« הקודםהמשך »
Herbes he tok in an herber,
er's Confess. AMANT. Lib. vi. fol. cxxxviii, a. col. 1. seq.
And through the crafte of artemage,
Of waxe he forged an ymage, &c. Gower's dragon, in approaching the queen, is courteis and debonaire.
With al the chere that he maie,
And was curteis and debonaire,
Fly. d Dream. e Times. f Kifred her.
: Fol. 57. The text is here given from MSS. BODL. ut supr. Compared with MSS. HOSPIT, LINCOLN. 150. See Gow
Theocritus, Virgil, and Horace, have left instances of incantations conducted by figures in wax. In the beginning of the last century, many witches were executed for attempting the lives of persons, by fabricating representations of them in wax and clay. King James the first, in his DAEMONOLOGIE, speak3 of this practice as very common; the efficacy of which he peremptorily ascribes to the power of the devil". His majesty's arguments, intended to prove how the magician's image operated on the person represented, are drawn from the depths of moral, theological, physical, and metaphysical knowledge. The Arabian magic abounded with these infatuations, which were partly founded on the doctrine of sympathy.
But to return to the GESTA ROMANORUM. In this story one of the magicians is styled Magister peritus, and sometimes simply Magister. That is, a cunning-man. The title Magister in our universities has its origin from the use of this word in the middle ages. With what propriety it is now continued I will not say. Mystery, antiently used for a particular art', or skill in general, is a specious and easy corruption of Maistery or Mastery, the English of the Latin MAGISTERIUM, or Artificium ; in French Maistrise, Meftier, Mestrie, and in Italian Magisterio, with the same sense k. In the French romance of CLEOMEDES, a physician is called simply Maitre'.
Lie font de chou qu'il n'y a
dragon. Gower's whole description of this + Edit. 1603. 4to. B. ii. ch. iv, p. 44
stead of the words in the last note, we * majeftate totius corporis, tum etiam fi have “ The Science and Craft of Print“ bilorum acumine adeo terribilis, ut pa “ing." Ann. reg. 25. A. D. 1533. For “ rietes etiam ac fundamenta domus quati many reasons, Myflery answering to the “ viderentur, &c.” Hist. SPECUL. fol. Latin Mysterium, never could have been 4. b. ut fupr. See Aul. Gell. Noct. Att. originally applied in these cases. vii. I.
MSś. Cod. Reg. Paris. 7539.
And the medical art is styled Mestrie. " Quant il (the furgeon) “ aperçut que c'estoit maladie non mie curable par nature et par “ Mestrie, et par medicine, &c "." Maistrise is used for art or workmanship, in the Chronicon of Saint Denis, “ Entre " les autres presens, li envoia une horologe de laton, ouvrez par “ marveilleuse MAISTRISE "." That the Latin MAGISTERIUM has precisely the same sense appears from an account of the contract for building the conventual church of Casino in Italy, in the year 1349. The architects
The architects agree to build the church in the form of the Lateran at Rome. “ Et in cafu fi aliquis (defectus] “ in eorum MAGISTERIO appareret, promiserunt resarcire : Chaucer, in the ROMAUNT OF THE Rose, uses MAISTRISE for artifice and workmanship.
Was made a toure of grete maistrise,
And, in the same poem, in describing the shoes of MIRTH.
And shode he was, with gréte maistrie,
MAYSTRYE occurs in the description of a lady's saddle, in Syr LAUNFAL's romance.
Her fadell was femely fett,
m MIRAC. S. Ludov, edit. reg. p. 438.
in Tom. v. Collecte Hiftor. Franc. pag. 254. Thus expressed in the Latin An. NALES FRANCIÆ, ibid. p. 56. " Horolo. “ gium ex aurichalco arte mechanica miri. "fice con pofitum.”
• Hist. Casin. tom. ii. pag. 545. col. ii, Chart, ann. 1349.
PR, R. V. 4172.
ment of the antient horse-furniture is here
Li palefrois sur coi la dame fift
I paynted with ymagerye ;
That any man myzt a pie :
Gay for the maystrye.
Was worth an earldom, &c.
“ The palfrey on which the lady fate, was " whiter than any flower de lis: the bri" dle was worth a thousand Parisian fols, " and a richer Saubue never was seen.” The French word however, is properly written Sambue, and is not uncommon in old French wardrobe rolls, where it appears to be a female saddle-cloth, or hou. fing, $o in Le ROMAN DE LA Rose,
Comme royne fuft vestue,
The Latin word, and in the same restrained fense, is sometimes SAMBUA, but most commonly SAMBUCA. Ordericus Vitalis, Lib. viii. p. 694. edit. Par. 1619.“ Man
nos et mulas cum SAMBUCIS muliebribus “ profpexit.” Vincent of Beauvais says, that the Tartarian women, when they ride, have CAMBUCAS of painted leather, em. broidered with gold, hanging down on either side of the horse. SPECUL. Hist, x. 85. But Vincent's CAMBUCAS was originally written çambucas, or Sambucas. To such an enormity this article of the trappings of female horsemanship had arisen in the middle ages, that Frederick king of Sicily restrained it by a sumptuary law; which enjoined, that no woman, even of the highest rank, should presume to use a Sambuca, or faddle-cloth, in which were gold, silver, or pearls, &c. Consti. Tut. cap. 92. Queen Olympias, in Da. vie's Gest of Alexander, has a Sambue of filk. fol. 54. [Supr. vol. i. 221.]
A mule also whyte so mylke,
s Of this fashion I have already given
thorough that fam was sawen small
In the Nonnes Preestes PROLOGUE,
bridel hange on every fide,
That on your
“ to be seen, in consequence of the great art with which they
were wrought *." Chaucer calls his Monke,
fayre for the Maistrie, An outrider, that lovid venery'.
from his paw.
Fayre for the Maistrie means, skilled in the Maistrie of the
game, La Maistrise du Venerie, or the science of hunting, then so much a favorite, as fimply and familiarly to be called the maistrie. From
many other instances which I could produce, I will only add, that the search of the Philosopher's Stone is called in the Latin Geber, INVESTIGATIO MAGISTERII.
CHAP. ciii. The merchant who fells three wise maxims to the wife of Domitian.
CHAP. civ. A knight in hunting meets a lion, from whose foot he extracts a thorn. Afterwards he becomes an outlaw and being seized by the king, is condemned to be thrown into a deep pit to be devoured by a hungry lion. The lion fawns on the knight, whom he perceives to be the same that drew the thorn
Then said the king, « I will learn forbearance “ from the beasts. As the lion has spared your life, when it was “ in his power to take it, I therefore grant you a free pardon. “ Depart, and be admonished hence to live virtuously."
The learned reader must immediately recollect a fimilar story of one Androclus, who being exposed to fight with wild beasts in the Roman amphitheatre, is recognised and unattacked by a most savage lion, whom he had formerly healed exactly in the same manner. But I believe the whole is nothing more than an oriental apologue on gratitude, written much earlier ; and that it here exists in its original state, Androclus's story is related by Aulus Gellius, on the authority of a Greek writer, one Appion, called Plistonices, who flourished under Tiberius. The character of Appion, with which Gellius prefaces this tale, in some measure invalidates his credit; notwithstanding he pretends to