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never knew what it was, the Puritan Sunday made men, thinking men, strong men, looked always to something beyond the approval of their fellows, felt always that there was somewhere some one who knew what they were in their hearts. It made a large part of what is worthy in our institutions and our men, in New England and New York, in Virginia and the Carolinas, and throughout the growing Union.
THE BANK OF ENGLAND NOTE.
The Bank of England note, says the Family Tutor, is distinguished:
"1. By the peculiar color of the paper, such as is neither sold in the shops nor used for any other purpose.
“2. By its thinness and transparencyqualities which prevent any portion of the printing on the note being washed or scratched out without a hole being made.
“3. By its characteristic feel, which consists of a singular crispness and toughness, owing to the fact that the bank paper is made from new linen and cotton, not from rags.
“4. By the peculiar wire mark or water mark, which can only be produced when the paper is in a state of pulp; consequently the forger must procure a mould
and make his own paper, both requiring the skill of such artisans as are not likely to be met with in the haunts of crime.
“5. By the three deckle or rough. edges. These edges are produced when the paper is in pulp; two notes being placed in the mould and divided lengthways. The deckle is the raw edge of the paper, and cannot be imitated by cutting.
“6. By the strength of the paper; a banknote will list a hundred weight if carefully adjusted.
“The printing is of two kinds, type and plate. The paper is moistened by water driven thr gh its pores by the pressure of the atmosphere; thirty thouand double notes are thus moistened in the space of an hour. The ink used is made at the bank from linseed oil and the charred husks and vines of Rhenish grapes. This gives a peculiar velvety black to the mark in the left-hand corner of the note.
“Tḥe notes are numbered by a machine which cannot err; and lastly, are authorized by the signature of the clerk. The banknotes are printed on the side of paper which receives the water-mark, so that if the paper be split, the unprinted' surface only retains the slightest trace of that mark."
OCTOBER The woods and the fields and the golden grain On the mountain side and hills are seen, or the mellow and brown October,
The blazing sumach and maples red, And the purple hills, and the furrow'd plain And a host of trees in their brilliant sheen Bring the days so sad and sober;
Shimmer above when the flowers lie dead; But the sigh and rustle of falling leaf,
And a plaintive voice in the sobbing trees To the pensive mind is a sweet relief.
Mingles its voice with the passing breeze.
And what remaineth to tell the story
Of the radiant flow'rs and summer days,
When the earth seem d crown'd in robes of glory And the winds of Autumn blow;
And the song of nature like hymn of praise, The frost has nipped the flowerets fair,
Trembled along the verdant land That we nursed and tended with so much care.
And echoing afar on the ocean strand?
Why the harvest-rich in its golden sheaves, The beautiful vines that climbed so high
And fruits the garden and orchard bring; And lung so gracesul on wall and tower And the lesson taught by the falling leaves, Are changing their colors, for ere they die
That will live again in the breath of spring They bloom as bright as the gayest flower; And though the days are so sad and sober, And we gaze and wonder so proud they seem There's beauty and grace in brown October. While passing away like a summer dream.
Emmeline B. Wells.
THE CONTRIBUTOR. In 1829 western New York was the
In 1829 western New York was the wild west, the border land of Amer
ican civilization, and scholars were JUNIUS F. WELLS, Editor. rarely met among the sturdy farmers
and backwoodsmen. The young man PUBLISHED BY THE CONTRIBUTOR COMPANY.
who had received a common school eduTerms: Two Dollars a Year, in advance. cation-reading, writing and arithmetic
-in the villages of New England, stood SALT LAKE CITY, OCTOBER, 1887. high for scholastic learning in the border
land, and such were called in winter time THE ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPT. to lay aside the woodman's ax and take
The fac-simile of the original manu up the spelling book and ferule to teach script, which we present as the frontis the children the rudiments of English. piece of the present number, is of great in- | They were the school teachers of those terest to the student of Church history as times; and among them Oliver Cowdery it no doubt will be to our readers gener passed for a good scholar, notwithstandally. The history of the manuscript, ing that his spelling was not the best, from a part of which this engraving is that he had no accurate knowledge of made was written by Elder George Rey the use of capitals and entirely avoided nolds and published in the fifth volume the employment of marks and signs of of the CONTRIBUTOR. From it we may punctuation. However, it may not be fairly presume that the extract here quite just to say that he knew nothing of given is in the handwriting of Oliver punctuation. The absence of these Cowdery and was written between the signs in the manuscript may be due to seventh of April, 1829, and the fifteenth their absence on the plates from which of the following May.
the Prophet translated. The plates were The appearance of this manuscript engraved before the art of punctuation will be variously regarded, and it may was known in Europe. As the manu
not be amiss to direct attention to some script in possession of David Whitnier is of its features which may excite criticism. marked by the printer and the first The writing is at first a little difficult to edition of the Book of Mormon is caredecipher, but on becoming used to it is
fully punctuated, it seems reasonable found to be clear and regular and quite to conclude that the punctuation of maneasy to read. It was penned upon paper uscript was regarded at that time as which was good for the times, but does among the duties of the compositor not compare in smoothness of surface to rather than of the editor or author. Or the ordinary writing paper of the present may be that in the conscientious enday, and considering that it was unruled, deavor of Joseph to perform the task of the lines are remarkably straight and translation, literally, as the words were
There are fifty-four lines on a pictured by the Crim and Thummin bepage, and they commence and finish as fore him, he would not suffer Oliver to near the edges as possible, testifying to insert punctuation marks that did not a disposition to economy, made neces appear, and punctuation and paragraphsary by the scarcity and expense of good ing were therefore deferred until a copy writing paper so early in the century. of the original translation should be The entire absence of punctuation marks made for the printer. may be accounted for by the fact that the system of punctuation as applied to At the commencement of another manuscript was not in common use by season's work the Mutual Improvement those whose education was derived from Associations have the assurance of conthe common schools. It was not taught tinued encouragement, and it is expected by them, and indeed has found place in of them that they will manifest renewedinthe course of instruction in country terest and energy in carrying out the high schools only within more recent times. object for which they have been organ
to the cause.
its selfish and persistent encroachments. Men may argue that what has been suffered by the Indians is but in accordance with the laws of progress and civilization; that the weaker elemerts must yield, and the fittest will inevitably sur
We may grant the influence of men individually and as a political body, gress, need not transgress every canon Chief Massasoit, when the first Pilgrims | road; we must travel with them in this
the New England shore: young men and women of Zion is an im “Welcome, white men; there is room portant trust, largely committed to the enough in this country for you and us; Associations, and they will be held re let us live together as brothers.” But sponsible for the part they take and the what was the sentiment, voiced in return, influence they wield in the formation of of those Pilgrims, after receiving the the characters and disposition of the hospitality of Massasoit and his tribe? youth.
It is fitly expressed in the reply of Miles We shall have a conference, called in Standish, when at a later day, the new ample time by the Apostles, on the colony had grown strong, and the quesevening of October 6th, which the young tion was asked, “What is to be done people of Zion should attend, and about these Indians?" and he said, “Exwhere
impetus will probably be terminate them.” given to
approaching labors that American legislation in Indian affairs will be of great benefit and assistance has apparently followed the example of
William Penn, in recognizing the in
dian as owner of the land, and acquiring THE POOR INDIAN.
it from him by treaty, but the fact is An interesting article on the natives notorious that the terms of scarcely a
America, suggests few single treaty have been enforced in favor reflections on the relations of our gov
of an Indian tribe, and their retaliation ernment to the former occupants of the for encroachments by settlers has usually
The fact has gone into the been followed by severe and bloody conimperishable record of history that such flicts, in which United States scldiers relations, from almost their very begin were employed to crush down the "inning, have not been marked with the subordinate" native. dignity and scrupulous regard to honor Now that the poor remnants of a once
befitting a strong, ambitious powerful people are restricted to a com
The Indian has been driven paratively insignificant part of the vast from his hunting-grounds and corn-fields territory that was once theirs, it is, we by force, and in most cases the terms of think, the only humane course for our
have been the dictations of a government to insist that they shall be
· The barbarous principle of permitted to live in peace and saved might, im ported with the better maxims from the persecutions and robbery of of old world polity, has prevailed in the
unscrupulous persons. By the pressure growth of the white population, and the
of our civilization, in its best phases and poor aborigine has been compelled to under Christian guidance the Indian retire westward year after year before
must ere long lose his national character and become absorbed or lost in the great mesh of white industry and white socialism.
Red Cloud, not long ago, said in a
public address: "The day of the Indian vive.
is gone. Our hunting-grounds are blotlaw
ted out, our path is fenced up, there is physics; but the methods adopted by human affairs as well as in no longer any room in this country for
the Indian. He must become a white
man or die. Our ancestors once owned in carrying into effect measures that may
this whole country. They were then a as the outcome of pro proud people. Now the country belongs
to people who came from across the sea.
They have blotted out the Indian trail grand salutation of the old and in its place they have made a new
that are nation.
of kindness and equity.
That was a
new road. I have been walking in the faith, what is left, in the integrity of the white man's road for many years. I ask
white man. my people to follow me.”
Have we not had enough of petty quib. This pathetic utterance comes from a bling in Congress over land grants and wise chief, and its admonition will be specious claims, the manifest purpose of heeded by hundreds of his people. The which, in spite of the suave and plausischool and the church are rapidly bring ble assurance of their advocates, is to ing to pass what was once regarded as deprive the poor red man of his last remimpossible, the civilization of whole nant of territory? Can not our great tribes of Indians; and it is not necessary
nation afford to be tolerant and forbearor expedient that any coercive measure ing toward a dying race? If not, can it should be applied now. Its effect would afford to besmirch its record further, by not be to hasten the conversion of the repetitions of injustice? There is' Indian into a citizen, but rather to offset tainly land enough for honest settlers for and neutralize much of the good work the next fifty years, and if there were already done, bucause it would re-awak not, honor should not permit the Indian en his sense of injustice and destroy his to be robbed.
WONDERS OF THE OCEAN. The ocean, we are taught in our The salt of the ocean comes, so far as school-geographies, covers nearly three known, from beds of the mineral at the fourths of the earth's surface. When, bottom of the sea, and is also brought in maturer years, we are better able to down by rivers. It is chloride of grasp vast ideas, science tells us that the sodium or common salt, with a very superficial extent of the sea is about one small proportion of magnesia and lime. hundred and forty-six million square The quantity in solution varies, and thus miles, and its contents seven hundred the density and specific gravity of the and seventy-eight million cubic miles, in sea is by no means uniform. This is cluding every salt bay or inland sea in due partly to evaporation, which is most direct communication with it, like the rapid where there are strong prevailing Persian Gulf or Sea of Aral, but ex winds. The latest investigations seem cluding the Caspian and isolated inland to indicate that the clearest water of the lakes or seas.
Atlantic is on the line between the CaThe average depth is a little over four nary and West India islands, traversed miles. The bed of the sea is the coun by the brisk northeast trades. The heat terpart of the dry land in unevenness
and wind combine to produce there an and irregularity, and thus in many parts enormous evaporation. As a rule the the ocean is only a few fathoms deep specific gravity of the sea is greater in over largely extended submarine plat- mid-ocean, heavier in the North Atlantic eaus, and in other spots it has been than anywhere else, and more noticeable sounded to a depth of six to eight miles.
at the bottom than at the surface. The The task of sounding in the blue water surface-water of the Antarctic Ocean is one of great niceness and difficulty, re sinks and then moves northward in a quiring a skillfulobservation and the most cold sub-current. It may be a surprise ingenious apparatus. The wire sounding- | to some to be told that the sea contains line invented and used by Captain Sigs a very appreciable quantity of silver, sufbee of the U. S. Coast Survey in survey ficient to leave a deposit on the metal ing the deep valley in the Gulf of Mexico sheathing of sunken ships. The amount is a very ingenious contrivance, that will is roughly estimated at two million tons. undoubtedly facilitate the taking of accu The ocean seemed to be divided, as rate measurements of great depths. regards the fauna which dwells there,
nto three liquid strata, and animal or Ish life is classed into two groups. In the lowest stratum are chiefly the crustacea and certain obscure species of fish of which little is yet known. The surface to a depth of five or six hundred feet is inhabited by the vertebrate and invertebrate fish, mollusca and the like, which are the companions of man in his searovings, and aid to sustain life and civilization. Between these two strata is a third, which seems to be almost devoid of animal existence except minute animalcules.
Whence comes the inexhaustible supply of water which keeps the ocean always at the same level is a matter of surprise and reasonable speculation. It would seem impossible for the rivers, numerous as they are, which empty forth vast volumes of water, to give an adequate quantity to make up for the evaporation constantly going on. The direct rains of the tropics and the Gulf Stream, copious and sometimes almost appalling in the diluvian masses that fall and beat down the waves of the fiercest storm, are yet insufficient to account for the source of the ocean-floods. It is to subterranean rivers that we must look for an explanation of the problem, and a number have already been discovered which empty into the ocean, sometimes far from land, and bubble to the surface a well of fresh water constantly renewing itself as it mingles with the salt sea. An example of this can be seen near the shores of the famous Jerusalem Road of Nantasket Beach. In smooth weather fresh water can be dipped out there from the sea, apparently as pure as water drawn up by the well-sweep, to which hung the “old oaken bucket, the iron-bound bucket," of the neighboring town. Fresh-water rivers which enter the ocean far below the surface can be traced for some distance off the coast of Florida. That peninsula also offers several examples in which the spot is seen where the river disappears in the ground, to reappear farther on as a submarine river.
One of the most remarkable of these is six miles from Gainesville. Like all
the Floridian peninsula, the land in that vicinity is low, rarely rising over five or six feet, a dead level, over-grown with columnar pines. Here and there a muddy pool is seen, but nothing to break the absolute monotony of the scenery, until without warning one comes to a small stream emptying into a yawning pit or circular chasm called the Devil's Mill Hopper, one hundred feet deep, inclosing an almost unfathomable lake at the bottom; ooze and slime surround the water, a dense tangled growth of timber drapes the precipitous sides of the pit; sorcing a way through the underwood the stream falls in a foaming cataract into the Stygian pool below, where it mingles its waters with six other streams that burst forth from the sides of the chasm at different heights. There is no escape for all this water except by a subterranean outlet. Evidently we have here one of the sources of supply which feed the ocean.
At Anavolo, in the Gulf of Argolis, a volume of fresh water fifty feet in diameter bursts to the top of the sea with such force as to be convex on the surface, and to cause a strong agitation of the sea for several hundred feet. There is a similar phenomenon to be seen off the southern coast of Cuba. But it is unnecessary to multiply instances which prove that the ocean is not wholly dependent for its supply of water on overland rivers.
The temperature of the sea corresponds as a general thing to that of the atmosphere, but on the whole is less subject to sudden changes or violent extremes.