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GLORUM ENCOMIA, published at London in 1589*. He is perhaps the first Englishman that wrote Latin elegiacs with a classical clearness and terseness after Leland, the plan of whose ENCOMIA and TROPHÆA he seems to have followed in this little work'. Most of the learned and ingenious men of that age, appear to have courted the favours of this polite and popular encomiast. His chief patron was the unfortunate Robert earl of Eflex. I have often incidentally mentioned some of Newton's recommendatory verses, both in English and Latin, prefixed to cotemporary books, according to the mode of that age. One of his earliest philological publications is a Notable Historie OF THE SARACENS, digested from Curio, in three books, printed at London in 1575 . I unavoidably anticipate in remarking here, that he wrote a poem on the death of sabeth, called “ ATROPOIOn Delion,” or, “ the Death of “ Delia with the Tears of her funeral. A poetical excusive dis“ course of our late Eliza. By T. N.G. Lond. 1603".” The next year he published a flowery romance, “ A plesant new history,

or a fragrant posie made of three flowers Rosa, Rosalynd, and " Rosemary, London, 1604°." Philips, in his THEATRUM PoetARUM, attributes to Newton, a tragedy in two parts, called TAMBURLAIN THE GREAT, OR THE SCYTHIAN SHEPHERD. But this play, printed at London in 1593, was written by Christopher Marloep. He seems to have been a partisan of the puritans, from his pamphlet of CHRISTIAN FRIENDSHIP, with an Invective against dice-play and other profane games, printed at London, 1586?. For some time our author practised phyfic, and, in

queen Eli.

Lond. 1589. 4to. Reprinted by Hearne, Oxon. 1715. 8vo.

m In quarto. With a SUMMARY annex. ed on the same subject.

n In quarto. For w. Johnes.

* His master John Brunswerd, at Macclesfield-school, in Cheshire, was no bad Latin poet. See his PROGYMNASMATA ALQUOT POEMATA, Lond. 1590. 4to. See Newton's Encom. p. 128 131. Brunf. werd died in 1589, and his epitaph, made by his scholar Newton, yet remains in the chancel of the church of Macclesfield. Alpha poetarum, coryphæus grammati

corum, Flos #kifugazowe, hac sepelitur humo.

o In quarto.

! See Heywood's Prologue to Marlow's Jew of MALTA, 1633.

9 In octavo. From the Latin of Lamb. Danæus,


the character of that profession, wrote or translated many medical tracts. The first of these, on a curious fubject, A direction for the health of magistrates and students, from Gratarolus, appeared in 1574. At length taking orders, he first taught school at Macclesfield in Cheshire, and afterwards at Little Ilford in Eflex, where he was beneficed. In this department, and in 1596, he published a correct edition of Stanbridge's Latin Prosody'. In the general character of an author, he was a voluminous and a laborious writer. He died at Little Ilford, and was interred in his church, in 1607. From a long and habitual course of studious and industrious pursuits he had acquired a considerable fortune, a portion of which he bequeathed in charitable legacies.

It is remarkable, that Shakespeare has borrowed nothing from the English Seneca. Perhaps a copy might not fall in his way. Shakespeare was only a reader by accident. Hollinshed and translated Italian novels supplied most of his plots or stories. His storehouse of learned history was North's Plutarch. The only poetical fable of antiquity, which he has worked into a play, is TROILUS. But this he borrowed from the romance of Troy. Modern fiction and English history were his principal resources. These perhaps were more suitable to his taste : at least he found that they produced the most popular subjects. Shakespeare was above the bondage of the classics.

I must not forget to remark here, that, according to Ames, among the copies of Henry Denham recited in the register of the Company of Stationers', that printer, is faid, on the eighth of January, in 1583, among other books, to have yielded into the bands and difpofitions of the master, wardens, and affistants, of

« Vocabula magiftri Stanbrigii ab in“ finitis quibus scatebant mendis repur. “ gata, observata interim (quoad ejus fieri

poțuit) carminis ratione, et meliuscule " eriam correcta, ftudio et industria Tho. "mae Newtoni Ceftreshyrii. Edinb. ex.

“ cud. R. Waldegrave." I know not if this edition, which is in octavo, is the first. See our author's Encom. p. 128, Our author published one or two translations on theological subjects.

• I find nothing of this in REGISTER. B.





that fraternity, “ Two or three of Seneca his tragedies ?." These, if printed after 1581, cannot be new impressions of any fingle plays of Seneca, pf those published in Newton's edition of all the ten tragedies.

Among Hatton's manuscripts in the Bodleian library at Oxford", there is a long translation from the Hercules OETAEUS of Seneca, by queen Elisabeth. It is remarkable that it is blank verse, a measure which her majesty perhaps adopted from GORDOBUC; and which therefore proves it to have been done after the year 1561. It has, however, no other recommendation but its royalty.

• They are mentioned by Ames, with these pieces, viz. “ Pasquin in a traunce. " The hoppe gardein. Ovid's metamor

phosis. The courtier. Cesar's commen"taries in English. Ovid's epiftles. Image " of idlenesse. Flower of frendship. Schole “ of vertue. Gardener's laborynth. De“ mofthene's orations.” I take this opportunity of acknowledging my great obli. gations to that very respectable fociety, who in the most liberal manner have in,

dulged me with a free and unreserved examination of their original records : particularly to the kind assistance and atten. tion of one of its members, Mr. Lockyer Davies, Bookseller in Holbourn.

* MSS. Mus. Bodc. 55. 12. [Olim HYPER. BODL.] It begins,

What harminge hurle of Fortune's arme,



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UT, as scholars began to direct their attention to our ver

nacular poetry, many more of the antient poets now appeared in English verse. Before the year 16oo, Homer, Musaeus, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and Martial, were translated. Indeed most of these versions were published before the year 1580. For the sake of presenting a connected display of these early translators, I am obliged to trespass, in a slight degree, on that chronological order which it has been my prescribed and constant method to observe. In the mean time we must remember, that their versions, while they contributed to familiarise the ideas of the antient poets to English readers, improved our language and versification; and that in a general view, they ought to be considered as valuable and important accessions to the stock of our poetical literature. These were the classics of Shakespeare.

I shall begin with those that were tranflated first in the reign of Elisabeth. But I must premise, that this inquiry will necessarily draw with it many other notices much to our purpose, and which could not otherwise have been so conveniently disposed and displayed.

Thomas Phaier, already mentioned as the writer of the story of Owen GLENDOUR in the MIRROUR OF MAGISTRATES; a native of Pembrokeshire, educated at Oxford, a student of Lincoln's Inn, and an advocate to the council for the Marches of Wales, but afterwards doctorated in medicine at Oxford, translated the seven first books of the Eneid of Virgil, on his retirement to his patrimonial feat in the forest of Kil3 D 2


garran in Pembrokeshire, in the years 1555, 1556, 1557. They were printed at London in 1558, for Ihon Kyngston, and dedicated to queen Mary'. He afterwards finished the eighth book on the tenth of September, within forty days, in 1558. The ninth, in thirty days, in 1560. Dying at Kilgarran the same year, he lived only to begin the tenth". All that was thus done by Phaier, one William Wightman published in 1562, with a dedication to fir Nicholas Bacon, " The


first books of the “ Eneidos of Virgil conuerted into English verse by Thomas “ Phaer doctour of physick, &c.” The imperfect work was at length completed, with Maphaeus's fupplemental or thirtcenth book, in 1583, by Thomas Twyne, a native of Canterbury, a physician of Lewes in Sussex, educated in both universities, an admirer of the mysterious philosophy of John Dee, and patronised by lord Buckhurst the poet “. The ninth, tenth, eleventh,

a In quarto. Bl. Lett. At the end of the seventh book is this colophon, “ Per “ Thomam Phaer in foresta Kilgerran fi

pitum iij. Decembris. Anno 1557. Opus “ sij dierum.” And at the end of every book is a similar colophon, to the same purpose. The first book was finished in eleven days, in 1555. The second in twenty days, in the same year. The third in twenty days, in the same year. The fourth in fifteen days, in 1556. The fifth in twenty-four days, on May the third, in 1557,“ poft periculum eius Karmerdini," i. e. at Caermarthen. The fixth in twenty days, in 1557

Phaier has left many large works in his several profesions of law and medicine. He is pathetically lamented by fir Thomas Chaloner as a moft skilful physician, Encom. p. 356. Lond. 1579. 4to. He has a recommendatory English poem prefixed to Philip Betham's MILITARY PreCEPTS, translated from the Latin of James earl of Purlilias, dedicated to lord Studley, Lond. 1544. 4to. For E. Whitchurch.

There is an entry to Purfoot in 1566, for printing“ serten verses of Cupydo by Mr. Fayre (Phaier].” REGISTR. STATION. A. fol. 154. a.

• Ex coloph. ut supr..

In quarto. Bl. Lett. For Rowland Hall.

• See supr. p. 287. His father was John Twyne of Bolington in Hampshire, an eminent antiquary, author of the Commentary DE REBUS ALBIONICIS, &c. Lond. 1590. It is addressed to, and published by, with an epistle, his faid son THOMAS. Laurence, a fellow of All Souls and a civilian, and John Twyne, both Thomas's brothers, have copies of verses prefixed to several cotemporary books, a. bout the reign of queen Elisabeth. Tho. MAS wrote and translated many tracts, which it would be fuperfluous and tedious to enumerate here. To his BREVIARIE OF BRITAINE, a translation from the Latin of Humphrey Lhuyd, in 1573, are prefixed recommendatory verses, by Browne prebendary, and Grant the learned school. master, of Westminster, Llodowyke Lloyd a poet in the PARADISE OF Daintie DeVISES, and his two brothers, aforesaid, Lau. rence and John.

Our translator, THOMAS TWYNE, died in 1613, aged 70, and was buried in the chancel of saint Anne's church at Lewes, where his epitaph of fourteen verses ftill,

I believe,

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