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Guido and Tirius. Guido having achieved many splendid exploits for the love of a beautiful lady, at length married her. Three days after his marriage he saw a vision, which summoned him to engage in the holy war. At parting the gave him a ring; saying, “ as often as you look on this ring, remember " me.”

Soon after his departure she had a son. After various adventures, in which his friend Tirius has a share, at the end of seven years he returned to England in the habit of a pilgrim. Coming to his castle, he saw at the gate his lady sitting, and distributing alms to a croud of poor people; ordering them all to pray for the return of her lord Guido from the holy land. She was on that day accompanied by her son a little boy, very beautiful, and richly apparelled ; and who hearing his mother, as she was distributing her alms, perpetually recommending Guido to their prayers, asked, if that was his father? Among others, she gave alms to her husband Guido, not knowing him in the pilgrim's disguise. Guido, seeing the little boy, took him in his arms, and kissed him: saying, my “ God give you grace to please him !” For this boldness he was reproved by the attendants. But the lady, finding him destitute and a stranger, assigned him a cottage in a neighbouring forest. Soon afterwards falling sick, he said to his servant, “ Carry this

ring to your lady, and tell her, if the desires ever to see me

again, to come hither without delay.” The servant conveyed the ring; but before the arrived, he was dead. She threw herself on his body, and exclaimed with tears, “ Where are now my alms which I daily gave for


lord? I saw “ those alms, but I knew you not.—You beheld, embraced, “ and kissed your own son, but did not discover yourself to « him nor to me.

What have I done, that I shall see you no “ more ?” She then interred him magnificently.

The reader perceives this is the story of Guido, or Guy, earl of Warwick ; and probably this is the early outline of the life and death of that renowned champion. Many romances were at first little more than legends of de


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votion, containing the pilgrimage of an old warrior. At length, as chivalry came more into vogue, and the stores of invention were increased, the youthful and active part of the pilgrim's life was also written, and a long series of imaginary martial adventures was added, in which his religious was eclipsed by his heroic character, and the penitent was lost in the knight-errant. That which was the principal subject of the short and simple legend, became only the remote catastrophe of the voluminous romance. And hence by degrees it was almost an established rule of every romance, for the knight to end his days in a hermitage. Cervantes has ridiculed this circumstance with great pleasantry, where Don Quixote holds a grave debate with Sancho, whether he shall turn faint or archbishop.

So reciprocal, or rather so convertible, was the pious and the military character, that even some of the apostles had their ro

In the ninth century, the chivalrous and fabling spirit of the Spaniards transformed faint James into a knight. They pretended that he appeared and fought with irresistible fury, completely armed, and mounted on a stately white horse, in most of their engagements with the Moors; and because, by his superior prowess in these bloody conflicts, he was supposed to have freed the Spaniards from paying the annual tribute of a hundred christian virgins to their infidel enemies, they represented him as a professed and powerful champion of distressed damsels. This apotheosis of chivalry in the person of their own apostle, must have ever afterwards contributed to exaggerate the characteristical romantic heroism of the Spaniards, by which it was occasioned, and to propagate through succeeding ages, a stronger veneration for that species of military enthufiafm, to which they were naturally devoted. It is certain, that in consequence of these illustrious achievements in the Moorish wars, saint James was constituted patron of Spain; and became the founder of one of the most magnificent shrines, and of the most opulent order of knighthood, now existing in christendom.


The Legend of this invincible apostle is inserted in the Mofarabic liturgy.

CHAP. clxxiii. A king goes to a fair, carrying in his train, a master with one of his scholars, who expose fix bundles, containing a system of ethics, to fale.

Among the revenues accruing to the crown of England from the Fair of faint Botolph at Boston in Lincolnshire, within the Honour of RicHMOND, mention is made of the royal pavilion, or booth, which stood in the fair, about the year 1280. This fair was regularly frequented by merchants from the most capital trading towns of Normandy, Germany, Flanders, and other countries. “ Ibidem [in feria] funt quædam domus quæ “ dicuntur BOTHÆ REGIÆ, quæ valent per annum xxviii, 1. “ xiii, s. iiii, d. Ibidem sunt quædam domus quas MERCA“ TORES DE YPRE tenent, quæ valent per annum, xx, l. Et “ quædam domus quas MERCATORES DE CADOMO « ÖstoGANIO" tenent, xi, 1. Et quædam domus quas MerCATORES DE ANACO W tenent, xiii, 1. vi, s. viii, d. Et

quæ. “ dam domus quas MERCATORes de COLONIA tenent, xxv, 1. x, s." The high rent of these lodges, is a proof that they were considerable edifices in point of size and accommodation.

CHAP, clxxiv. The fable of a serpent cherished in a man's bosom Y.

About the year 1470, a collection of Latin fables, in fix books, distinguished by the name of Esop, was published in Germany. The three first books consist of the sixty anonymous elegiac fables, printed in Nevelet's collection, under the title of Anonymi Fabulæ Æsopicæ, and translated in 1503, by Wynkyn de Worde, with a few variations : under each is a fable in prose on the same subject from ROMULUS, or the old prose LATIN


• Compare Matth. Paris. edit. Watts. p. 927. 40.--And p. 751. 10.

i Caen in Normandy. u Perhaps, Oftend.

Perhaps Le Pais d'Aunis, between the Provinces of Poictou and Santone, where

Vol. III.

is Rochelle, a famous port and mart.

* Registr. Honoris DE RICHMOND. Lond. 1722. fol. Num, viii. Append. p. 39

Ý This fable is in Alphonsus's CLERICALIS DISCIPLINA. k


Esop, which was probably fabricated in the twelfth century. The fourth book has the remaining fables of Romulus in prose only. The fifth, containing one or two fables only which were never called Elop's, is taken from Alphonsus, the Gesta RoMANORUM, the CALILA U DAMNAH, and other obscure sources. The fixth and last book has seventeen fables ex tranNatione Rinucii, that is Rinucius, who translated Planudes's life of Esop, and fixty-nine of his fables, from Greek into Latin, in the fifteenth century. This collection soon afterwards was circulated in a French version, which Caxton translated into English.

In an antient general Chronicle, printed at Lubec in 1475, and entitled RUDIMENTUM NoviTIORUM', a short life of Esop is introduced, together with twenty-nine of his fables. The writer fays, “ Esopus adelphus claruit tempore Cyri regis Per“ farum.–Vir ingeniosus et prudens, qui confinxit fabulas ele

gantes. Quas Romulus poftmodum de greco transtulit in la“ tinum, et filio suo Tibertino direxit, &c The whole of this passage about Esop is transcribed from Vincent of Beauvaise.

CHAP. clxxvii. The feast of king Ahasuerus and Esther.

I have mentioned a metrical romance on this subject “. And I have before observed, that Thomas of Elmham, a chronicler, calls the coronation-feast of king Henry the sixth, a second feast of Ahasueruso. Hence also Chaucer's allusion at the marriage of January and May, while they are at the solemnity of the wedding-dinner, which is very splendid.

Quene Esther loked ner with soch an eye
On Assuere, fo meke a loke hath the d.

Froissart, an historian, who shares the merit with Philip de Comines of describing every thing, gives this idea of the fo

y In this work the following question is discussed, originally, I believe, started by faint Austin, and perhaps determined by Thomas Aquinas, An Angeli poffint coire cum Mulieribus, et generare Gigantes ??

z Fol. 237. a.
a SPECUL. Hist. L. iii. c. ii.
b Vol. ii. p. 178.
e Vol. ii. p. 35.
- MARCH TALE, V. 1260, Urr.


lemnity of a dinner on Christmas-day, at which he was present, in the hall of the castle of Gaston earl of Foiz at Ortez in Bevern, under the year 1388. At the upper or first table, he says, fate four bishops, then the earl, three viscounts, and an English knight belonging to the duke of Lancaster. At another table, five abbots, and two knights of Arragon. At another, many barons and knights of Gascony and Bigorre. At another, a great number of knights of Bevern. Four knights were the chief stewards of the hall, and the two bastard brothers of the earl served at the high table. “ The erles two sonnes, fir Yvan " of Leschell was fewer, and fir Gracyen bare his cuppe “ And there were many mynstrelles, as well of his owne as of “ ftraungers, and eche of them dyde their devoyre in their fa“ culties. The same day the erle of Foiz gave to harauldes “ and mynstrelles, the fomme of fyve hundred frankes : and

gave to the duke of Touraynes mynstrelles, gownes of clothe

f. 69.

m In the old romance, or LAY, of On goddys blessyng and myne. EMARE, a beautiful use is made of the The chylde + wente ynto the hall Lady Emare's fon serving as cup-bearer Among the lordes grete and small to the king of Galicia : by which means, That lufsume wer unther lynes : the king discovers the boy to be his son, Then the lordes, that wer grete, and in consequence finds out his queen Wylh', and wente to her mete ; Emare, whom he had long loft. The Menstrelles browzt yn the kours ?, passage also points out the duties of this The chylde hem ferved so curteysly, office. MSS. Cott. CALIG. A. 2.

All hym loved that hym fys, Emare says to the young prince, her son. And fpake hym grete honowres.

Then fayde all that loked hym upon, 'To morrowe thou shall serve


So curtcys a chyld sawe they never non,
In a kurtyll of ryche palle ',
Byfore thys nobull kynge;

In halle, ne yn bowres :

The kynge fayde to hym yn game, Loke, fone 2, fo curtois thou be,

Swete fone, what ys thy name? That no man fynde chalange to the

Lorde, he fayd, y hyzth' Segra-
In no manere thynge 3.
When the kynge is served of spycerye,

Then that nobull kyng
Knele thou downe hastylye,
And take hys hond yn thyne;

Toke up a grete fykynge ',

For hys fone ? hyght fo:
And when thou hast so done,

Certys, without lefynge,
Take the kuppe of golde, sone,
And serve hym of the wyne.

The teres out of hys yen 3 gan wryng,

In herte he was full woo : And what that he speketh to the

Neverthelese, he lette be, Cum anon and tell me,

And loked on the chylde so fre*, I A tunic of rich cloth.

2 Son,

3 May accuse thee of want of courtesy. 4. The boy. 's Richly apparelled. 6 Washed, 7 Course.

8 Saw,

9 I am called i Sighing. 2 His fon. 3 Eyen. Eyes, 4 The boy fo beautiful,



k 2

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