« הקודםהמשך »
And gives the charter, by which life indeed By counsels weak and wicked, easy rous'd
To paltry schemes of absolute command,
And in a broken ruin'd people wealth : These long.contested rights, the wholesome winds When such o'ercast the state, no bond of love, Of opposition* hence began to blow,
No heart, no soul, no unity, no nerve, And often since have lent the country life. Combin'd the loose disjointed public, lost Before their breath corruption's insect blights, To fame abroad, to happiness at home. The darkening clouds of evil counsel, fly;
“ But when an Edward and an Henry* breath'd Or, should they sounding swell, a putrid court, Through the charm'd whole one all-exerting soul : A pestilential ministry, they purge,
Drawn sympathetic from his dark retreat, And ventilated states renew their bloom.
When wide-attracted merit round them glow'd : “ Though with the temper'd monarchy here mix'd When counsels just, extensive, generous, firm, Aristocratic sway, the people still,
Amid the maze of state, determind kept Flaiter'd by this or that, as interest lean'd,
Some ruling point in view : when, on the stock
When legal state, pre-eminence of place,
The busy hive: as in distinction, power,
Superior rank ; with equal hand, prepar'd To Libyan deserts, swarm protruding swarm, To guard the subject, and to quell the foe : And pour'd new spirit through a slavish world. When such with me their vital influence shed, Yet, o'er these Gothic states, the king and chiefs No mutter'd grievance, hopeless sigh, was heard ; Retain'd the high prerogative of war,
No foul distrust through wary senates ran, And with enormous property engross'd
Confind their bounty, and their ardor quench'd : The mingled power. But on Britannia's shore On aid, unquestion’d, liberal aid was given: Now present, I to raise my reign began
Safe in their conduct, by their valor fir'd, By raising the democracy, the third disclos'd Fond where they led victorious armies rush'd ; And broadest bulwark of the guarded state. And Cressy, Poitiers, Agincourit proclaim Then was the full, the perfect plan disclos'd What kings supported by almighty love, Of Britain's matchless constitution, mixt
And people fir'd with liberty, can do. of mutual checking and supporting powers,
Be veil'd the savage reigns, when kindred rage King, lords, and commons ; nor the name of free The numerous once Plantagenets devour'd, Deserving, while the vassal-many droop'd :
A race to vengeance vow'd! and when, oppress'd For since the moment of the whole they form, By private feuds, almost extinguish'd lay So, as depress'd or rais'd, the balance they
My quivering flame. But, in the next, behold ! Of public welfare and of glory cast.
A cautious lyranty lent it oil anew. Mark from this period the continual proof.
Proud, dark, suspicious, brooding o'er his gold When kings of narrow genius, minion-rid, As how to fix his throne he jealous cast Neglecting faithful worth for fawning slaves ; His crafty views around; pierc'd with a ray, Proudly regardless of their people's plaints, Which on his timid mind I darted full, And poorly passive of insulting foes;
He mark'd the barons of excessive sway, Double, not prudent, obstinate, not firm,
At pleasure making and unmaking kings ; || Their merey fear, necessity their faith ;
And hence, to crush these petty tyrants, plann'd Instead of generous fire, presumptuous, hot,
A law, f that let them, by the silent waste Rash to resolve, and slothful to perform;
Of luxury, their landed wealth diffuse, Tyrants at once, and slaves, imperious, mean,
And with that wealth their implicated power. To want rapacious joining shameful waste; By soft degrees a mighty change ensued,
Ev'n working to this day. With streams, deduc'd
From these diminish'd floods, the country smil'd. • The league formed by the barons, during the reign of As when impetuous from the snow-heap'd Alps, John, in the year 1913, was the first confederacy inade in To vernal suns relenting, pours the Rhine ; Engiand in defence of the nation's interest against the While undivided, oft, with wasteful sweep, king.
He foams along; but, through Batavian meads, † The Commons are generally thought to have been first represented in parliament towards the end of Henry the Third's reign. To a parliament called in the year
* Edward III. and Henry V. 1264, each county was ordered to send four knights, as
| Three famous battles, gained by the English over the representatives of their respective shires; and to a parlia. French. ment called in the year following, each county was or. I During the civil wars betwixt the families of York dered to send, as their representatives, two knights, and and Lancaster. each city and borough as many citizens and burgesses. § Henry VII. Till then, history makes no mention of them ; whence a | The famous Earl of Warwick, during the reigns of very strong argument may be drawn, to fix the original Henry VI. and Edward IV., was called the King.maker. of the House of Commons to that era.
1 Permitting the barons to alienate their lands. 63
Branch'd into fair canals, indulgent flows;
Meantime, peace, plenty, justice, science, arts, Waters a thousand fields; and culture, trade, With softer laurels crown'd her happy reign. Towns, meadows, gliding ships, and villas mix'd, “ As yet uncircumscrib'd, the regal power, A rich, a wondrous landscape rises round.
And wild and vague prerogative remain'd,
The helpless subject lay. This to reduce
" The gathering tempest, Heaven-commission'd of blood, and horror. The returning light,
came, That first through Wickliff | streak'd the priestly Came in the prince,* who, drunk with flattery, dreamt, gloom,
His vain pacific counsels rul’d the world ; Now burst in open day. Bar'd to the blaze, Though scorn'd abroad, bewilder'd in a maze Forth from the haunts of superstition ý crawld Of fruitless treaties; while at home enslav'd, Her motley sons, fantastic figures all ;
And by a worthless crew insatiate drain'd, And, wide-dispers'd, their useless fetid wealth He lost his people's confidence and love ; In graceful labor bloom'd, and fruits of peace. Irreparable loss! whence crowns become
• Trade, join'd to these, on every sea display'd An anxious burden. Years inglorious pass'd : A daring canvas, pour'd with every tide
Triumphant Spain the vengeful draught enjoy'd
That rancor, he began ; while lawless sway
And all the mazy quibbles of the schools :
“ The commons thus enrich'd, and powerful grown, That tears the country still, by party-rage Against the barons weigh’d. Eliza then,
And ministerial clamor kept alive.
In action weak, and for the wordy war
Content to teach the subject herd, how great,
But his unyielding son || these doctrines drank,
Warm and tenacious, into practice push'd. And raging seas repress'd, the Belgic states, Senates, in vain, their kind restraint applied : My bulwark on the Continent, arose.
The more they struggled to support the laws, Matchless in all the spirit of her days !
His justice-dreading ministers the more With confidence, unbounded, fearless love
Drove him beyond their bounds. Tird with the Elate, her fervent people waited gay,
Free, cordial, large, of never-failing source,
Of the worst ruffians, those of tyrant power.
Oppression walk'd at large, and pour'd abroad * Henry VIII.
f of papal dominion. 1 John Wickliff, doctor of divinity, who, towards the * James I. close of the fourteenth century, published doctrines very
† Elector Palatine, and who had been chosen King of contrary to those of the church of Rome, and particular. Bohemia, but was stript of all his dominions and digni ly denying the papal authority. His followers grew very ties by the Emperor Ferdinand, while James the First numerous, and were called Lollards.
his father-in-law, being amused from time to time, en ☆ Suppression of monasteries.
deavored to mediate a peace. | The Spanish West Indies.
| The monstrous, and till then unheard of docrines of 1 The dominion of the House of Austria.
divine indefeasible hereditary right, passive obedience, ** The Spanish Armada.
Rapin says, that after &c. proper measures had been taken, the enemy was expected
§ The parties of Whig and Tory. with uncommon alaority.
| Charles I.
Her unrelenting train : informers, spies,
This wild delusive cant; the rash cabal Blood-hounds, that sturdy freedom to the grove Of hungry courtiers, ravenous for prey; Pursue; projectors of aggrieving schemes
The bigot, restless in a double chain Commerce to load for unprotected seas,
To bind anew the land ; the constant need To sell the starving many to the few,t
Of finding faithless means, of shifting forms, And drain a thousand ways th' exhausted land. And flattering senates, to supply his waste; Ev’n from that healing place, whence peace should These tore some moments from the careless prince, flow,
And in his breast awak'd the kindred plan. And gospel truth, inhuman bigots shed
By dangerous softness long he min'd his way ; Their poison round it and on the venal bench, By subtle arts, dissimulation deep; Instead of justice, party held the scale,
By sharing what corruption showerd, profuse; And violence the sword. Afficted years,
By breathing wide the gay licentious plague,
“ At last subsided the delirious joy,
Against his country brib'd by Gallic gold;
And fell Charybdis of the British seas; The guardian army came. Beneath its wing Freedom attack'd abroad,t with surer blow Was called, though meant to furnish hostile aid, To cut it off at home; the savior leaguet The more than Roman senate. There a flame Of Europe broke; the progress ev'n advanc'd Broke out, that clear’d, consum'd, renew'd the land. Of universal sway,) which to reduce In deep emotion hurld, nor Greece, nor Rome, Such seas of blood and treasure Britain cost; Indignant bursting from a tyrant's chain,
The millions, by a generous people given, While, full of me, each agitated soul
Or squander'd vile, or to corrupt, disgrace, Strung every nerve, and flam'd in every eye, And awe the land with forces not their own, Had e'er beheld such light and heat combin'd! Employ'd; the darling church herself betray'd ; Such heads and hearts ! such dreadful zeal, led on All these, broad-glaring, op'd the general eye, By calm majestic wisdom, taught its course And wak'd my spirit, the resisting soul. What nuisance to devour; such wisdom fir'd
“ Mild was, at first, and half asham'd, the check With unabating zeal, and aim'd sincere
Of senates, shook from the fantastic dreans To clear the weedy state, restore the laws,
Of absolute submission, tenets vile! And for the future to secure their sway.
Which slaves would blush to own, and which, reduc'd “ This then the purpose of my mildest sons. To practice, always honest Nature shock. But man is blind. A nation once inflam'd
Not ev'n the mask remov'd, and the fierce front (Chief, should the breath of factious fury blow Of tyranny disclos d ; nor trampled laws; With the wild rage of mad enthusiasts swell’d) Nor seiz'd each badge of freedom through the Not easy cools again. From breast to breast,
land ;1 From eye to eye, the kindling passions mix Nor Sidney bleeding for the unpublish'd page ; In heighten'd blaze; and, ever wise and just, Nor on the bench avow'd corruption plac'd, High Heaven to gracious ends directs the storm. And murderous rage itself, in Jeffries' form ; Thus, in one conflagration Britain wrapt,
Nor endless acts of arbitrary power, And by confusion's lawless sons despoil'd,
Cruel and false, could raise the public arm. King, lords, and commons, thundering to the ground, Distrustful, scatter'd, of combining chiefs Successive rush'd-Lo! from their ashes rose, Devoid, and dreading blind rapacious war, Gay-beaming radiant youth, the Phænix.state.$ The patient public turns not, till impellid
“ The grievous yoke of vassalage, the yoke To the near verge of ruin. Hence I rous'd Of private life, lay by those flames dissolv'd; The bigot king,** and hurried fated on And, from the wasteful, the luxurious king.|| His meazures immature. But chief his zeal, Was purchas'd that which taught the young to Out-flaming Rome herself, portentous scar’d bend.
The troubled nation : Mary's horrid days Stronger restor'd, the commons tax'd the whole, To fancy bleeding rose, and the dire glare And built on that eternal rock their power. Of Smithfield lighten'd in his eyes anew. The crown, of its hereditary wealth
Yet silence reign'd. Each on another scowl'd Despoil d, on senates more dependent grew, Rueful amazement, pressing down his rage: And they more frequent, more assurd. Yet liv'd, As, mustering vengeance, the deep thunder frowns, And in full vigor spread that bitter root,
Awfully still, waiting the high command The passive doctrines, by their patrons first To spring. Straight from his country, Europe sav'd, Oppos'd ferocious, when they touch themselves.
* Dunkirk. * Ship-money.
† The war, in conjunction with France, against the 1 The raging high-church sermons of these times, in. Dutch. spiring at once a spirit of slavish submission to the court, 1 The triple alliance. and of bitter persecution against those whom they call § Under Lewis XIV. Church and State Puritans.
| A standing army, raised without the consent of par $ At the Restoration.
liament. | Charles II.
The charters of corporations. 1 Court of wards.
** James II.
To save Britannia, lo! my darling son,
With starving labor pampering idle waste.
To clothe the naked, feed the hungry, wipe
Direct the thunder of an injur'd state,
Which lights up British soul: for deeds like these, And sweet contempt of death, my streaming flag.I The dazzling fair career unbounded lies; Ev'n adverse navies y bless'd the binding gule, While (still superior bliss !) the dark abrupt Kept down the glad acclaim, and silent joy’d. Is kindly barr'd, the precipice of ill. Arriv'd, the
and not the waste of arms Oh, luxury divine! Oh, poor to this,
By boundless good, without the power of ill
And now behold! exalted as the cope Shouts without groan, and triumph without war. That swells immense o'er many-peopled earth
“ Then dawnd the period destin’d to confine And like it free, my fabric stands complete, The surge of wild prerogative, to raise
The Palace of the Laws. To the four Heavens A mound restraining its imperious rage,
Four gates impartial thrown, unceasing crowds, And bid the raving deep no farther now.
With kings themselves the hearty peasant mix'a Nor were, without that sence, the swallow'd state Pour urgent in. And though to different ranks Better than Belgian plains without their dykes, Responsive place belongs, yet equal spreads Sustaining weighty seas. This, often sav'd The sheltering roof o'er all; while plenty flows, By more than human hand, the public saw, And glad contentment echoes round the whole. And seiz'd the white-wing'd moment. Pleas'd to Ye floods, descend ! ye winds, confirming, blow! yield
Nor outward tempest, nor corrosive time,
The Contents of Part V.
The author addresses the goddess of Liberty, mark.
ing the happiness and grandeur of Great Britain, * The Prince of Orange, in his passage to England,
as arising from her influence. She resumes her though his fleet had been at first dispersed by a storm,
discourse, and points out the chief virtues which was afterwards extremely favorod by several changes of are necessary to maintain her establishment there. wind.
Recommends, as its last ornament and finishing, | Rapin, in his History of England. "The third of
sciences, fine arts, and public works. The enNoveinber the fleet entered the Channel, and lay between
couragement of these urged from the example of Calais and Dover, to stay for the ships that were behind.
France, though under a despotic government. Here the Prince called a council of war. It is not easy
The whole concludes with a prospect of future to imagine what a glorious show the fleet made. Five or times, given by the goddess of Liberty: this de six hundred ships in so narrow a channel, and both the
scribed by the author, as it passes in vision before English and French shores covered with numberless spec.
him. tators, are no common sight. For my part, who was then on board the fleet, I own it struck me extremely." Here interposing, as the goddess pausd! I The Prince placed himself in the main body, carrying
Oh, blest Britannia! in thy presence blest, a flag with English colors, and their highnesses' arms Thou guardian of mankind ! whence spring, alone, surrounded with this motto: "The Protestant Religion All human grandeur, happiness, and fame : and the Liberties of England:” and underneath the mot. For toil, by thee protected, feels no pain ; to of the House of Nassau, Je Maintiendrai, I will main. The poor man's lot with milk and honey flows; tain.-Rapin.
And, gilded with thy rays, ev'n death looks gay. $ The English fleet.
| The king's army. Let other lands the potent blessings boast IT By the bill of rights, and the act of succession. of more exalting suns. Let Asia's woods, ** William III.
Untended, yield the vegetable fleece :
BEING THE FIFTII PART OF
And let the little insect-artist form,
Whate'er high fancy, sound judicious thought, On higher life intent, ils silken tomb.
An ample generous heart, undrooping soul,
Great nurse of fruits, of flocks, of commerce, she! From the prone beam let more delicious fruits Great nurse of men ! By thee, O goddess, taught, A flavor drink, that in one piercing taste
Her old renown I trace, disclose her source Bids each combine. Let Gallic vineyards burst Of wealth, of grandeur, and to Britons sing With floods of joy; with mild balsamic juice A strain the Muses never touch'd before The Tuscan olive. Let Arabia breathe
“But how shall this thy mighty kingdom stand ? Her spicy gales, her vital gums distil.
On what unyielding base? how finish'd shine ?” Turbid with gold let southern rivers flow :
At this her eye, collecting all its fire, And orient floods draw soft, o'er pearls, their maze. Beam'd more than human; and her awful voice, Let Afric vaunt her treasures; let Peru
Majestic, thus she rais'd—“To Britons bear Deep in her bowels her own ruin breed,
This closing strain, and with intenser note
“ On virtue can alone my kingdom stand.
To rob by law; religion mild a yoke
What are without it senates, save a face
Of slaves self-barter'd ? Virtue! without thee, These her delights : and by no baneful herb, There is no ruling eye, no nerve, in states; No darting tiger, no grim lion's glare,
War has no vigor, and no safety peace : No fierce-descending wolf, no serpent rollid Ev'n justice warps to party, laws oppress, In spires immense progressive o'er the land, Wide through the land their weak protection fails, Disturbid. Enlivening these, add cities, full First broke the balance, and then scorn'd the sword Of wealth, of trade, of cheerful toiling crowds ; Thus nations sink, society dissolves : Add thriving towns; add villages and farms, Rapine and guile and violence break loose, Innumerous sow'd along the lively vale,
Everting life, and turning love to gall; Where bold unrivallid peasants happy dwell : Man hates the face of man, and Indian woods Add ancient sects, with venerable oaks
And Libya's hissing sands to him are tame. Embosom'd high, while kindred floods below "By those three virtues be the frame sustain’d Wind through the mead; and those of modern hand, Of British Freedom : independent life; More pompous, add, that splendid shine afar. Integrity in office; and, o'er all Need I her limpid lakes, her rivers name,
Supreme, a passion for the common-weal. Where swarm the finny race? Thee, chief, o Hail! Independence, hail! Heaven's next best Thames !
gift, On whose each tide, glad with returning sails, To that of life and an immortal soul ! Flows in the mingled harvest of mankind ? The life of life! that to the banquet high, And thee, thou Severn, whose prodigious swell, And sober meal, gives taste ; to the bow'd roof And waves, resounding, imitate the main ? Fair-dream'd repose, and to the cottage charms. Why need I name her deep capacious ports, Of public freedom, hail, thou secret source ! That point around the world? and why her seas? Whose streams, from every quarter confluent, form All ocean is her own, and every land
My better Nile, that nurses human life. To whom her ruling thunder ocean bears.
By rills from thee deduc'd, irriguous, fed, She too the mineral feeds: th' obedient lead, The private field looks gay, with Nature's wealth The warlike iron, nor the peaceful less,
Abundant flows, and blooms with each delight Forming of life art-civiliz'd the bond;
That Nature craves. Its happy master there, And what the Tyrian merchant sought of old,* The only freeman, walks his pleasing round: Not dreaming then of Britain's brighter fame, Sweet-featur'd Peace attending ; fearless Truth; She rears to freedom an undaunted race:
Firm Resolution ; Goodness, blessing all Compatriot, zealous, hospitable, kind,
That can rejoice; Contentment, surest friend ; Hers the warm Cambrian: hers the lofty Scot, And, still fresh stores from Nature's book deriv'd, To hardship tam'd, active in arts and arms, Philosophy, companion ever new. Fird with a restless, an impatient flame,
These cheer his rural, and sustain or fire, That leads him raptur'd where ambition calls : When into action callid, his busy hours. And English merit hers; where meet, combin’d, Meantime true judging moderate desires,
Economy and taste, combin'd, direct • Tin.
His clear affairs, and from debauching fiends