« הקודםהמשך »
“ London by Edmund Bollifant, 1586!.” This little piece is also called, " W. Bullokar's abbreuiation of his Grammar for “ English extracted out of his Grammar at larg for the spedi
parcing of English spech, and the eazier coming to the know
ledge of grammar for other langages “.” It is in the black letter, but with many novelties in the type, and affectations of spelling. In the preface, which is in verse, and contains an account of his life, he promises a dictionary of the English language, which, he adds, will make his third work". His first work I apprehend to be “ A Treatise of Orthographie in Eng“ lishe by William Bullokar,” licenced to Henry Denham in 1580°. Among Tanner's books is a copy of his bref grammar abovementioned, interpolated and corrected with the author's own hand, as it appears, for a new impression. In one of these manuscript insertions, he calls this, " the first grammar for Englishe “ that euer waz, except my grammar at large P.”
The French have vernacular critical and rhetorical systems at a much higher period. I believe one of their earliest is “ Le “ JARDIN de plaisance et FLEUR de rhetorique, contenant plu“ fieurs beaux livres.” It is in quarto, in the gothic type with wooden cuts, printed at Lyons by Olivier Arnoullet for Martin Boullon, and without date. But it was probably printed early in 1500%. In one of its poems, La Pipee ou chasse de dieu d'arnour, is cited the year 1491'. Another edition, in the same letter,
m Fol. i.
Coloph. “ Qd W. Bullokar." izmo. It contains 68
pages. * Here he says also, that he has another volume lying by him of more fame, which is not to fee the light till christened and called forth by the queen.
° Jun. 10. Registr. Station. B. fol. 169. a. But I must not forget, that in 1585, he published, “ Esop's fables in “ tru orthography, with grammer notz. “ Her-unto ar also coioned the shorte sen“ tencez of the wyz Cato, imprinted with “ lyke form and order: both of which
« authorz ar translated out of Latin intoo
English by William Bullokar.” 12mo.
p Fol. 68. In his metrical preface he fays, that he served in the army under fir Richard Wingfield in queen Mary's time. There is “ A petee schole of spellinge “and writinge Englishe," licenced to Butter, Jul. 20. 1580. REGISTR. B. fol. 171.a.
9 There is another, I suppose a second, edition, without date, in black letter, with wooden cuts, in folio, containing two hundred and forty-eight leaves, exclusive of the tables. This has fome improvements.
* Stance, 22. fol. 134.
but in octavo, appeared at Paris in 1547, Veuve de Jehan Tréperel et Yehan Jebannot. Beside the System of Rhetoric, which is only introductory, and has the separate title of L'ART DE RHETORIQUE, de fes couleurs, figures et especes', it comprehends a miscellaneous collection of Balades, rondeaux, chansons, dieties, comedies, and other entertaining little pieces', chiefly on the subject of the sentimental and ceremonious love which then
prevailed. The whole, I am speaking of the oldest edition, contains one hundred and ninety leaves. The RHETORIC is written in the short French rhyme: and the tenth chapter consists of rules for composing Moralities, Farces, Mysteries, and other ROMANS. That chapter is thus introduced, under the Latin rubric PROSECUTIO.
Expediez sont neuf chapitres,
The Latin rubrics to each species are exceedingly curious. “ Decimum Capitulum pro forma compilandi MORALITATES. “ Pro COMEDIS". — Pro MISTERIIS compilandis.” Receipts to make poems have generally been thought dull. But what shall we think of dull receipts for making dull poems? Gratian du Pont, a gentleman of Tholouse, printed in 1539 the “ Art et Science de Rhetorique metrifiée "." It must be
remembered, that there had been an early establishment of prizes in poetry at Tholouse, and that the seven troubadours or rhetoricians at Tholouse, were more famous in their time than the seven sages of Greece *.
But the « Grand et vrai Art de
* See Verdier ii. 649. From an ingenious correspondent, who has not given me the honour of his name, and who appears to be well acquainted with the manners and literature of Spain, I have received the following notices relating to this inftitution, of which other particulars may be feen in the old French History of Languedoc. “ At the end of the second volume of Mayan's ORIGINES DE LA LINGUA ESPANOLA, printed in duodecimo at Mac drid in 1737, is an extract from a manufcript entitled, Libro de la Arte de Trovar, à Gaya Sciencia, por Don Enrique de Villena, faid to exist in the library of the cathedral of Toledo, and perhaps to be found in other libraries of Spain. It has these par. ticulars.--The TROVADORES had their ori. gin at Tholouse, about the middle of the twelfth century. A CONSISTORIO de la Gaya Sciencia was there founded by Ramon Vidal de Besalin, containing more than one hundred and twenty celebrated poets, and among these, princes, kings, and emperors. Their art was extended throughout Eu.
gave rise to the Italian and Spanith poetry, fervio el Garona de Hippocrene. To Ramon Vidal de Besalin succeeded Jofre de Foxa, Monge negro, who enlar. ged the plan, and wrote what he called Continuacion de trovar.
After him Belenguer de Troya came from Majorca, and compiled a treatise de Figuras y Colores Rhetoricos. And next Gul. Vedal of Majorca wrote La Suma Vitulina. To support the GAYA SCIENCIA at the poetical college of Tholouse, the king of France appropriated privileges and revenues : appointing seven Mantenedores, que liciesen Leyes. These constituted the Laws of Love, which were afterwards abridged by Guill. Moluier under the title Tratado de las Flores. Next Fray Ramon framed a fyftem called Doctrinal, which was censured by Caftilnon, From thence nothing was written in Spanish on the subject, till the time of
Don Enrique de Villena. -So great was the credit of the Gay Science, that Don Juan the first king of Arragon, who died 1393, sent an embaffy to the king of France, requesting that some Troubadours might be transmitted to teach this art in his kingdom. Accordingly two Mantenedores were dispatched from Tholouse, who founded a college for poetry in Barcelona, confisting of four Mantenedores, a Cavalier, a Master in Theology, a Master in Laws, and an honourable Citizen. Disputes about Don Juan's successor occasioned the removal of the college to Tortosa. But Don Ferdinand being elected King, Don Enrique de Villena was taken into his fervice : who restored the college, and was chosen principal. The subjects he proposed, were sometimes, the Praises of the Holy Virgin, of Arms, of Love, y de buenas Costumbres. An account of the cere-. monies of their public A&ts then follows, in which every composition was recited, being written en papeles Damasquinos de di.. versas colores, con letras de oro y de plata, et illuminaduras formosas, lo major qua cada una podio. The best performance had a crown of gold placed upon it; and the au.. thor, being presented with a joya, or prize, received a licence to cantar y decir in publico. He was afterwards conducted home in form, escorted among others by two Mantenedores, and preceded by minstrels and trumpets, where he gave an entertainment of confects and wine."-[See supr. vol. i. 149. 467.]
There seems to have been a similar ef. tablishment at Amsterdam, called Rhederi. icker camer, or the CHAMBER OF RHBTORICIANS, mentioned by Isaacus Pontanus. Who adds,“ Sunt autem hi rhetores viri. " amæni et poetici spiritus, qui lingua, “ vernacula, aut prosa aut vorsa oratione, " comædias, tragedias, subindeque et muo tas personas, et facta maiorum notantes, “ magna spectantium voluptate exhibent."
“ plein Rhetorique" in two books, written by Pierre Fabri, properly Le Fevre, an ecclesiastic of Rouen, for teaching eleganče in prose as well as rhyme, is dated still higher. Goujet mentions a Gothic edition of this tract in 1521'. It contains remarks on the versification of mysteries and farces, and throws many lights on the old French writers.
But the French had even an Art of POETRY so early as the year 1548. In that year Thomas Sibilet published his Art poetique at Paris, Veuve François Regnault ?. This piece preserves many valuable anecdotes of the old French poetry : and, among other particulars which develope the state of the old French drama, has the following sensible strictures. " The French “ farce contains little or nothing of the Latin comedy. It has “ neither acts nor scenes, which would only serve to introduce
a tedious prolixity: for the true subject of the French farce, “ or Sottie, is every sort of foolery which has a tendency to
provoke laughter. -- The subject of the Greek and Latin “ comedy was totally different from every thing on the French
stage. For it had more morality than drollery, and often as 66 much truth as fiction. Our MORALITIES hold a place in
differently between tragedy and comedy: but our farces are
Rer. ET URB. AMST. Lib. ii. c. xvi. pag. 118. edit. 1611. fol. In the preceding chapter, he says, that this fraternity of rhetoricians erected a temporary theatre, at the solemn entry of prince Maurice into Amsterdam in 1594, where they exhibited in DUMB SHow the history of David and Goliah. Ibid. c. xv. p. 117.
Meteranus, in his Belgic history, speaks largely of the annual prizes, affemblies, and contests, of the guilds or colleges of the rhetoricians, in Holland and the Low Countries. They answered in rhyme, questions proposed by the dukes of Burgundy and Brabant. At Ghent in 1539, twenty of these colleges met with great pomp, to discuss an ethical question, and each gave a solution in a moral comedy, magnificently presented in the public theatre. In 1561,
the rhetorical guild of Antwerp, called the Violet, challenged all the neighbouring cities to a decision of the same fort. On this occasion, three hundred and forty rhe. toricians of Brussels appeared on horseback, richly but fantastically habited, accompanied with an infinite variety of pa. geantries, sports, and shows. These had a garland, as a reward for the superior splendor of their entry. Many days were spent in determining the grand questions : during which, there were feastings, bonfires, farces, tumbling, and every popular diversion. Belg. Histor. VNIVERSAL. fol. 1597. Lib. i. pag. 31, 32.
y Bibl. Fr. 361. He mentions another edition in 1539. Both at Paris, 12mo.
2 In 16mo.
“ really what the Romans called mimes, or Priapées, the in“ tended end and effect of which was excessive laughter, and “ on that account they admitted all kinds of licentiousness, as
our farces do at present. In the mean time, their pleasantry “ does not derive much advantage from rhymes, however flowing, “ of eight syllables ?." Sibilet's work is chiefly founded on Horace. His definitions are clear and just, and his precepts well explained. The most curious part of it is the enumeration of the poets who in his time were of most repute. Jacques Pelletier du Mans, a physician, a mathematician, a poet, and a voluminous writer on various subjects both in prose and verse, also published an Art PoetiQUE at Lyons, in 1555. This critic had sufficient penetration to perceive the false and corrupt taste of his cotemporaries. “ Instead of the regular ode and sonnet, “ our language is sophisticated by ballads, roundeaux, lays, and “ triolets. But with these we must rest contented, till the farces " which have so long infatuated our nation are converted into
comedy, our martyr-plays into tragedy, and our romances " into heroic poems."
And again, “ We have no pieces in “ our language written in the genuine comic form, except some “ affected and unnatural MORALITIES, and other plays of the “ same character, which do not deserve the name of comedy. “ The drama would appear to advantage, did it but resume its
proper state and antient dignity. We have, however, some “ tragedies in French learnedly translated, among which is the “ Hecuba of Euripides by Lazare de Baïf, &c.”
Of rhyme the same writer says, “ S'il n'etoit question que de parler orne“ ment, il ne faudroit finon écrire en prose, ou s'il n'etoit ques« tion
que de rimer, il ne faudroit, sinon rimer en farceur : “ mais en poesie, il faut faire tous les deux, et BIEN DIRE, et
a Liv. ii. ch. viii. At the end of Sibi. let's work is a critical piece of Quintil against Ch. Fontaine, first printed separately at Paris, 1538. 16mo.
• By Jean de Tournes. 8vo. c Ch. de L'ODE,
Ch. DE LA COMEDIE ET DE LA TRA
See also, to the same purpose, Collettet Sur la poefie morale, and Guil. laume des Autels, Repos d'un plus grard. travail,