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316

KARAITE HISTORY.

three great epochs : First, the year 106 B. c. in which Simeon Ben Chetak, driven to Alexandria to avoid the persecution directed by Alexander Janneus against the wise men of his country, returned to Jerusalem after the danger was past, and began to disseminate his doctrines: Secondly, 750 A. D. when Anan was their chief at Babylon : Thirdly, the year (in the fifteenth century,) in which Héléliah Ben Don Davis went from Lisbon to Constantinople in order to effect a coalition between the Karaites and Rabbinists; but, failing in his project, gave them a code of laws which, with the Adareth, (a moral work much esteemed among them,) formed the basis of their institutions.

As our visit was protracted to some (length, the greater part of the population of this little fort heard of our arrival; and before we took leave, the number whom curiosity had brought to see the strangers was such as to incommode

The boys fought for the hopeful privilege of holding our horses, and still more for the kopecks, in distributing which we strove not to give rise to a breach of the peace ; but some more than playful blows proved that our efforts were unsuccessful.

With the double object of avoiding the pre

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VALLEY OF JEHOSHAPHAT.

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cipitous ascent encountered in our progress to the town, and of seeing the burial-ground of these lovers of Holy Scripture, on quitting Joofud Kalah we proceeded along a road leading to a valley peopled with the dead of the last five centuries, and called “ The valley of Jehoshaphat.” It lies in a fissure of the mountains, and is darkened by the shade of numerous venerable trees which cast a sombre hue over the graves and give effect to the scene. The cemetery is filled to overflowing with white marble monuments, each carved in the shape of a sarcophagus and furnished with a headstone: the oldest of these, which was more than half buried in the ground till the visit of the emperor Alexander who caused it to be taken up and laid down afresh, bears a date corresponding to the year 1364 of our era. The view from this spot is very grand; and our last impressions of Joofud Kalah were such as to induce a regret that we were compelled to hasten away, and that our visit could neither be prolonged nor repeated. Yet so it is! A regret is mingled with life's every pleasure !

CHAPTER XI.

THE CRIMEA. FROM BAGTCHESERAI, BY THE

HERACLEOTIC CHERSONESUS, TO ODESSA.

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Leave Bagtcheserai.—Tartar village of Dosis.-Mausoleums.

Castle of Mankup. — Dewankooee. Carts. - Burialgrounds. — Broochkooee. — Scenery. — Ferry. — Old Jew.

Sebastopol. — Allotments of land. - Reflections on a settlement in the Crimea. - Bay. — Ancient Ctenus. Its situation. — Tortoises and fish. - Aqueduct. - Fortress and caves of Inkerman.-Chapels in rock.-Hidingplaces of early Christians.—Harbour.—Shipping and fortifications.—Site of ancient Chersonesus.-Its foundation and history.-Heracleotic and Taurica Chersonesus.-Genoese buildings.—Pagan temples and Christian churches.-Ertensive ruins. Flowers and insects.-Anecdote. Natural magic. - Circular stone basins. - Coins.-Rings for shipping on tops of mountains.-Geological conjectures.Monastery of St. George. - Temple of Diana.—Metropolitan. — Greek service.- Valley of Balaclava. - Greek inhabitants. – Variety of nations in Crimea. - Harbour of Balaclava.—Ancient fortress.-Name derived from Geno

Fish. Sea-servant. Town paved with marble. - Valley of Baidah. - Tartar cottage. - Repast. - Ablutions.-Mountains of Ayila.-Majestic scenery.-"Devil's stairs." Descent. Village destroyed. – Houses.

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DEPARTURE FROM BAGTCHESERAI.

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Mode of stacking hay.-Richness of soil.-Spina Christi.-
Tree frog. - Eagles. - Lizards. — Return to Aloupka.-
Yalta.-Massandra. — Count Woronzow's exertions in Cri-
mea.-Anecdote.-Public garden at Nikita.-Aidaniel.
Its situation. — View. Bear's mountain. - Return to
Odessa.

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The distance from Bagtcheserai, the ancient metropolis of Crim Tartary, to Sebastopol, its present capital, is about thirty versts; and the journey may be accomplished on horseback in three hours and a half, the road being level and such as even a wagon can pass over. The first little cluster of cottages, wearing an appearance of comfort superior to that of most Tartar villages, is called Dosis. In the vicinity are several mausoleums; one, remarkable for the beauty of its architecture, is considered by competent judges the best specimen of that art in Russia; it probably contains the dust of royalty, and the name of the spot thus consecrated to the dead, which may be translated The old abode, has given rise to a belief that the khans formerly resided here. The burialgrounds of the Tartars, like those of Mohammedans in general, lie near the public road; and they are numerous, as each family can choose their last home without regard to a form of consecration. These frequent mementos

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TARTAR CEMETERIES.

of death ought to be profitable; but they are so common that they cease to affect the mind.

As we proceeded, a turn in the road opened to view the castle of Mankup, once a place of considerable strength ; and after passing through Dewankooee, inhabited principally by Crimean gipsies and abounding, as does the neighbourhood, in carts beautifully carved, like the old oak mantel-pieces of our forefathers, we rode along a country exhibiting every possible variety of mountain scenery and here and there studded with vineyards, till we reached, at a distance of two versts from Sebastopol, the village of Broochkooee, where we again saw the Euxine. Our ride carried us through a series of valleys, more or less cultivated, and surrounded with high hills of freestone which,-their sides having been bared of mould by successive rains, stood forth, like giants, terrible in their size and naked majesty.

Before reaching Sebastopol we had to cross an arm of the sea, about half a mile in width, A ferry was put in requisition, and some Russians and a Tartar Jew embarked with us. The venerable son of Abraham commanded our respect by his age and our interest by his birth ; our companions, however, felt otherwise, and immediately commenced hostilities;

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