushed on into the coun- ments in the state which have very lately mountain refuge, they long ago fell into the try of the latter, and, after a bard struggle been carried to a much greater degree of perhabit of acquiring the good things of this lasting two years, finally forced them to ac- fection. These are the formation of a senate, life by taking them away from their neigh- knowledge the authority of the Porte. the introduction of schools, the discouragebors, especially the Turks. In fact, they But it is very evident that these irrepres- ment of vendettas and forays into neighbormay be said to have lived for a number of sible Tzernagorzes are now on the point of ing districts, and the encouragement of home centuries mainly by war, and their history another warlike movement. A German trav. enterprise and peaceful industry. The im. consists chiefly of one long struggle against eler, who has more than once sojourned provements in these respects that have taken the armies of the Ottoman Empire.
among them and recently published an ac- place within the last few years are now very When the great Slavonic kingdom of Ser. count of his last visit their country, in the marked. The capital has some respectable via was at the height of its power, Montene- summer of 1874, states that the war-feeling public buildings, and is the seat of a good fegro formed part of it, and then comprised, in was at that time universal, deep-seated, and male seminary, in which the two daughters
of the gospodar sit beside those of plain the course pursued in this case is not, after disposition to mark differences between citizens. The lake-port of Rjeka has some all, sanctioned by strict justice. It is some- and subsequent offenses. Between the ra trade with the adjacent provinces, and is be- times required of justice that considerations youth who, in a moment of temptation, h. ginning to present a very modern and civil. for persons should wisely and rightly temper committed his first crime, and the hardene ized appearance. And for the first time in and mitigate its judgments. Previous good offender, there is assuredly a tremendous the history of the country a good road is conduct, for instance, commonly qualifies gulf, and we hope in time to see these two being constructed over the mountains, in the severity of a penalty that a court inflicts, classes of criminals brought under distinctly spite of numerous almost insuperable diffi. just as the fact that the criminal is a notori- different kinds of penalties—one being reculties. The only mode of traveling in Monously bad character increases the severity of formatory and, as far as possible, kindly, tenegro, heretofore, has been by means of the sentence. If, then, it is proper to admit the other relentless and even revengeful, for narrow paths, winding up and down the considerations of this kind in the case of a against such offenders society owes nothing sides of almost perpendicular cliffs, and condemned person, assuredly it is right to but the fires of her indignation. along the brinks of terrible abysses. The give them weight in cases where the persons new road, which is, probably, just being are accused but as yet remain unconvicted The singular sweetness, simplicity, and finished, will connect the country with the of guilt. Why should any unnecessary hu- purity of all Hans Christian Andersen's outside world, and throw open to foreign miliation or suffering be inflicted upon any writings reflect the quality and give the keyinfluence.
person in the preliminary stage of an accusa- note of the man himself. Of few authors On the whole, there is good reason for tion, when his criminal conduct is only as- can it be so emphatically said, as he himself believing that if the independence of Mon- sumed ? The horde of vagabonds brought used to say, that his works were himself. tenegro should be acknowledged and guar- before a London police justice may be dis. They are serene like himself, and exhibit all anteed by the great powers of Europe, thus patched to Newgate in a van with no special bis delicate shades of feeling. They are ever giving it a definite status, and putting an end humiliation or shame felt by any of them; it | instinct with a love of mankind, a bright way to its frequent hostilities with Turkey, it is in their case no penalty; but to men of of looking upon the world (which he often Fould soon become a peaceful and prosper- previous respectability, who may be innocent called “the good world”), and, above all, a ous community. And even if it should be of the charges against them, it is a most de- very sincere and childlike love of children. absorbed by the Austrian or Russian Empire, grading experience, and one that the justice in the modern literature of Denmark, Hans the same desirable effect might be expected which brags of its impartiality has no right Andersen is about the only name known outto ensue.
to inflict. It would be improper to distin- side of that country itself. He was one of the
guish between rich and poor, but it is not cosmopolitan writers, like Dickens, like Victor THERE can be no question of the fact improper to distinguish between previous re- Hugo, like Turgeneff, like Longfellow. It is that the law should be administered to the spectability and notorious dissoluteness-be- very rarely that even the greatest literary genrich and the poor with equal rigor. In con- tween old offenders with every presumption ius can impose bis works upon foreign minds; trast with the course here in this matter, of guilt and new prisoners with fair pre- it is still more rarely that a man can write as Fe are often called upon to admire the stern sumption of innocence.
Andersen did, so as to please at once Danish impartiality of British justice. In a land Justice may ignore distinctions of per- and English, German and Russian children. where rank is more reverenced and caste sons, but the character and antecedents He must rise above nationality, be something more rigid than in any other of the Euro. of a criminal often determine whether a more than the scion of a race. That dear pean countries, neither rank nor caste has sentence is really light or severe.
The old Hans Andersen was as welcome at the the slightest weight in the courts of justice. very fact of a public arraignment is a firesides of St. Petersburg and San Francisco But it would sometimes seem as if unneces. great trial to some men, and the penalty of as at those of Copenhagen, indicates that, sary pains were taken there to show that in imprisonment, however brief, means for them without a very wonderful imagination, and the courts no distinction of persons exists. endless shame and worldly ruin. To a bard- even without the highest faculty of dramatic We have only recently been called upon ened offender imprisonment is a serious in- / power, he was master of the chord of Nature to admire the stern impartiality of an Eng. convenience, but it gives no wound to the which touches the universal human heart. lish justice in the case of a wealthy firm spirit, it is no overthrow of pride, it involves He was kind, unselfish, cheerful, fresh, clear, of London merchants charged with fraud. no loss of social place and esteem—it is sim- and simple, a gentlest teacher of the virtues, “When,” says the account, “the heads of ply a piece of bad luck, the consequences of with a light, pure, graceful fancy, which lent the firm were first brought before the magis- which end with the termination of the pen- poetry and imparted pleasure to his thoughts, trate, beary bail was demanded. They were alty. In the case of Colonel Baker, recently and made the few simple principles he wished not allowed to go home while their friends condemned to a year's imprisonment for an to inculcate easy to receive; and the emobunted round for bail, but were remanded to improper assault upon a lady in the compart-tions he thus touched are those which civilized Newgate. Their lawyer begged that they ment of a railway-car, the punishment is no humanity partakes in common. To even sugmight at least be allowed to go to Newgate doubt justified by the crime, but the penalty gest that Hans Andersen's books are free in a cab. The magistrate replied that if is really absolute ruin, while to many men it from the slightest taint of impurity, seems poor men were brought before him they would be comparatively a trifling matter. It to be doing a sort of violence to his sweet would have to go to prison in the common is obvious that the significance and intensity memory. Those who knew him speak of Fan; that there was no difference in the of of punishments vary greatly with individuals, him as a sort of typified innocence. In his fense with which the prisoners were charged, and Justice can never be true to her high mis- daily life he seems to have been utterly guilewhether committed by rich or poor-conge. sion until her judgments are largely deter- less; he was very unwilling to believe evil quently, he declined to grant the privilege mined by the facts and circumstances per of any one, and was at the farthest extreme applied for.” Now, this act of the magis- taining to the offenders. This, it may be from those who indulge in lamentations over trate has been applauded as something very said, would not be so much a distinction the depravity of the world. No writer has impartial, rigorous, and fine. Perhaps, how. between individuals as a distinction between | lived of whom it could be more aptly said ever, a little consideration will show us that conditions. Fortunately, there is a growing 1 that he saw sermons in stones, books in