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came the mother of twin boys. About three the exponent of some mere peculiarity of that, in the midst of this paroxysm, the pamonths ago, my husband waked up near mid nervous organization, that seems trifling in tient left her bed, went down to the shore, night one night and said he had had his itself, but is tremendous in its consequences. and walked out on the water thirty feet or dreare, with an attendant circumstance that Thus, in a recent letter, Tennyson confesses farther, and back again, as though the eleimpressed him with the premonition of a that he is subject to nervous paroxysms as- ment had been a solid platform. It should fatal case; for, after seeing the prostrate similated to trance, the inception of which is be added that this patient was not aware of boiy once, as was usual with him, it had re marked by a monotonous repetition of his the nature of her predictions after recovering appeared, floating slowly before him, horribly own name, succeeded by a psychical exalta- from her attacks. mangled, a portion of the spinal column being tion in which the consciousness of self is for I have another strange story in my porttorn away. He had scarcely finished this re the moment lost in the consciousness of ab- folio, which is worth telling as an addition to cital, when he was summoned to attend a stract being; and, in the light of this confes- the literature of nervous perversion. It runs: patient living nine miles from the city. She şion, the acute psychologist is able to unrav thus : In 1837, the late Colonel William L. became the mother of a boy, and he left her el his peculiar imaginings and trace them to Stone, of this city, sent a letter to his brothat four P. M., apparently in a condition favor their causes in actual experience, and to in-er-in-law, President Wayland, of Brown Uni. able to recovery, although the impression of dicate the source of certain mannerisms that i versity, with a view of testing the clairvoyimpending peril and fatality was still, to his professional critics have deemed inexplicable. ance of a young girl who was just then the own consciousness, as vivid as ever. At Did you ever have a beautiful fanuy just subject of considerable gossip in the city of midnight that night he was again hastily draw the curtains back and peep out from its Providence, Rhode Island. The letter was summoned to visit the patient. But she was cranny in the brain, then vanish never to re first wrapped in several sheets of heavy, already moribund, and death resulted a few turn? If you have, you are capable of ap- opaque paper, then placed in a thick enveminutes after his arrival, from the stranding preciating many an obscure and dreamy pas. lope, carefully sealed, and stamped with the of a blood-clot in the heart. He has often sage of Tennyson, and of understanding how arms of Colonel Stone. On the reception of had dreams that seemed to foreshadow com it is that all that is highest and most beau-this letter, according to instructions, and ing events, but these are only sporadic phé- tiful in our natures comes in glimpses and without knowing the contents, Dr. Wayland, nomena, while the special dream I have men paroxysms, and often stays not long enough in company with Professor Goddard, of the tioned has been as constant in its sequence to be caught and lucidly expressed. In one university, called on the girl. While in the as the succession of day to night. He is also aspect of Mr. Tennyson's literature man is a trance-state the letter was placed at the back habitually clairvoyant-hyperæsthesia of the Ay:
of her head, and she was requested to read optic nerve, he calls it; and frequently, when
To-day I saw the dragon-fly
it, which she did, Professor Goddard taking I wake up in the night and ask what time it Come from the wells where he did lie.
down her version, word for word, as it fell is, he will tell me to the instant, and say that
An inner impulse rent the veil
from her lips. The version and the letter,
of his old husk: from head to tail he can see the dial of his Waltham, which he
Came out clear plates of sapphire mail.
still unopened, were then placed in an envealways leaves in his vest-pocket, and which He dried his wings: like gauze they grew;
lope, and returned by mail to Colonel Stone is inelosed in double cases, as distinctly as Through crofts and pastures wet with dew in this city, who, on examination, found that though it were daylight and he was holding A living flash of light he flew."
it had been accurately interpreted word for the open instrument in his hand, · This, how. From one point of view this is his philosophy word. The girl was uncultured and ignorant, erer, only occurs in paroxysms. My hus- of human life. Men are but insects with a and the contents of the letter were such as band's temperament is markedly cerebral, spinal column
to have baffled her completely bad she not My own temperament is less mental, but, "Each worm of them beneath the moon
been guided by an absolutely accurate perfrom my earliest recollection, I have been Drawo different threads, and late and soon ception. It commenced with this sentence: periodically subject in the dark to a peculiar Spins, toiling out his own cocoon."
“The following is the title, equally quaint optic phenomenon-forms, faces, and beau- That is all the story of every man's life, so and curious, of a little volume published in tiful landscapes suffused with light floating far as science bas any thing to say about it. the days of Oliver Cromwell.” Then followed before my eyes and the darkness seeming to The paroxysms of the poet have furnished the title. Neither Dr. Wayland nor Professor be illuminated. I can still recall the phe him with a solution of the problem. He be Goddard was aware what Colonel Stone had nomenon by an effort of the will. I am, also, lieves, with the mystics, with the illuminati, written. frequently awakened from sleep by far-away with the spiritualists, that, at the very core The case of the late T. B. Read, equally voiees calling me, or by the pressure of a of life, within, witbin, and still within, is well known as poet and as artist, furnishes hand, and, on starting up, see forms and found the interpretation of its dream. His an instance of premonition worth a memofaees, moving away from the foot of the bed, way of express it is
randum. Mr. Read-one of the most deliand repeating my own name over and over in
* Heaven opens inward, fissures yawn,
cate physical organizations I have ever met low tones, but with striking distinctness. Vast images in glimmering dawn,
-had a presentiment that he should not live When I am in good health these dream and
Half-shown, are broken and withdrawn."
to finish his fiftieth year, if even to complete trance experiences seldom occur ; but the In some of its aspects life is a revelation of his forty-ninth ; and this presentiment was moment I am enfeebled and nervous they the superhuman and of the preternatural, very constant with him during the last three return, with all their primitive force." and it is upon these aspects principally that or four years of life. He was not gloomy in
Dr. Maudsley, in one of his later volumes, Mr. Tennyson's imagination dwells lovingly, view of it: temperament so sunny and spiriaddaces biographical memoranda to show constantly contrasting them with the other tuel as his could not give way to the sullen that this peculiar capability of reflex action and more material.
and purple glooms that are so frequent with in the optic nerve is by no means uncommon A very strange story is told by a Staten men who have tasted life and fame and proved with artists and poets. Shelley's power of Island physician. In his younger days this them to be dreams--one dream within anothrealizing the phantoms of his imagination as gentleman was one of the medical staff at a er. But the conviction grew and rooted in actual visions has been adverted to by sev Swiss hospital situated on Lake Constance. his inner life, until it assumed the force of a eral who knew him intimately. It is an es One of the patients, subject to epileptic revelation. He died before his fiftieth birth. tablished fact that many artists and poets paroxysms, was his special study. Dur-day came. Is it possible that, by some suband particularly those noted for vividness ing these attacks this patient would often tile intelligence, the processes of which are and weird magnificence of imagination-have foretell what would occur while the next par- | hidden from the every-day consciousness of been specially endowed with the faculty of oxysm was on her, and the exact instant when men, the physical organization may calculate realizing their imaginings optically, and have it would supervene. On one occasion she fore- its own endurance with mathematical exactthas been indebted for their picturesqueness told that the next night she should leave her ness, and foretell the day of its dissolution ? of execution to morbid affection of the optic bed and walk on the waters of the lake. By There are many verified data that point to serve; and, in tracing the genesis of imagi way of verifying the prediction, she was left this conclusion. That the ordinary spiritualestive production, it is not infrequent to find to herself, her physician, among otbers, tak- istic solution of these experiences has been peculiar fecundity of invention existing as | ing care to observe her movements. He states seriously cogitated by Mr. Tennyson, his
poems furnish abundant evidence. A single appurtenances that make up a perfect identi- | called on a woman, who was just then excitpassage from “In Memoriam " must answer ty! The coincidence of the hour and mining considerable interest in a Western city. as an example:
ute constitutes, again, a very singular and in. After sitting a few minutes in ominous si“If any vision should reveal
explicable element of the verification. lence, a spasm shook the attenuated frame Thy likeness, I might count it vain,
A physician, practising in the city of of the medium and she apparently slept. An As but the canker of the brain.
Providence, Rhode Island, sends me his instant after the supervention of the paroxysm, Yea, though it spoke and made appeal
memoranda of a visit to the Eddy brothers, she commenced to laugh and giggle like a “ To places where our lots were cast
whose séances have excited such general at- little girl. “My companion," says the narTogether in the days behind, tention :
rator, “ asked her rather savagely what she I might but say, I hear a wind of memory murmuring the past.
"Last September," writes he, " I was in was laughing at. 'Have you forgotten, doc"Yea, though it spoke and bared to view
Rutland, Vermont, in company with a Ver- tor,' giggled the woman, that morning A fact within the coming year,
mont farmer, an intelligent man and a when you dissected me up-garret, and how, And though the months, revolving near, thorough skeptic. He proposed a visit to when you cut into me, the blood spurted, and Should prove the phantom-warning true, the Eddy house. It was an evening séance. then you were frightened and ran away?' “They might not seem thy prophecies,
In the course of the manifestations, a phan- | The man was astounded, and, on the way But spiritual presentiments,
tom, never before seen by the spectators home, he confessed that the incident actually And such refraction of events
present, appeared in full view on the plat occurred when he was a young practitioner; As often rises ere they rise."
form. The audience were individually re that he had procured the cadaver of a little In considering these strange and oc quested to ask, 'Is it for me?' When my | girl eight or ten years of age, and hidden it casional incidents of life, the question is companion's turn came, his question was an in the garret, and that, when he came to diswhether they shall be regarded as psychologi. swered by three loud knocks on the wall sect it, the blood spurted at the first incision, cal phenomena and as data for scientific anal hard by the phantom, which answered to the and frightened him so, there alone in the ysis, or whether the ordinary construction name of Dr. C—, a brother-in-law. This night, that he ran down-stairs. Afterward, of spiritualism shall be put upon them. My man had never seen either of the Eddy however, he went back and finished the disown observation, as well as my more general brothers until he saw them that evening. section. But,' said he, 'I never told a livstudies of the biographies of poets and ar Can it be that there was not present the ing soul of that adventure, and how that tists, leads me to the conclusion that most essence of Dr. C-'s spirit, around which cursed woman found it out passes my comhighly-sensitive organizations are subject to this visible and tangible presentation of him, prehension.'” experiences of the class that I have de- that the farmer declared to be his brother-in Another gentleman—a man of science, scribed, and they are facts that cannot be law to the life, clothed itself? At a séance and one thoroughly versed in physical and neglected in any system of psychology in that occurred here (in Providence) some electrical investigation-contributes to my tended to take its place as the last word that years since, the medium, an ignorant boy, portfolio the details of a visit of inquiry to science has to say on the deeper questions of wrote a message which no person present Dr. Slade, a well-known medium of this city. life and consciousness. The theory of coin save a sea-captain could read. The message He went as a stranger, and left without recidence breaks down in view of the regulari- | reported the death of the harbor-master in vealing his name. After a thorough exami. ty and minuteness with which presentiments Havana. The truth of the statement was nation of the table, which was of the ordinary are often verified and presentimental dreams afterward verified. I am not a believer in type, and was provided with no appurtenances fulfilled. Let me give an instance. When I spiritualism, but I am unsatisfied with my except a folding slate and a pencil tied to it was a boy of seven or eight years old, an own experiences and investigations, which with a cotton string, the investigator anelder brother resided at a village called Hyde- have fallen far short of yours. I only wish nounced that he was satisfied. The doctor ville, a few miles from the home farm, and you would dwell more at length on certain then bit off a piece of the pencil, placed it was acquainted and somewhat intimate with points, remembering that, while they are less between the two slates, and they sat down, a man named Durfy. He came home one Sat- important from your point of view than those the inquirer holding the medium's hands unurday and remained until Monday morning. which you discuss exhaustively, they are the der his own, on the table, from four to six On Sunday evening, among various topics, he very points that make most popular impres- feet from the point where the slate lay. discussed Durfy and their mutual projects. sion.”
They had sat in this manner perfectly silent That night I dreamed that my brother and I A gentleman, now doing business in Wall for a few seconds, when a kind of paroxysm were standing by the door in front of the old i Street as a broker, but formerly of the staff -a slight secourse of the arms and limbshouse, when a gentleman passed by in a sleigh. of General Sterling Price, gives me the de- passed over the doctor, It was a The gentleman nodded to my brother, who tails of an encounter with Foster, a well shiver: something rather less than a shudder told me it was Durfy. I turned and went known medium, who is supposed to be the and rather more than a tremor. An instant into the house. By the tall old clock in the original of Margrave in the “Strange Story," later the pencil between the slates comeast-room it was just eight o'clock to a min. by Bulwer. He attended the séance as a menced to move, with a grating, rhythmical ute. It must be premised that I did not stranger in a strange city, taking a seat some motion, apparently across and across. Then, know Mr. Durfy by sight, and had never been thirty feet from the platform. The medium with a flourish, it stopped, and the room was at Hydeville. I did not even think of the presently singled him out, and told bim that again silent. On examination, my informant dream; but the next morning, after break- a spirit wished to communicate with him, de found a message in the handwriting of his fast, it happened that my brother and my. scribing his former general to the life, and dead father; and the strangest part of it all self were standing in the yard by the front giving the name as Sterling Price. The gen was that the signature was exact even to a door, when a gentleman passed in a sleigh-tleman declined to have any further transac- peculiar formation of the initial R. The the very man, mafiled to the eyes, wearing a tions with his general. “There is another message was of no consequence—a mere fur cap; the very sleigh and horse that had spirit,” said Foster, "a little girl, standing conventional thing, not worth transcribing. passed in my dream the night before. And, on just behind you, and she says her name is I have thus hastily selected from a mass looking at the clock an instant after, it was Minnie.” “I never knew a girl of that name," of correspondence, called out by the publicaexactly eight o'clock. The man was Mr. replied the colonel, but, a moment after, he tion of a volume* on the subject, a series of Durfy. I have had many such experiences, recollected that his little daughter, whose cases that serve to illustrate the whole range but quote this one because nothing hinged real name was Mary, had always called her- of so-called spiritual phenomena. With one upon it, and because, saving the element of self Minnie, although she was rrever men or two exceptions they rest upon the veracity presentiment, it was of no importance what- tioned in the family under that designation. of scientific men, and, without exception, they ever. But in what manner was it impressed A medical man, now practising in this are from the diaries of men who dissent from upon me that a gentleman whom I did not city, sends me a very dramatic instance of the theories of spiritualism as totally and unknow would pass at a given hour and minute, what is usually styled clairvoyance, which dressed in such and such a manner, in a I will add to that related by Colonel Stone.
* Ten Years with Spiritual Mediums. New sleigh of given color and contour, with all the in company with a medical associate he | York: D. Appleton & Co.
reservedly as I dissent from them, but who about ten o'clock. The wbarves were crowd merous ; the machinery, dresses, and decoraare satisfied, as I am, of the genuineness of ed with shipping, whose tall masts mingled tions, elegant and appropriate. the phenomena and of the urgent necessity with the buildings, and, together with the fault with it was that all the pieces were cur." to come to some scientific conclusion as to spires and cupolas of the churches, gave the tailed, so that the performances might be their etiology. They interest me from two city an appearance of magnificence, which over by half-past ten. The drama was a faaspects, namely, as respects the sources of the the gloomy obscurity of night served to in vorite in New York before the Revolution. strange and apparently superhuman intelli
On the 25th of November (Evacua- During the time the city was in British posgence associated with them, and as psycho- tion-Day) he beheld a parade of the militia, session, during the war, theatrical entertainlogical studies. With the accumulated testi who had assembled from different parts of ments were very fashionable; the characters moay of such observers as Mr. Alfred R. the city, on “the grand battery by the water were mostly supported by officers of the Wallace, scarcely second to Darwin as a nat- side, a lawn for the recreation of the army. uralist, and Professor Crookes, it is impossi- inhabitants, and for the purpose of military New York then had its Vauxhall and ble, consistently with scientific candor, to dis- parade.” The troops did not amount to six Ranelagh, but, although pleasant places of sent dogmatically from the genuineness of hundred, and were gaudily dressed in a vari. recreation, our traveler found them poor these phenomena. Careful observation is ety of uniforms, every ward in the city hav- imitations of those near London.” Vauxequally decisive as to the fact of their con- ing a different one; some of them in helmets hall Garden was situated in the Bowery, stant association with nervous paroxysms of * appeared better suited to the theatre than about two miles from the City Hall (a little the epileptic type, and experiments with the the field. The general and his staff were in south of what is now Astor Place). It was magnetic current on mediums in the trance- blue and buff, with large gold epaulets and a neat plantation with gravel-walks, adorned state have convinced me that they are indu- feathers. One of the corps consisted wholly with shrubs, trees, busts, and statues. In the bitably morbid nervous phenomena, indebted of Irishmen dressed in light-green jackets, centre stood a large equestrian statue of for their sources of intelligence to a nervous white pantaloons, and helmets."
General Washington. Light musical pieces, atmosphere acting at considerable distances New York had by this time grown to be interludes, etc., were performed in a small during the interval of the paroxysm. They beyond doubt the first city in the United theatre situated in one corner of the garden ; call for a deeper science of psychology than States for wealth, commerce, and population; the audience sat, in what was called the pit that which has descended to English litera- the changes in twenty years had been mar- and boxes, in the open air; the orchestra ture from Locke and the two Mills. The day velous. Land, which then sold for fifty dol was built among the trees and a large aphas come to stop babbling about nervous lars, was dow worth fifteen hundred dollars ; paratus constructed for the display of firecentres, and, as Tennyson expresses it in one Broadway was upward of two miles in length, works. The theatrical corps of New York of his poems, to seek through all
but only paved for a mile and a quarter; the was chiefly engaged at Vauxhall during the * The springs of life, the depths of awe, remainder of the road consisted of strag.
The Ranelagh was a large hotel And find the law within the law,"
gling houses, the commencement of new and garden, generally known by the name
streets already planned out. Much of the of Mount Pitt, situated by the water-side ibat is operative in these singular facts of
space between Broadway and the Bowery (near the old New York Hospital), and compsychical experience—the strangest things Road, and thence to the Hudson and East manding some extensive and beautiful views in life. FRANCIS GERRY FAIRFIELD.
Rivers, was as yet unbuilt upon, and consist of the city and its environs.
buildings. In the vicinity of the Battery, ness activity particularly astonished bim. AMERICA SEEN WITH and for some distance up Broadway, the * All was noise and bustle ; carters driving FOREIGN EYES.
buildings were nearly all private houses, and in every direction ; merchants and their clerks occupied by the principal merchants and busily engaged in their counting-houses or
gentry of New York; after which the street upon the piers. The Tontine Coffee-House VIII.
was lined with large, commodious shops of was filled with underwriters, brokers, mer
every description, well-stocked with European chants, traders, and politicians; its steps and NEW YORK IN EMBARGO-TIME.
and East-Indian goods, and "exhibiting as balcony crowded with people bidding or lisMR
R. JOHN LAMBERT was a gentleman splendid and varied a show in their windows tening to the several auctioneers, who had who visited this country in 1807. as can be met with in London."
elevated themselves upon a hogshead of suAfter a few months spent in Canada, he The streets were well paved, the foot-gar, or a puncheon of rum, or a bale of cotmade his way to Albany by the usual Cham-ways chiefly of brick. In Robinson Street, ton, and with stentorian voices were exclaimplain route. It had been his intention to Lambert notes with surprise and admiration ing: Once, twice !! another cent!' 'thank ye, take passage for New York on the “steam that the pavement and stoop before one of gentlemen !' or were knocking down the goods, boat, which, [he] was told, traveled at the the houses were composed entirely of mar which took up one side of the street, to the rate of fire miles an bour against wind and ble. Speaking of the park, he says that a best purchasers. Coffee-House Slip, and the tide.” He describes this boat, built about court-house (the present City Hall)" is there corners of Wall and Pearl Streets, were four years prior to his visit, as one hundred building in a style of magnificence unequaled jammed up with carts, drays, and wheelbarand sixty feet long, and propelled by a twen- in many of the larger cities of Europe.” rows; the welkin rang with the busy hum," ty-horse-power machine. When the wind Neither the park nor the Battery was then and Lambert came to the conclusion that was fair, light, square sails were used to in much resorted to by the fashionable citizens New York was the Tyre of the New World. crease her speed. Her accommodations in of New York, as they had become too com Six months later, on his return from a visit cluded fifty-two berths, besides sofas, and The genteel lounge was in Broadway to Charleston, he found that all was changed. were said to be equal, if not superior, to any from eleven till three o'clock, during which The port was full of shipping, but the vessels vessel that sailed on the river. Her trips time it was “as much crowded as the Bond were dismantled and laid up. Not a box, were made regularly twice a week, “some Street of London; and the carriages, though bale, or cask, was to be seen upon the wharves. times in the short period of thirty-two hours ;” not so numerous, were driven to and fro Many of the counting-houses were shut up, or fare, seven dollars. Ice, however, obstructed with as much velocity." The sidewalks advertised to be let; and the few solitary the upper channel, so he staged it to Hudson, were planted with poplars, which afforded merchants, clerks, and porters, that were to and thence took passage on the Experiment, an agreeable shade from the sun. The out be seen, were walking about with their hands of one hundred and thirty tons, the finest on side of the Park Theatre was in an unfin in their pockets. The coffee-house was althe river, with a saloon sixty feet by twenty, ished state, but the interior was handsomely most empty, save that a few, whose time and fitted up regardless of expense. The decorated and fitted up in as good style as hung heavy on their hands, called there to fare by this mode of conveyance was five the London theatres. It contained a large inquire after news from Europe or Washingdollars, which gave the passenger three meals coffee-room with good-sized lobbies, and was ton. The streets near the water-side were a day, including spirits.
reckoned to hold about twelve hundred per-| almost deserted, and grass had begun to grow He reached New York the next night sons. The scenes were well painted and nu- | upon the wharves. Such were the effects of
the embargo, which, in the short space of five down from traveler to traveler of their hav. sidered to be so unconstitutional that even mouths, had “deprived the first commercial ing bad teeth. Of dancing they were pas several of his own party condemned it, and city in the United States of all its life, bustle, sionately fond, and in that accomplishment refused to attend. They said it was an enand activity; caused above one hundred and they were said to excel the ladies of every deavor to bias the sentiments of the people fifty bankruptcies, and completely annihi- other city in the Union. He visited the City in their choice of a ruler, a measure highly lated its foreign commerce."
Assembly, which was held at the City Hotel, subversive to the freedom of election." The Lambert says that nervous disorders and in Broadway, and considered as the best in general instructed our traveler in the nomendebility were very prevalent among the in New York. As it was the first night of the clature of Virginian drinks : habitants of the United States. He attrib season, there were but one hundred and fifty A gum-tickler was a gill of spirits, genutes this (for every one of these travelers has persons present. The subscription was twoerally taken fasting. a theory ready to account for every thing he dollars and fifty cents for each night, which A phlegm-cutler was a double dose just sees) to the constant use of cigars by the included tea, coffee, and cold collation. None before breakfast. young men, even at an early age, which im but those of the first-class society could become An antifogmatic was the same when taken paired their constitutions, and created a subscribers to this assembly. Another, how-before dinner. stimulus beyond what Nature required. The ever, had been recently established, by those A gall-breaker was a pint of ardent spirits dread of yellow fever had promoted this con leaders of the second class who had been ex taken at discretion. sumption of tobacco. New York was regu- cluded from the first. The subscription to “When a man takes to drinking galllarly subjected to this terrible scourge. As this was made three dollars ; its balls, too, breakers," says Lambert, “even the Virginians soon as it made its appearance, the inbabi were held at the City Hotel, and were so well | regard him as a lost sheep”-perhaps not untants shut up their shops and fled into the conducted that many of the subscribers to | reasonably. country. Those who could not go far on ac the old assembly joined the new one, or sub With regard to the common charge of facount of business, removed to Greenwich, a scribed to both.
miliarity and rudeness so frequently brought "small village on the Hudson, about two or Many of the young ladies were accom. against the American people at this time, our three miles from town.” Here the merchants plished in music and drawing, as well as in author emphatically declares that he expeand others had their offices, and carried on dancing ; but among the young men these rienced the utmost civility and politeness their business with little danger from the fever. accomplishments were but little cultivated. from the inhabitants in every part of the The banks and other public offices also re Billiards and smoking were their favorite country through which he traveled. Coachmoved their business to this place; and mar amusements. A cigar was in their mouth men and tavern-keepers were alike civil and kets were regularly established for the sup- from morning to night when in the house, attentive; he hardly ever passed a man on ply of the inhabitants. Upward of twenty- and not unfrequently when walking in the the road who did not give bim a nod, which six thousand persons removed from the city street. A cigar-case was always carried in “perhaps to some might seem curt, but was and the streets near the water-side in 1805. the coat-pooket, and handed occasionally to a evidently meant in kindness.” In fact, he
New York society, at the time of his visit, friend,“ as familiarly," says Lambert, found it as difficult to discover rudeness in was divided into three distinct classes. The our dashing youths take out their gold box the men as it was to detect an ugly face or first was composed of the constituted author- and offer a pinch of snuff.”
bad teeth among the women. The people of ities and government officers : divines, law Sleighing was a favorite amusement with England are, he thinks, " too apt to hold the yers, and physicians of eminence; the prin. the New-Yorkers. Parties to dinners and character of the Americans in trifling estimacipal merchants and people of independent dances were frequently made up in the win- tion.” While he, of course, prefers his own property. The second comprised the small ter-time, when the snow was on the ground. countrymen, he finds much to commend merchants, retail traders, clerks, etc.; the They proceeded in light carioles (cutters) a among the new people ; and, if his book "sucthird consisted of the inferior orders of the few miles out of town to some hotel or tav-ceeds in dispelling some of the prejudices people. The first set associated together ern, where the entertainment was kept up till and misconceptions which prevail with re“in a style of splendor little inferior to Eu. a late hour, and the company returned home gard to them,” he will consider his work ropeans. Their houses were fitted with every by torch-light. Marriages were conducted in well done.
E. H. L. thing that was useful, agreeable, or ornamen splendid style, and formed an important part tal. The dress of the gentlemen was plain, of the winter's entertainments. The young elegant, and fashionable.” The ladies were couple, attended by their nearest connections
TWILIGHT AND SEA. partial to the “light, various, and dashing and friends, were married at home in magdrapery" of the French, though there were nificent style, and, if they were Episcopalians,
EMEMBER how the twilight flung many who preferred the more subdued Eng- | the Bishop of New York was always pro
A curtain over thee and me,
As, wandering hand in hand, we sung lish costume. In promenading Broadway, cured, if possible. For three days after the Beside the summer sea. Lambert was frequently tempted to believe ceremony the newly-married couple saw comthat there existed a sort of rivalry among pany in great state, and every genteel person
What if some glittering mermaid laid
Down on the sand a listening ear, the New York beauties, as there did a cen who could procure an introduction paid his
And, like a treacherous woman, staid tury before among the ladies of England; respects to the bride and groom; the visitors Our tender talk to hear ! and that, instead of a patch on the right or after their introduction partook of a cup of
What if, in caves of ocean deep, left cheek to denote a Whig or a Tory, he coffee, and then walked away.
She treasured up each precious word, could distinguish a "pretty democrat à la Even then New-Yorkers were not remark Thinking that earthly lovers keep mode Française from a sweet little Federal able for early rising; little business was done
The vows that she has heard ! ist à la mode Anglaise.” Whether his sur before ten o'clock. Most of the merchants Perhaps the sorrowing mermaid's tears mise was correct or not, it was certain that and persons in business dined at two o'clock; With pearls those vows incrusted o'er, Mrs. Toole and Madame Bouchard, the two others, who were less engaged, about three;
And Ocean, when his wrath uprears,
May cast them on the shore ! rival leaders of fashion in bonnets, dresses, 1 but four o'clock was usually the fashionable and lace, had each her partisans and admir-hour for dining. The gentlemen were partial
There memory and I will roam
Where fickle waters kiss the land, ers; the one because she was an English to the bottle, but not to excess; and at pri
Watching the bright and dancing foam woman; the other because she was
French ; vate dinners they seldom sat more than two That dashes o'er the sand ; and, if the ladies were not really divided as hours drinking wine.
And I will seek and bind the pearls, to politics, they were most unequivocally at While making a trip to Boston, Lambert A fancied necklace, rich and rare issue with regard to dress.
made the acquaintance of a Virginian gentle While thought in every cluster curls), Lambert found the young ladies of New man, .one General Bradley, who was nick
About my neck to wear. York generally handsome, though partaking named " President-making Bradley," because What though those days were short and few more of the lily than the rose. He saw but he had summoned a caucus of members of
And ne'er again shall come to me?
Each summer shall betroth anew very few who used rouge, and vigorously Congress which nominated Madison as Jeffer
The twilight and the sea ! champions them against the charge handed son's successor. This "proceeding was con
M. E. W.s.
ago which are entitled to signal commemoration in our centennial celebrations is one which occurred just one hundred years from the date of this week's JOURNAL. The stranger who visits Boston is apt to include within the circle of his sight-seeing the subarban city of Cambridge, with its old college buildings, its homes of poets and men of science and letters, and its venerable tree encircled with an iron railing, and furnished vith an epitaph while yet it lives. Upon the granite slab at the base of this tree the stranger reads the statement that here on July 3, 1775, George Washington assumed the command of the Revolutionary army. It is well now, in our historic and retrospectire frame of mind, to pause and consider a little the full significance of this event. We are of those who believe that ordinarily the infuence of single minds upon any age is slight; that marked changes and great events are adequate products of innumerable causes lying deep in the constitution of society, which great leaders represent rather than form or create; but, when we consider all the facts of the American Revolution, it would really seem as if the success of that great effort were due to the peculiar fitness of George Washington for his tremendous task. How vast and formidable the task was, very few of us have ever fully realized. The more we study the history of the war the more marTelous the issue seems, and the more amazing the courage and confidence of those who essayed what must have seemed to many ordinary observers to be a wholly hopeless un. dertaking. The American rebels ought to have been defeated by all the laws of war, by the laws of force, and by all the conditions that usually determine results. And yet they Ton under the command of one who was Deither a man of genius nor a man of ideas; they won after being defeated in the great majority of their direct encounters in the battle-field; they won under a succession of retreats, and with all the great cities excepting one in possession of the enemy; they won with an empty exchequer, and almost withoat food, raiment, or ammunition; they won in the face of growing discontent, with depleting numbers, and under nearly every conceivable harassment; and their winning was immensely due to the steadfast and unconquerable will of one man.
We may well believe that the success of the American army was rendered possible only by the coöperation of the French, but this coöperation could be secured only by firmiş holding the army together, and steadfastly maintaining its position before the English. The condition of things was such that the one supreme quality needed in the commander-in-chief was calm, immovable, un
flinching, unvarying courage-courage of that have dazzled, have only misled the world. serene and majestic character which no storm We may concede numerous deficiencies in could disturb, no misfortune shake, no succes Washington's genius, but we can find none sion of harassing difficulties weaken, no suc in his character-none in his transcendent cesses inflame, and no disasters chill. A grand fitness for the place he occupied. Hence it steadfastness of this nature was one well cal- is that his assumption of the command of the culated to enforce itself upon others, to estab half-clothed and wholly undisciplined army lish confidence, to command reverence, to har-gathered around Boston one hundred years monize passions, to overthrow cabals. Being ago was an event of such measureless imunited with a calm and weighty judgment, it portance to the cause that we signally fail in became a grand personal force that held all the our comprehension of the struggle if we conflicting elements below it in a firm and con do not give it a worthy place in our centrolling grasp. Men with brilliant parts and tennial rejoicings. affluent ideas would never have done for the occasion. Men with elements of caprice, or A WRITER in an English journal, speaking with imaginations easily captivated with this of the British people in their relation to art, or that project, or with a metaphysical ten declares that “they seldom know a good dency to weigh matters too nicely, would picture when they see it, and they seldom never have been able to keep the army to like a good picture when it is pointed out to gether under all the conditions that sur
them." Accusations of this sort are very rounded it. Washington's calm, uplifted, common among writers upon art, and the heroic courage was one great force; his cool truth of the charge would seem to have beand sagacious judgment another. If he did come a received axiom in all art - circles. no brilliant things, he made no mistakes. Now, we bluntly assert it to be wholly falHis judgment may be almost said never to lacious. It is an error composed of two have been at fault. We know full well the parts, one of which mistakes the character noble courage, the sagacious statesmanship, of the average intelligence, while the other and the heroic devotion, of many others; | mistakes the functions and requisites of a but there is no name we can mention whose truly good picture. That every good picture place could not have been filled by some oth contains very much that can only be fully er patriot equally zealous, sagacious, and appreciated by those who have cultivated capable, save that of Washington; he alone art-perceptions is undeniably true. But there was absolutely indispensable. Not one of the are certain essentials of a good picture wbich generals could have been substituted for him, every person of average intelligence and whereas, had we lost Adams, there still would culture is quite capable of understandinghave been Franklin, Hancock, and Jeffer- these are, the story it has to tell, the facts it son; or, had all these been lost to the cause, attempts to reproduce, and the sentiment it there were still many others of great patriot- designs to express. If these things cannot ism and marked capability. All the courage be seen in a picture even when pointed out, and sagacity and devotion of the rest would then we may be sure that the art is in some have come to naught had it not been pos-way radically wrong in its methods. An art sible to keep the army in the field, and to that can be understood in its leading mani. do this thing required all the great quali- festations only after a special training for it ties exhibited by the other leaders supple- 1 —which is limited by its nature to a few semented by something greater still — which lect, highly-cultivated persons—is rather too we may call judgment, courage, and steadfast- exclusive to be of much importance to the ness, but which consisted of all these in some world. But the history of art shows us that way fused in a grand individuality that men paintings have affected very powerfully the believed in and followed. Washington's imagination of the great mass of people, and character was one that seems lofty and as that, notwithstanding popular ignorance, great piring at a distance, and loses nothing of its paintings have never failed to secure their apdignity upon the closest survey. Of all the preciation. It is not to be denied that pubmen in history he is conspicuously the one lic taste has sanctioned a great many worthbest fitted for the leadership of so hazardous | less works of art, but has it ever rejected the and heroic an undertaking. The Americans productions of the great minds? The main difhave been accused of idolizing Washington, ficulty with the public is, that its natural pasbut we doubt if ever they have accurately sion for pictures is such that it greedily falls understood all the peculiarly admirable quali to liking nearly all that is offered to it; but fications that went to make up the character education in this matter is very rapid. There of this remarkable man. The lack of salient is nothing recondite in art. It deals with and brilliant qualities has chilled the enthu sensibilities and emotions common to the siasm of some people; these persons need to whole of mankind. The love of the beautibe reminded that a supreme personal force in ful and fondness for color are active princisuch an emergency is better than genius, and ples with all classes ; sentiment and the pasthat a leader of whom it can be said that he sions are possessed by all grades alike; and never made a mistake in judgment occupies a people who like flowers and natural scenery, place higher than that of those who, while they | who are affected by moods in Nature, who are