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“ de Quixly confirmatur Episcopus Puerorum, et Capitulum “ ordinavit, quod electio episcopi Puerorum in ecclesia Ebora“ cenfi de cetero fieret de Eo, qui diutius et magis in dicta “ ecclesia laboraverit, et magis idoneus repertus fuerit, dum “ tamen competenter sit corpore formosus, et quod aliter facta “ electio non valebit ?." It is certainly a matter of no consequence, whether we understand these Minstrels of Henry the fixth to have been fingers, pipers, players, or posture-masters. From the known character of that king, I should rather suppose them performers for his chapel. In any sense, this is an instance of the fame oppressive and arbitrary privilege that was practised on our poet.
Our author Tusser wrote, during his residence at Ratwood in Sussex, a work in rhyme entitled Five HUNDRED POINTES OF Good HUSBANDRIE, which was printed at London in 1557". But it was soon afterwards reprinted, with additions and improvements, under the following title, “ Five hundreth pointes of “ good Husbandrie as well for the Champion or open countrie, " as also for the Woodland or Severall, mixed in euerie moneth “ with Huswiferie, ouer and besides the booke of Hus
Corrected, better ordered, and newlie augmented a fourth
part more, with diuers other lessons, as a diet for “ the farmer, of the properties of windes, planets, hops, herbs, “ bees, and approved remedies for the sheepe and cattell, with
P Registr. Archiv. Ecclef. Ebor. MSS. “ episcopi per ipfum Johannem receptis, In the Salisbury-miffal, in the office of " et dictus Robertus ad fancta dei evanEPISCOPUS PUERORUM, among the suf gelia per ipsum corporaliter tacta jarafrages we read, “ Corpore enim formosus “ vit, quod nunquam molestaret dictum
es O fili, et diffusa est gratia in labiis “ dominum Johannem de summa pecuniæ “ tuis, &c.” In further proof of the so prædicta." REGISTR. EBor. lemnity with which this farce was con i Quarto. Bl. Lett. In 1557, John ducted, I will cite another extract from Daye has licence to print “ the hundreth the chapter-registers at York. “'xj febr. poyntes of good Hufserie.” Registr.
1370. In Scriptoria capituli Ebor. STATION. A. fol. 23. a. In 1559-60, “ dominus Johannes Giffon, magister cho jun. 20, T. Marshe has licence to print “ riftarum ecclesiæ Eboracenfis, liberavit " the boke of Husbandry.” Ibid. fol. 48. b. • Roberto de Holme choristæ, qui tunc This last title occurs in these registers much “ ultimo fuerat episcopus puerorum, iij
lower. “ libras, xvs. id. ob, de perquisitis ipfius Vol. III.
“ manie other matters both profitabell and not vnpleasant for the “ Reader. Also a table of HUSBANDRIE at the beginning of " this booke, and another of HuswIFERIE at the end, &c. “ Newlie set foorth by THOMAS Tusser gentleman'."
It must be acknowledged, that this old English georgic has much more of the fimplicity of Hefiod, than of the elegance of Virgil : and a modern reader would suspect, that many of its salutary maxims originally decorated the margins, and illustrated the calendars, of an antient almanac. It is without invocations, digressions, and descriptions: no pleasing pictures of rural imagery are drawn from meadows covered with flocks and fields waving with corn, nor are Pan and Ceres once named. Yet it is valuable, as a genuine picture of the agriculture, the rural arts, and the domestic cconomy and customs, of our industrious ancestors.
I must begin my examination of this work with the apology of Virgil on a similar subject,
Possum multa tibi veterum præcepta referre,
Ni refugis, tenuesque piget cognoscere curas '. I first produce a specimen of his directions for cultivating a hop-garden, which may, perhaps not unprofitably, be compared with the modern practice.
Whom fansie perswadeth, among other crops,
· The oldest edition with this title which I have seen is in quarto, dated 1586, and printed at London, " in the now dwelling ** houfe of Henrie Denham in Aldersgate “, ftreete at the figne of the itarre." In black letter, containing 164 pages. The next edition is for H. Yardley, London 1593. Bl. Lett. 4to Again at London, piinted by Peter Short, 1597. Bl. Lett. 4to. The lar I have seen is dated 1610. 4to.
In the Register of the Stationers, a re. ceipt of T. Hackett is entered for licence for printing “ A dialoge of wyvynge and
“thryvynge of Tusshers with ij leffons for “olde and yonge," in 1562 or 1563. REGISTR. STAT. COMP, Lond. notat. A. fol. 74. b. I find licenced to Alde in 1565; “ An hundreth poyntes of evell "hufwyfraye,” I suppose a sátire on Tusser. Ibid. fol. 131. b. In 1561, Richard Toto tell was to print “ A booke intituled one “ hundreth good poyntes of husboundry “ lately maryed unto a hundreth good
poyntes of Huswiffry newly corrected " and an plyfyed.” Ibid. fol. 74. a.
• GEORGIC, i. 176.
Must willingly follow, of choises to choose,
Ground grauellie, sandie, and mixed with claie,
Choose foile for the hop of the rottenest mould,
The fun in the southe, or else southlie and west,
Meet plot for a hop-yard, once found as is told,
The hop for his profit I thus doo exalt:
• CHAP. 42. fol. 93. In this stanza, is a copy of verses by one William Kethe, a divine of Geneva, prefixed to Dr. Chrif. topher's Goodman's absurd and factious pamphlet against queen Mary, How Superior Powers, &c. Printed at Geneva by John Crispin, 1558. 16mo.
Whom fury long fosterd by sufferance and
will thee tell,
To this work belongs the well known old song, which begins,
The Ape, the Lion, the Fox, and the Asse,
For the farmer's general diet he afligns, in Lent, red herrings, and salt fish, which may remain in store when Lent is past: at Easter, veal and bacon : at Martinmas, salted beef, when dainties are not to be had in the country : at Midsummer, when mackrel are no longer in season, grase, or sallads, fresh beef, and pease: at Michaelmas, fresh herrings, with fatted crones, or sheep: at All Saints, pork and pease, sprats and fpurlings : at Christmas, good cheere and plaie. The farmer's weekly fish-days, are Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday; and he is charged to be careful in keeping embrings and fast-days ".
Among the Husbandlie Furniture are recited most of the inftruments now in use, yet with several obsolete and unintelligible names of farming utensils *. Horses, I know not from what superstition, are to be annually blooded on saint Stephen's day'. Among the Christmas husbandlie fare, our author recommends good drinke, a good fire in the Hall, brawne, pudding and souse, and mustard withall, beef, mutton, and pork, Mored, or minced, pies of the best, pig, veal, goose, capon, and turkey, cheese, apples, and nuts, with jolie carols. A Christmas carol is then introduced to the tune of King Salomon ?.
ing a ballad called “Kynge Saloman. REGISTR. Station. COMP. LOND, notat, A. fol. 48. a. Again, in 1561, a licence to print “ iij balletts, the one entituled “ Newas outé of Kent; the other, a newe “ ballat after the tune of kynge SOLOMON ; " and the other, Newes out of Heaven and “ Hell.” Ibid. fol. 75. a. See Lycence of John Tyfdale for printing “ Certayne “goodly Carowles to be songe to the glory “ of God," in 1562. Ibid. fol. 86. a. Again, ibid. “ Crestenmas Carowles aucto“risthed by my lord of London.” A bal.
:: In a comparison between Champion and Severall, that is, open and inclosed land, the disputes about inclosures appear to have been as violent as at presenta. Among his Hufwifelie Admonitions, which are not particularly addressed to the farmer, he advises three dishes at dinner, which being well dressed, will be sufficient to please your friend, and will become your Hall b. The prudent houfewife is directed to make her own tallowcandles. Servants of both sexes are ordered to go to bed at ten in the summer, and nine in the winter : to rise at five in the winter, and four in the summer". The ploughman's feasting days, or holidays, are Plough-MONDAY, or the first Monday, after Twelfth-day, when ploughing begins, in Leicestershire. SHROF-TIDE, or SHROVE-TUESDAY, in Eflex and Suffolk, when after Throving, or confefsion, he is permitted to go thresh the fat ben, and “ if blindfold (you) can kill her “ then. giue it thy men,” and to dine on fritters and pancakes o, SHEEP-SHEARING, which is celebrated in Northamptonshire with wafers and cakes. The WAKE-DAY, or the vigil of the church saint, when everie wanton maie danse at her will, as in Leicestershire, and the oven is to be filled with flawnes. HAR
lad of Solomon and the queen of Sheba is entered in 1567. Ibid. fol. 166. a. In 1569, is entered an “ Enterlude for boyes “ to handle and to passe tyme at Christi“ mas.” Ibid. fol. 183. b. Again, in the fame year, fol. 185.b. More inftances follow.
· Chap. 52. fol. II,
b Fol. 133 c Fol. 135. d Fol.
137 < I have before mentioned Shrove-Tuefday as a day dedicated to festivities. See fupr. vol. ii. p. 387. In fome parts of Germany it was usual to celebrate Shrove. tide with bonfires. Lavaterus of Ghostes, &c. translated into English by R. H. Lond. 1572 4to. fol. 51. Bl. Lett. Polydore Virgil lays, that so early as the year 1170, it was the custom of the English nation to celebrate their Christmas with plays, masques, and the most magnificent specta
cles; together with games at dice, and
through the streets havyng his hors trap-
disgyfyngs, coronned as Kyng of Cres-