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European opinion of Russia's recent advantage and superior military position. The contrast of the late complication with those of 1878 is at least very suggestive. Passing over the Bulgarian difficulties of that period, the Russian reverses and the famous winter campaign we find the Muscovite before Constantinople dictating terms of the San-Stevano Treaty. The English, who in high political circles are firmly believed to have indirectly brought about the war, had interposed, contrary to Turkish expectations, no objections nor offered resistance until the war was decided. The Rus ian sacrifice had been enormous; the soldiers had rendered the most patriotic service and finally encamped within sight of the dome of St. Sophia, when the English ordered a halt. Setting aside the causes pro and con which led to the struggle, they were certainly 'entitled to a triumphal march through the national capital-a military honor the Germans claimed for their soldiers at the capitulation of Paris. England objected, but except the few ships of war åt Princes Islands, interposed no barrier. The powers at St. Petersburg had sought studiously to know England's pleasure and endeavored to submit to the latter's wishes as far as possible. The policy was followed up and the dictation of the noble Briton turned the soldier, upon the eve of a triumphal entry and in sight of Constantinople, back upon a humiliating retreat. A telegram came from the Russian capital to abstain from entering the city of the Sultan. It was from political authority and the advancing general obeyed. In some respects it may be considered a greater subordination than the Russians had been forced into at the close of the Crimean War. This humiliation in the hour of victory was a matter of great surprise to Europe. When the wires communicated the fact at the German capital it is said Bismarck exclaimed: "Nein, mit diesen Leuten ist nichts anzulfangen!" "No, there's no beginning anything with these people!" It was also said of General Grant, who asked a prominent Russian during his sojourn at
Paris, the cause of such strange proceedure on the part of Russia, that he characteristically remarked that if he had been the commanding general he would have put the dispatch in his pocket and read it a few days after he had entered the Turkish capital.
None suffered more the humiliating terms of English dictation than the Panslavonic party at Moscow. They have never forgotten this arbitrary action of England, and contempt Russia displayed for British wishes in the late agitation has shown how deeply seated the hate is. Public opinion in continental Europe was almost universal in the expression of England's inability to cope singlehanded with Russia; and prominent writers of the former nation accused their own statesmen of sharing the same views. It was at least diverting to observe the change of base between the two aggressive nations. The indifference which the northern Bear displayed toward the Lion's roar became more and more significant. It required a combined protest of Austria and Eng. land to bring Russia to a halt; but the suspension of diplomatic relations between the Bulgarian principality and its liberators was a mere temporary suspension of an agitation that may be taken up whenever Russia observes a change of grouping in the present political constellation. The central alliance of Germany, Austria and Italy on the one side and the mutual interests of England and Austria on the other are the best guarantees of Russia's pacification. Meanwhile the internal policy of that country and the ascending influence of the panslavists show the preponderance of war sentiments in the Czar's empire. It is not universally understood that in Russia party spirit may seem high, though distinct organizations for state purposes are less manifest than in other countries. There is official Russia and panslavonic Russia. The former is located chiefly at St. Petersburg in government circles, the latter at Moscow, Pan was an ancient Greek god, who by his grotesque appearance and merry antics pleased all the immortals at Mt. Olympus; so they
bestowed upon him the name of Pan ascendancy of the war element in Russia. (all) because he was a favorite of all. This situation is ominous to the former The panslavonic party claim to promote country, whose efforts to maintain friendthe interest and unity of action of all the ly relations with the latter are scorned various slavonic races-a unity of the by the panslavonists. slaves, of course, with Russian suprem How Bismarck's keen observation enacy. Their special mission is the libera abled him to penetrate the future, and tion of the slaves under the Moslem how he ensured his Vaterland's freedom rule. For the circulation of the ruble, of action certainly do not lessen his repwhich is so powerful in supporting the utation as the first statesman of Europe. revolutionary elements in the Turkish How England's dictations to Russia empire, they are most responsible. Their have grown less forcible and frequent is foremost representative is the famous no less suggestive, and not least, how Katkoff, editor of the Moscow Gazette. the Turk refused to be persuaded by The official or St. Petersburg party is English policy into any differences whatmore conservative and sometimes styled ever with Russia, by which a Cyprus or the peace party, while the panslavonists an Egypt might be added to the Lion's chiefly centered at Moscow and Kief,con- share, fully indicate a change of diplostitute the war party. The late conduct of matic base since the operations of 1878. Mr. Katkoff in opposition to Mr. Giers,
J. M. Tanner. the Minister of State, and the stand he made against the government policy of An eagle's nest - the United States neutrality towards Germany indicates an
ALCOHOL IN HIGH LATITUDES.
The members of the Lady Franklin this labor and exposure without artificial Bay expedition, twenty-five in number, heat, and upon a limited sledge ration, passed two years in an unprecedentedly calculated to
a nicety, of the least high latitude, within eight degrees of amount of food compatible with health, the geographical pole. During that so that the physical waste was barely time many arduous sledge journeys, un repaired. Despite all this exposure and der conditions of extreme exposure, the demands upon the physical strength were made by the men. These journeys and vital energy, no case of serious frostvaried from two to sixty days in length; bite nor any disabling illness occurred, and owing to the character of the ice save in one instance, when Sergeant and the necessity of transporting with Rice, the photographer, attacked by them all supplies used during their inflammatory rheumatism, was brought absence, such physical exertions were to camp by a relief party. In this single required on the part of the sledgemen case Dr. Pavy and Rice, who composed that the end of each day's work almost the original party, had abundantly proinvariably found them in a state of physi vided themselves with rum from an Engcal exhaustion. The greater part of lish cache in Lincoln Bay. these journeys was made in tempera In all these sledge journeys no ration tures below zero (Fahr.), and for many of spirits was ever granted. The officer days at a time the mercury in the ther or non-commissioned officer in charge of mometer never thawed; while on special the party was provided with a small occasions temperatures ranging from quantity of brandy for medicinal purposes, fifty so sixty degrees below zero, or which was required, as it proved, only a eighty or ninety below the freezing point, few times, there being always left a small were experienced for a number of con margin as a gratuitous issue on festal secutive days. And they endured all
occasions when the sledge party was re
turning. While at the home station, no spirits of any kind were ever issued regularly. Usually, though not always, on Sunday evenings, about half a gill of rum was issued to each man who desired it; and the same quantity was also given whenever the birthday of one of the party or any other festal occasion occurred.
I cannot recall a single instance where spirits were ever medicinally prescribed at Fort Conger, though there might have been such a case. Generally a small quantity of rum or brandy was given to each member of a sledge party returning from the field, though this was not infrequently declined. In a few cases in the field where spirits were taken during work, or surreptitiously obtained and drunk before the day's work was over, the effect of alcohol seemed to show itself in diminished power for work, in impaired resistance to cold, and in one case it interfered with a man's appetite for the solid food of the sledge ration.
The use of rum in our home quarters at irregular intervals served an excellent purpose in stimulating the mental faculties, which in the cases of some of the men seemed to be deadened and sluggish, owing to the monotonous character of our surroundings and the unvarying routine of duty. During our two years' service at Conger I did not drink in all a pint of spirits, though occasionally I took a glass of light wine; and my own experience was that I was as well without alcohol as with it, though the social effect of wine among the officers was undoubtedly good. Some of the men rarely drank the rụm issued, and by common consent these did as well without it as with it; though it seemed certain that some of the party would not have passed the two winters at Conger as cheerfully or as well without alcohol as they did with a small quantity.
During the boat retreat southward from Conger to Cape Sabine, in August and September, 1884, a considerable quantity of rum and whisky was taken with the party, but although there was much exposure from great physical labor,
more than half of the journey was com. pleted before the issue of the spirits was begun. It was commenced at a time when the party was somewhat disheartened by the surroundings, and the particular result then sought was to benefit the men mentally rather than physically. The use of rum during the boat retreat appeared to be most beneficial when given to the men just after the day's work was over,
and after they had entered their sleeping bags. Before reaction came the men received hot food. Every one who could, avoided drinking the rum until he had entered his bag. The men always expressed most strong. ly their appreciation of rum and its effects after a day spent in exhausting labors, under discouraging circumstances and with unfortunate results, so that I judged the effect to be a mental stimulant and benefit rather than a physical
In addition to its effect upon the mind, it produced, in the chilled, damp, half-frozen men, a marked feeling of warmth, which in my own case appeared to result from an increased surface circulation; and in addition the alcohol evidently had narcotic properties, for it speedily induced drowsiness and greatly promoted sleep. These special issues of rum, either in the field or during the retreat, rarely exceeded half a gill at a time, and when the men received, for urgent reasons or on particular occasions, double the amount, they stated to me that its beneficial results seemed to be little, if any, greater than that of a half gill.
The subject of alcohol was frequently and generally discussed during the winter at Cape Sabine, and all, without exception, concurred in the opinion that spirits should be taken after a day's labor was over, and not before or during exhausting work, nor while suffering from exposure which was to be continued. The opinion of every one was that it should be a constituent of the Arctic sledging ration. My own opinion is the same as it was in 1881, that in small quantities the issue of alcohol is very beneficial, but that its regular and daily issue would be deleterious rather than beneficial. It
should, without doubt, be carried by all for then it may quickly induce sleep and expeditions and sledge parties, as a its reaction pass unfelt. medicine and for emergencies. Dr. The experiences of the Lady Franklin Enval, of the Swedish Arctic expedition Bay expedition instance alike the benefit of 1872-73, says : “I believe spirits and and injury of alcohol on special occaliquors to be of great use in small and sions. The first man to perish, of scurvy moderate quantities, but exceedingly and starvation together, was one who was mischievous and pernicious in case of known as a regular drinker. At Sabine, the least excess.” The last part of his the issue of alcohol in the morning to statement could be verified by me from hunters, on urgent medical recommencases within my own knowledge; as to dations, was followed by the Esquimau the first part, it is fully in accord with Jens, an unerring hunter, missing, at his my own ideas. At Camp Cay, a half chosen distance, a large seal which gill of rum was issued every Sunday, un might have saved the party; afterward, til the supply was nearly exhausted; and Long, his nerves unaffected by spirits, the issue of these spirits to the half killed, at the water's edge, a bear, over starved, half-frozen, and dispirited men two hundred yards distant. As an inwas of the highest possible value. The stance of the benefit of alcohol may be party looked forward from one Sunday noticed Sergeant Frederick's remarkato another as being the feast day, owing ble experience," when his shrewd judgin a great measure to this issue of rum. ment and his proper use of spirits saved Later, when the party had been slowly his own life under most desperate cirstarving for many months, and when the cumstances of exhaustion and exposure. supply of food was so diminished as to His gallant comrade, Sergeant Rice, necessitate a greater reduction of rations, worn out in a fruitless effort to obtain the pure
alcohol on hand was issued as meat for his starving comrades, perished food, being diluted with about three
by exhaustion, in Frederick's times its weight of water.
Each man Frederick, having stripped himself to received daily perhaps a quarter of an comfort his companion's last hours, ounce of alcohol, the effect of which was found himself chilled and exhausted as most beneficial. The general impress well as weakened by months of starvaion, with which I most heartily agreed, tion; but his extraordinary energy and was that the alcohol supplemented the great physical power of endurance were food, and had a decided alimentary supplemented and stimulated by a mixvalue. There could be no question of ture of ammonia and brandy. its beneficial effect as a mental stimulus This article will not have been written to every member of the party under our in vain if it has the effect of correcting unfortunate conditions at Sabine.
among any class of laboring men the It seems to me to follow from these
mistaken idea that their capacity for Arctic experiences that the regular use work is increased or their powers of enof spirits, even in moderation, under durance to exposure and cold enhanced conditions of great physical hardship, by the use of alcohol. The English continued and exhausting labor, or ex navy never drinks while working, and posure to severe cold, cannot be too
the Esquimaux and Chuckches, without strongly deprecated, and that when used alcohol, endure unharmed the severest as a mental stimulus or as a physical lux temperatures known to man. ury they should be taken in moderation.
A. W. Greely. When habit or inclination induces the use of alcohol in the field, under condi PHILOSOPHY OF LONGEVITY. tions noted above, it should be taken There is much in modern life that only after the day's work is done, as a tends to shorten existence and to dimomentary stimulus while waiting for minish the probability that a man or the preferable hot tea and food; or, bet woman will reach ninety, to say nothing ter, after the food, when going to bed, of a hundred. We lead more exciting
never enable a person to live to one hundred. There is such a thing as rusting out as well as wearing out. If a candle does not burn brightly enough, it does not consume the wax with rapidity, and goes out for want of adequate combustion. It is so, no doubt, with the human body and the human spirit.
and more wearing lives. It is in vain that a person has a splendid constitution to begin with, wears flannel, or the equivalent of flannel, next to his skin, dwells in a warm, dry house, and eats and drinks everything that is good and wholesome, if at the same time he habitually overtaxes his strength, looks upon his muscles as mere machinery to be driven at high pressure, and ruthlessly calls upon his nerves to squander their reserve power when every other source of energy is exhausted. Men or women who intend to be centenarians in these days must combine something of the old mode of life with something of the new mode of living. They must, while availing themselves of all the scientific discoveries and sanitary appliances of the age, imitate their grandsires in the steady and tranquil habits that prevailed before the invention of locomotives and the telegraph. They must have their eight hours sleep regularly; they must have intervals of repose and vacancy in the daytime; they must spend a goodly portion of their waking hours in the open air. Nor will that suffice; there will have to be regularity in the hours of their meals, and discipline in the ordering of the dishes of which the meals are composed. We cannot believe that anybody will ever live to one hundred who eats a heavy dinner every night of his life at eight o'clock. Champagne in abundance, and Bordeaux or Burgundy ad libitum, should be forsworn by persons who deliberately set before them the attaining of their hundredth birthday. Neither, with such an end in view, would the active life of a politician, a lawyer, or a doctor be a sane enterprise. In order to reach that distant goal there must be a training, if not severe, at least regular and unflinching. Most of all, there must prevail in the existence of such a person a tranquil serenity, an unruffled calm. Neither generous passions nor enthusiastic ideals must be allowed admittance. The pulse must never be driven up beyond a certain point, either by work, by anxiety, by sear, or by hope. At the same time, mere stagnation will, in all probability,
FRENCH AND GERMAN ARMIES.
War, which has been hovering over Eastern Europe, may at any moment cast its wings over the Rhine. of revanche in France, instigated, it may be, by the ambitious ex-Secretary of War, General Boulanger, serves to convince the German people more certainly, that the French will not rest contentedly until the disgrace of defeat has been wiped out, and its losses repaired.
In view of a probable war, much spec. ulation has been indulged, as to the result of the contest. This will depend very largely upon the characteristics of the two peoples, upon the resources of the two countries, and upon their degree of preparation. As to their characteristics, the French can rise to greater heights of enthusiasm, but are likely to be cast into much greater depths of despondency; they will display, perhaps, more individual intelligence, but less discipline; they will prove themselves equally, or, it may be, more brave, but bravery alone cannot prevail against the superior information and education of their opponents.
In point of resources France is ahead of Germany; the wonderful wealth of the former would tell in a prolonged strug. gle. As to the degree of preparation, the following figures will afford information:
The population of Germany is 46.5 millions; of France, 37.8 millions.
On a peace footing the per centage of the German army to the population is .97, of the navy, 035; of the French army, 1.41, of its navy, .19.
The military expenditures of Germany for 1886, were $95,000,000, naval expenditures, $11,000,000, of France, $130,000,000, and $38,000,000, respectively. The proportion of these expenditures to total