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WALLS OF CONSTANTINOPLE.

Seven Towers defends the point where the wall of Theodosius protecting the city on the western side meets that on its southern; it was raised by Mohammed the Second, and long used as a prison, when it was the cruel policy of the Porte to incarcerate the ambassadors of powers against whom it declared war: within it are two pillars, relics of the “Golden Gate," which Theodosius built in honor of his victory over the rebel Maximus. Of the seven towers three are now reduced to the height of the wall; and one of the remaining four serves as a watch-tower; in another, whose summit commands an extensive view of the surrounding country, is the Bloody Well. The name indicates its nature, It was used as a place of destruction, into which the innocent, perhaps as often as the guilty, were cast alive to meet a lingering death.

The triple wall of Theodosius, once extending five miles from the Seven Towers to the Golden Horn, is fortified by bastions at irregular distances varying from fifty to a hundred yards, and by a ditch running parallel to it, twenty-two yards in breadth. The outer wall is much injured, being in many places reduced to the level of the top of the ditch. A space of fifteen yards separates it

GATES OF THE CITY.

377

from the second, twenty-five feet high; behind which the third and innermost rises with a slight additional elevation.

The ivy covering these three walls communicates to them a venerable appearance consistent with their known antiquity.

There were originally forty-three gates to Constantinople, of which twelve opened towards the Golden Horn; thirteen towards the Propontis ; and eighteen faced the land. Of the last named, only seven* survive the city's glory. The first is the Seven Towers', or Golden, gate, above referred to. The next is called Selivree kaposee ; just opposite to which, under some tall funereal cypresses and close to the road, in a cemetery extending for three miles under the city-wall, a marble stone, surmounted by a pasha’s turban, records the name of the famous Ali pasha. The inscription is

;Yedee kalah kaposee, or Seven Towers' gate يدي قلعه قپوسي

* These are called o , ; sugun sighw Selivree kaposee, or Selivria gate ; sou will go Mevlikhanah kaposee, or Monastery gate ;

Top kaposee, or Gun gate;

Adernah kaposee, or Adrianople gate; ? Egree kapo, or Crooked gate;

Ivan serai, or the Ivan palace gate.

طوپ قپوسي ادرنه قپرسي

اکري نپر ایوان سراي

2 A

VOL. I.

378

TOMB OF ALI PASHA.

as follows: “Here lies the head of the formerly renowned Ali of Tepelini, governor of the sanjak of Janina, who for more than fifty years aspired to independence in Albania.” Close to it are interred the heads of his sons Salih, Wulee pasha of the Morea, and Mokhtiar of Thessaly, and of his grandson Mahmood; all of whom were put to death, together with the arch-rebel, in the year 1237 of the Hegira, corresponding to 1822 of our era. Their heads were purchased at a high price from the public executioner and deposited here by a friend of Ali.

The breach entered by Mohammed II, when he took the city on the 29th of May, 1453, is marked by two shots placed over the fourth gate, which is thence designated Top kaposee, The gate of the gun; but of the breach itself no trace remains, except the partial filling up of the ditch by the débris of the wall. The stranger's gratification in visiting the localities connected with that day attains its acme when he reaches the spot where the last of the Constantines fell under the sword of the Moslim conqueror.

Between the fifth and sixth gate, inside the walls, an oblong stone building with arched windows bears the name of Belisarius's palace; but marble embrasures and indications of four

THE ETMEIDAN.

379

distinct stories prove it to be of a much later date than that name would assign to it. Among the ruins of this edifice, in the time of Mohammed II., a child is said to have found the famous diamond now in the sultan's possession.

From the last gate on the western side, which borders on the Golden Horn, the Fanar, or Greek quarter, extends nearly the whole way to Seraglio Point, a distance of four miles along the bank, making the circumference of Stambol proper

about fifteen miles. Having completed the circuit of the city, we visited the Etmeidan, or “ Flesh field, *" the scene of the destruction of the janissaries in 1826. Of this little remains in the state in which it existed before the day of slaughter : the barracks where the rebels collected their forces were annihilated by the artillery, and the land is now exposed to sale. The feelings with which one traverses the site of such a tragedy are indescribable. On that memorable occasion the Etmeidan became an Aceldama; the Flesh field, (name of ill omen!) a Field of blood. Its arid soil drank in on one day the blood of more than twenty thousand of our fellow-creatures, and every blade of grass is now rich with the manure of human gore.

* So called from a market for meat once held there.

CHAPTER XIII.

TURKEY AND THE TURKS.

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Turkish vehicles. Ladies. Slave - market. Bedlam.

Origin of name.-Cemeteries.—Tomb-stones.-Cypresses. - Dogs. — Bazaars. — Shoes. — Manuscripts. — Drugs.Arms.-Jewellery-Saddlery.- Pipes.- Resemblance between bazaars of Constantinople and Pompeii.-Fountains. -Ablutions.-Baths.-Khans.-Frank boarding houses.Seraglio.-Origin of name Sublime Porte. - Kitchens.Consumption of food.-Hall of justice. – Harem.-Door whence females were thrown into Bosphorus.-Seminary for teaching French. French and Austrian schools. Fumigation for plague. - Scutari. - Caiques.—Mosque.Chrysopolis. - Origin of name. - Chalcedon. - Maiden's Tower. - Great cemetery. - Private burial-grounds. — Howling dervéshes. — Dancing dervéshes. — Sultan's attendance at mosque.

Conversation with widow of sultan Mustapha. - Sultan Mahmood.- Person. -Character. Difficulties.Janissaries. Their destruction.-Conflicting opinions concerning them. - Present army. - Population and extent of Turkey.—Defective policy of Mahmood.Existing policy of England, France, Austria, and Russia. Important crisis to Turkey.-Her future destinies.-Character of Turks. Habits and customs.-Anecdote of an

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