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dramatists who drove the Bible from the stage, and introduced representations of familiar life and popular manners.

These are the titles of his plays. The Play called the four P.s, being a

merry ENTERLUDE OF A PALMER, PARDONER, PoTICARY, AND PEDLAR, printed at London in quarto, without date or name of the printer, but probably from the press of Berthelette or Rastell. The PLAY of Love, or a new and very mery ENTERLUDE of all maner of WEATHERS, printed in quarto by William Rastell, 1533, and again by Robert Wyer A mery Play betweene the PARDONER and the FRERE, the CURATE, and neybour Pratte, in quarto, by William Rastell, dated the fifth day of April, 1533. The PLAY of Gentlenes and Nobilitie, in two parts, at London, without date. The PINNER of Wakefield, a Comedie. Pbilotas Scotch, a Comedie. A mery PLAY betweene JOHAN JOHAN the husband, Tys the wife, and fyr Johan the preeste, by William Rastell, in quarto, 1533.

His EPIGRAMS, fix hundred in number', are probably some of his jokes versified; and perhaps were often extemporaneous fallies, made and repeated in company. Wit and humour are ever found in proportion to the progress of politeness. The miserable drolleries and the contemptible quibbles, with which these little pieces are pointed, indicate the great want of refinement, not only in the composition but in the conversation of our ancestors. This is a specimen, on a piece of humour of Wolsey's Fool, A faying of PATCHE my lord Cardinale's POOLE.

In duodecimo. No date. Pr. “ Jupi. ter ryght far so far longe as now were to " ".

- See three hundred Epigrammes on three hundred Proverbes. Pr. “ If every “ man mend one " London, without date, but certainly before 1553. Again, 1577. -1587.-1598. The first hundred Epigrammes. Pr. “ Ryme without reason." Lond. 1566.--1577.—1587. 4to. The fourth hundred of Epigrammes, Lond.

without date. Again, 1577.-1587. 1597. 4to. Pr. PROL.“ Ryme without rea. “ fon, and reason. The fifth and fixth hundredth of Epigrammes. Pr. “ Were it “as perillous to deal cards as play." Lond. 1566.-1577.-1587.-1597. 4to. See John HeYWOODES WOORKES, Anno do. mini 1576. Imprinted at London in Fleetestreate, etc. by Thomas Marshe. In quarto. The colophon has 1577. This edition is not mentioned by Ames.


Maifter Sexton", a perfon of knowen wit,
As he at my lord Cardinale's boord did sit,
Gredily raught at a goblet of wine :
Drinke none, fayd my lord, for that fore leg of thyne :
I warrant your Grace, faith Sexton, I provide
For my leg : I drinke on the tother fide,

The following is rather a humorous tale than an epigram, yet with an epigrammatic turn.

Although that a Fox have been seene there seelde', Yet there was lately in Finsbery Feelde a A Fox sate in light of certaine people, Noddinge, and bliflinge', staring on Paules steeple. A Maide toward market with hennes in a band Came by, and with the Fox The fell in hand. “ What thing is it, Rainard, in your braine ploddinge, " What bringeth this busy blisfinge, and noddinge ? “ I nother' nod for sleepe sweete hart, the Foxe faide, Nor blisse for spirytes", except the divell be a maide : My noddinge and bliflinge breedth of wonder' « Of the witte of Poules Weathercocke yonder. “ There is more witte in that cockes onely head “ Than hath bene in all mens heds that be dead. “ And thus—by all common report we fynde, “ All that be dead, died for lacke of wynde : « But the Weathercockes wit is not so weake “ To lacke winde-the winde is ever in his beake. So that, while any winde blowth in the skie, For lacke of winde that Weathercocke will not die.”

* The real name of Paren, Wolsey's Fool.

e Reached.
! First HUNDRED. Erigr. 44.
* Seldom.
Finsbury field.

M 2

Bowing and Blessing.
* Joined company.
I Nether.
* To drive away evil spirits.
# Proceeds from wonder.
o Wiidom.


She cast downe hir hennes, and now did she blis',
“ Jesu, quod she, in nomine patris !
" Who hath ever heard, at any season,
Of a Foxe forging so feat a reason?”
And while she praysed the Foxes wit so,
He gat her hennes on his necke, and to go ?.
“ Whither away with my hennes, Foxe, quoth The ?
“ To Poules pig' as fast as I can, quoth he.
“ Betwixt these Hennes and yond Weathercocke,
“ I will assay to have chickens a flocke ;
" Which if I may get, this tale is made goode,
• In all christendome not so Wife a broode' !".

The other is on the phrase, wagging beards.
It is
in ball, when beardes wagge

Husband, for this these woordes to mind I call;
This is ment by men in their merie eatinge,
Not to wag their beardes in brawling or threatinge :
Wyfe, the meaning hereof differeth not two pinnes,
Betweene wagginge of mens beardes and womens chinnes'.

On the fashion of wearing Verdingales, or farthingales.

Alas! poore verdingales must lie ith' streete,
To house them no doore ith' citee made meete.
Syns at our narrow doores they in cannot win",
Send them to Oxforde, at brodegate to gett in ".

Our author was educated at Broadgate-hall in Oxford, so called from an uncommonly wide gate or entrance,and 'fince

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converted into Pembroke college. These EPIGRAMS are mentioned in Wilson's RHETORIKE, published in 1553.

Another of Heywood's works, is a poem in long verse, entitled, A DIALOGUE contayning in effe&t the number of al the Proverbes in the English tongue compact in a matter concerning two marriages. The first edition I have seen, is dated 1547 All the proverbs of the English language are here interwoven into a very silly comic tale.

The lady of the story, an old widow now going to be married again, is thus described, with some degree of drollery, on the bridal day.

In this late old widow, and than old new wife,
Age and Appetite fell at a stronge strife.
Her lust was as yong, as her lims were olde.
The day of her wedding, like one to be folde,
She sett out herself in fyne apparell :
She was made like a beere-pott, or a barell.
A crooked hooked nose, beetle browde, blere eyde,
Many men wifht for beautifying that bryde.
Her wast to be gyrde in, and for a boone grace,
Some wel favoured visor on her yll favoured face;
But with visorlike visage, such as it was,
She smirkt and the smyld, but fo lisped this las,
That folke might have thought it done onely alone
Of wantonnesse, had not her teeth been gone.
Upright as a candle standeth in a socket,
Stoode lhe that day, so fimpre de cocket'.
Of auncient fathers she tooke no cure ne care,
She was to them as koy as Crokers mare.
She tooke the entertainment of yong men,
All in daliaunce, as nice as a runnes ben ?.

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* In quarto. Others followed, 1566.1576.-1587.-1598. 4to.

"I do not understand ihis, which is marked for a proverb.

2 An admirable proverbial Gmile. It is used in Wilson's ARTE OF RHETORIKE, " I knewe a priest that was as nice as a Nunnes Hen, when he would say 'masse he

" would


I suppose, That day her eares might wel glow,
For all the town talkt of her high and low.
One fayde a wel favoured old woman she is :
The divill she is, fayde another : and to this
In came the third with his five egges, and fayde,
Fifty yere ago I knew her a trim mayde.
Whatever she were then, fayde one, the is nowe,
To become a bryde, as meete as a fowe,
To beare a faddle. She is in this marriage,
As comely as a cowe in a cage.
Gup with a gald back, Gill, come up to supper,


old mare would bave a new crupper,
And now mine olde hat must have a new band, &c.

The work has its value and curiofity as a repertory of proverbs made at so early a period. Nor was the plan totally void of ingenuity, to exhibit these maxims in the course of a narrative, enlivened by facts and circumstances. It certainly was fusceptible of humour and invention.

Heywood's largest and most laboured performance is the SpiDER AND THE FLIE, with wooden cuts, printed at London by Thomas Powell, in 1556 •. It is a very long poem in the octave stanza, containing ninety-eight chapters. Perhaps there never was so dull, fo tedious, and trifing an apologue: without fancy, meaning, or moral. A long tale of fi&titious manners will always be tiresome, unless the design be burlesque : and then the ridiculous, arising from the contrast between the folemn and the light, must be ingenioafly supported. Our author seems to have intended a fable on the burlesque construction : but we know not when he would be serious and when witty, whether he means to make the reader laugh, or to give him advice. We must indeed acknowledge, that the age was not yet fufficiently


* would never faie DOMINUS VOBIS. “ Cum, but Dominus Vobicum," fol. 112. a. edit. 1567. 460.

In quarto.


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