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-she is the maid-servant, a petite Fadette led the Comédie to reconsider its deciadopted by Mme. Sand. . .: After din. sion, “ Henriette Maréchal” was put into ner Mme. Sand plays 'patience' till mid- rehearsal, with the best actors and acnight without saying a word. . . . Well, tresses of the day in the principal rôles, after a day or two I could stand it no and MM. de Goncourt had nothing left longer, and so suddenly declared that but to express their gratitude to their Rousseau had been the worst writer the energetic and all-powerful friend at Cout. world had known, and this produced a But it had gone forth in the Student's discussion which lasted till one o'clock in quarter that a dull ill-constructed play was the morning.”
going to be played at the National TheaCertainly her malicious confrère knew tre, in order to please a Princess ; the how to avenge the dull hours George Sand Quartier Latin descended on the Palais had made him spend in her beloved No. Royal with whistles, rattles, and, what was hant, and yet at that time ('62) the more to the purpose, some fifty strong “ Marquis de Villemer” was still unwrit- young voices determined to howl down ten, proving what a latent power there the official play. The ringleader, a young must have been in this quiet somnolent gentleman known as Pipe en bois, wrote a woman.
witty epistle to the authors of the piece, Through all these curious volumes, full which somehow got into all the anti-gov. of a painful disillusionment which intensi. ernmental organs, and practically obliged fies as time goes on, stripping bare first the Director of the Comédie Française to both brothers and then the remaining one, withdraw “ Henriette Maréchal.” This, of the natural affections and beliefs com- after Got, Delaunay, Mme. Arnould Dumon to us all, one gracious and charming plesis, etc., had five times tried in vain to personality flits to and fro, ever bringing make the public at least hear their play, an element of brightness and cheery kind. which was spoken of with admiration and ness into the lives of all those around. even enthusiasm by the leading critics of The Princess Mathilde Bonaparte, to the day, including two such different inen whom constant references are made in the as Jules Janin and Gautier. “ Journal des Goncourt," seems to have Some twenty years later the same pubplayed the part of fairy godmother to lic, grown presumably older and wiser French men of letters during the Third under the beneficent influence of the ReEmpire ; indeed it was admittedly due to public, applauded “ Henriette Maréchal” her influence that such men as Flaubert, to the echo ; but only one of the two Gautier, the De Gonconits, not to men- authors was present to enjoy the triumph, tion Sainte-Beuve, threw what influence and receive the congratulations of friends they possessed all on the side of what was and critics. Such are the ironies of fate ; then Law and Order.
for it is recognized that Jules de Goncourt On one occasion, however, Princess bad given some of his best thought to this Mathilde's friendship did the brothers an comedy, if it can be so styled, containing evil tarn. “ Henriette Maréchal,” a as it does the mot profond which sums up strangely unequal play, but one which what the whole of modern literature from undoubtedly foreshadowed the modern Balzac downward is always trying to exdramatic school, and brought out, as none press. In “ Henriette Maréchal,” the of their previous work had done, the rare hero, Paul de Breville, says : “ Çà finit powers of modern psychological observa- donc l'amour, Louise ?” but no answer is tion possessed by the two authors, was vouchsafed to the question. blackballed by the Comédie Française ; Even before Jules's death there had ostensibly on acconnt of the subject-cer- been question of what one must call, for tainly a singularly unpleasant one-but want of a better name, an Académie de more probably because with Emile Au- Goncourt. The brothers ever retained a gier, Dumas fils, and Octave Feuillet, to vivid remembrance of their own early say nothing of De Musset, the Theátre struggles, and of those of their friends Française was rather suffering from em- who, even more unfortunate than thembarras de richesses, and had no desire for selves, saw themselves absolutely obliged eccentric and startling additions to its to “potboil,” if I may be pardoned the repertoire.
phrase, in order to live while masterpieces Suddenly a message from the Emperor slumbered in their brains. It was with
the generous hope of helping forward say nothing of the quaint, ill-spelled autosome of these that the De Goncourts made graph letters of the grandes dumes Mesup their minds to found a certain number sieurs de Goncourt made to live again in of
literary scholarships for which only their “ Histoire de la France au 18eme bona fide men of letters should be eligible. Siècle,” for both brothers were passionate The number was restricted to twelve, part collectors at a time when a Fragonard ly on account of the expense ; and the worth three thousand francs to day could scheme can only come into operation after be bought for as many centimes. the surviving brother has departed this Very characteristic of the genius and world--a rather melancholy thought, by- aptitudes of the De Goncourts is the acthe-by, for those who have already a count of their home at Auteuil written by destined place in the Académie. When the elder brother ten long years after the the brothers first conceived the idea, the death of Jules. Surely the plaques, and men were chosen—all, it is hardly neces- the bronzes, and the Japanese stuffs must sary to state, outside the Académie Fran- one and all bave caught the echoes of that çaise, and all men to whom the six thou- sad death-bed, and the lonely pain of the sand fraucs income (exactly £240) would survivor. There is something horribly have been wealth. These inen were then melancholy in the enumeration of all the Flaubert, Théophile Gautier, Barbey precious things, especially when we red'Hervilly, Louis Veuillot--for whose member that after a particularly costly talent, strange as it may seem consider. purchase the two young brothers would ing the extreine differences both of opin- go off and economize in some artists' tarion and style existing between them, the ern where their food and lodging came to De Goncourts had a great respect—Theo- half-a-crown a day. Here is Ēdmond's dore de Banville, and, among the younger account of the growth of this hereditary men, Alphonse Daudet and Emile Zola passion. Of these the older generation has disap “ Sitting by my chimney-corner, in the peared as though it had not been, and M. interval of work, a cigar between my lips Zola is in training for the Académie, so and my eyes wandering over all the surto Alphonse Daudet will probably fall the rounding bric-à-brac, I had often asked task of forming the Académie de Gon. myself whence arose this passionate love court, which may in tiine become a serious du bibelot which has made me happy and rival to the Forty. It is difficult to divine miserable all my life. ... who would now compose the twelve, but “ One of the most eager amateurs of Guy de Maupassant may almost certainly the eighteenth century was a connection be cited, the more so that he has always of my family, M. le Bas de Courmont, refused to enter the Academic fold. Paul but he," adds Edmond," was not a blood Marguerite and Reny among the new relation.” The grandfather De Goncourt writers would also probably have their lived in a beautiful sculptured house at place.
Neufchateau, and had within it divers It is unnecessary to point out what a bronzes, drawings, and fine pieces of furboon this Académie de Goncourt will niture ; but simple as the fitting adornprove, if the management and generalment of his rank in life. The father, an direction fall into the right hands. Life officer, never troubled his head about is almost impossible to the literary begin. “these stupiditics,” but always chose ner abroad. Magazines are practically articles of common necessity, such as a non-existent, and, owing to the absence of brush of elegant and even artistic make, good circulating libraries, it takes as many and his drinking-glass was one of the first years to become popular in France as it verres mousselins made. would wonths in England or America. But it is to the influence of an aunt by
One of the finest collections of Japanese marriage that M. de Goncourt attributes art in the world is contained in the Auteuil the collecting passion which grew with his rilla where M. Edmond de Goncourt now growth. This lady lived at Croissy, in lives in solitude, and the walls of this the neighborhood of Paris, and Madame maison d'artiste are covered with exquisite de Goncourt sometimes spent the summer eighteenth-century miniatures, drawings with her and a third relative, a sort of and pastels signed Fragonard, Boucher, domestic colony very common in France. Watteau, and rare Beauvais tapestries, to They would set out on the Sunday after
noons when the little Edmond came home father-in-law the Duc de Pentbievre, I from school, and find their way down the take this account of an inlaid casket, Boulevard Beaumarchais to the Faubourg made of foreign woods, such as they loved St. Antoine, and so to certain vendors of a century ago. curiosities. Tbis was about 1836, and “ It is the casket where my grandthe three ladies are daintily described in mother, elegant in her tastes, kept her their thin muslin gowns, and prunella best Indian cashmeres ; for she had so shoes with curved sandals tied round the many, that I remember at the time of her ankle, "a charming trio. ' Ma tante," death
death my childish astonishment at hearing says M. de Goncourt, was at that time the dealers who came to the sale speak of one of the four or five persons in Paris it as the sale of the Indian lady.' At who loved the old things of a former this date all that remains in the casket betime ; Venetian glass, sculptured ivories, longing to its original owner is a curious inlaid furniture, Genoese velvets, Point account book of the time of the Direcd'Alençon and Porcelaines de Saxe. The toire, at the moment of the depreciation ladies would find the dealer putting up of the paper money—the Assignats—durhis shutters previous to going out to dine ing months when a turkey cost 600 francs. in some tavern at Vincennes, but they This account-book is in the midst of a would generally pick up some precious pile of literary agreements, shares and trifle that was given to Edmond to carry, bonds, paid bills for works of art, family who watched his own feet with careful papers, all the mass of serious archives zeal lest he should trip, while his aunt belonging to the living man, mingled with would look smilingly back with an 'Ed- the relics which he keeps of those who are mond, take care not to break it.'
no more ; where my fingers touch, now " It is certainly these old Sundays which my father's · Croix d'Officier,' now my made the bibeloteur which I have been, mother's wedding-ring, or a fair-haired which I am, and shall be all my life long." curl of my little sister Lili, who died of These
pages recall the house of Victor cholera in 1832—died upon our knees in Hugo at Guernsey, Hauteville House, a compartment of a diligence, while we which was decorated to such an extraor were in agonizing uncertainty whether to dinary degree with old tapestry, sculptured alight in one of the passing villages, or to oak and Japanese treasures, that it seemed hurry on for help to the next great town.” to detract a little from the value of the The great charm of the “ Maison d'Ardwelling as an exponent of the life of the tiste” consists in the little interspersed man. A perfect furnished house is surely memories of family life which cling to the growth of years.
some unbought relic of the De Goncourt From a charming description of a bed- family-memories in which the essenroom entirely furnished with relics of the tially delicate and kindly nature of the eighteenth century, of which the bed is writer dignifies each reniniscence of the said to have been that of the unfortunate past, and makes every reader feel in him a Princess de Lamballe, when visiting her friend.-Murray's Magazine.
THE GRINDSTONE THEORY OF THE MILKY WAY.
BY J. ELLARD GORE.
The original conception of the “ grind- nomena of the Visible Creation ; and parstone'' or “ disc theory” of the Milky ticularly The Via Lactea. Compris'd in Way, although usually attributed to Sir Nine Familiar Letters from the Author to William Herschel
, is certainly due to his Friend.” This work is very rare. Thomas Wright of Durham, who first Even the great library of the Ponlkova published the theory in the year 1750 in Observatory, Russia, does not possess a a work entitled “ An Original Theory or copy, and it appears from the writings of New Hypothesis of the Universe, founded Kant, Struve, and Arago that neither of upon the Laws of Nature, and solving by them had seen an original copy of Wright's Mathematical Principles the General Phw. work. On the title-page of the copy be
longing to the Library of the Royal Astro servations were based. If we suppose the nomical Society (from which the extracts stars to be uniformly scattered through a in the following pages are quoted) there space extending to the same distance in all is a inanuscript note by Professor De Mor- directions, with the observer's eye placed gan (author of “The Budget of Para nearly in the centre, it is evident that the doxes”'), in which he says that he had number of stars visible in the field of the only seen three copies of the work, one of telescope directed to different portions of which“ had an ingenious attempt to alter the stellar vault would be nearly the same Mdccl into mdccc, which could only be for every position of the telescope. But detected by looking through the back of let us suppose that the stars are equally the page"--an attempt probably made by distributed, not in a sphere, but in the some unscrupulcus person to try and prove form of a cylindrical disc-like a grind that Wright's views were not published stone-of a small thickness in comparison till 1800, or a date subsequent to the ap with its diameter. In this case-if the pearance of Sir W. Herscbel's earlier stars near the borders of the disc are papers.
within the range of our telescope-there Thoinas Wright was born on September will be seen in the direction of the diame22, 1711, at Byer's Green, near Durham, ter of the disc a very large number of and died at the same place on February stars, and in that of the thickness, or axis 25, 1786. He seems to have been an ob. of the disc, a comparatively small numserver especially of comets, and a com ber. In other directions the nun ber visiputer of their orbits. He published some ble will be proportional to the length of other works, and acquired such a reputa- the visual ray. " It follows, therefore, that tion by his writings on navigation that in an enumeration of the stars visible in vari1742 he was offered the professorship of ous directions would enable us to deternavigation in the Imperial Academy of St. mine the exact form of the stellar stratum, Petersburg.
and also the position of the observer in In the seventh letter of the work re the interior of the disc. For, as the volferred to Wright says : "Let us imagine 'umes of spheres vary as the cubes of their a vast infinite Gulph, or Medium, cvery radii, the number of stars visible in any Way extended like a Plane, and inclosed two directions would be proportional to between two Surfaces, neaily even on both the cubes of the distances to which the Sides, but of such a Depth or Thickness stratum extended in the two directions. as to occupy a Space equal to the double For example, if in the field of view of the Radius, or Diameter of the visible Crea observing telescope ten stars are counted tion, that is to take in one of the smallest in one direction and eighty in another, Stars each way, from the middle Station, the length of the visual rays will be as one perpendicular to the Plane’s Direction, and, to two (or as the cube roots of one to as near as possible, according to our Idea eight).
eight). From the observed numbers, and of their true Distance ;") and again, “ If a comparison between the area of the field your Opticks fail you before you arrive at of the observing telescope and the total ihese external Regions, only imagine howin- area of the star sphere, i he length of the finitely greater the Number of Stars would visual ray, compared with the mean disle in ibese remote Parts, arising thus from tance of stars of the first magnitude, may their continual crowding behind one an also be computer. other, as all other Objects do toward the In pursuance of this method Sir W. Ilorizon Point of their Perspective, which Herschel undertook a series of “gauges, ends but with Infinity. Thus, all their or counts of stars, visible in different porRays at least so near uniting, must meet- tions of the sky with a reflecting telescope ing in the eye appear, as almost, in Con- of 18.8 inches aperture. The magnifying tact, and form a perfect Zone of Light; power used was 157, and the diameter of this I take to be the real Case, and the ** the field of view" about fifteen minutes true nature of our Milky Way.” Here four seconds of arc, or about half the we have the “disc theory” clearly pro- moon's apparent diameter. It may be pounded.
shown that the area of this field of view Herschel was, however, the first to put is equal to that of the whole celestial this theory to the test of observation. Let sphere divided by 833,000. It would, us consider the principle on which his ob therefore, be necessary to count this im.
mense number of fields in order to nitude stars 47.76, and of tenth magnitude
gauge" the whole visible heavens. Her- stars 75.72 of the same units. From this schel's gauges number about 3400, so that it follows that a telescope which shows in reality he examined only a small frac- stars to the tenth magnitude only should tion of the celestial vault. The number of suffice to pierce through the thickness of stars visible in these gauges range from the stellar disc in the direction of the to 588. This latter number, large as it is Nortb Galactic pole. As this is probably for so small a field of view, would give for not the case, it would seem that Herschel's the whole heavens-if equally rich—a assumed dimensions are too small. Astotal of 489,804,000 stars, a number suming his figures, however, let us conwhich, although absolutely large, must be sider how the disc theory” agrees with considered as comparatively small if we observation. As the late Mr. Proctor has consider space as infinite in extent. shown, the stars visible to the naked eye
Herschel's gauges were made along a alone show a marked tendency to aggregagreat circle of the celestial sphere at right tion on the Galactic stream. My own inangles to the course of the Milky Way. vestigations on the subject confirm the This section was inclined at an angle of correctness of this conclusion. Now, as 35 degrees to the celestial Equator. It the average naked eye can only penetrate intersects the Milky Way at right angles, to a small distance in any direction of the and passes close to the Galactic poles. On disc, we should find the number of naked one side of the star sphere it cuts the eye stars nearly the same in all directions, Milky Way in the two branches in Aquila, with of course a nebulous background. and at the opposite side in the southern There seems, therefore, no reason why the portion of Monoceros near Canis Major. naked eye stars should be more numerous Herschel found the greatest diameter of in the direction of the Milky Way than in bis stellar stratum to have an extension of any other direction. It may, however, be 850 times the mean distance of stars of objected to this argument that the tenthe first magnitude ; the thickness at dency of the lucid stars to crowd on the right angles to the diameter of the disc, Milky Way is not sufficiently well marked or in the direction of the poles of the to warrant us in drawing any decided conMilky Way--being 155 of the same units. clusion from their apparent distribution In this hypothetical disc the sun is not over the celestial vault. Let us, therequite centrally placed either in the direc. fore, consider the observed distribution of tion of the thickness, or in that of the stars to the eighth and ninth magnitudes, diameter of the disc. In the direction of of which the limit in distances fall well the thickness he found an extension of 75 within the thickness of the hypothetical units toward Coma Berenices, or Northern disc. Struve found that for the hours VI. Galactic pole, and 80 units toward Cetus, and I. of Right Ascension the ratio of or the Southern pole. In the direction of stellar density is about 3 to 1 for stars to the diameter the maximuin extension is in the ninth magnitude, included in a zone the direction of Aquila, where we have from 15° Norih Declination to 15° South distances of 497 and 420 units. Between Declination. Argelander's maps show these two branches lies a void gulf, of that for a distance of 30° on each side of which the nearest point to the sun is at a the centre line of the Galactic zone the distance of 220 units. In the opposite stars to the eighth magnitude inside these direction the extreme distance of the bor- limits are more numerous than those outders of the disc is at 352 of the same side in the ratio of about 2 to 1. For units, in that portion of the Milky Way stars of the ninth magnitude this ratio is above Canis Major.
nearly 2} to 1. Ilerschel estimates the average distance Adopting Struve's method of counting of stars of the sixth maguitude-about the stars in a zone from + 15° to — 15° the limit of ordinary eyesight-to be of Declination, I have made a careful twelve times the average distance of stars enumeration of the stars to the eighth of the first magnitude. Now, with a magnitnde inclusive, as shown in Hard“light ratio” of 2.512, I find that the ing's charts, which are fairly complete for average distance of stars of the eighth stars of that magnitude, at least in the magnitude will be 30.14 units of the selected zone. The results I have found adopted scale, the distance of ninth mag- show that the maximum number of stars