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be emphasized) to create the heavens ing them again when the next day and the earth in the midst of eternal dawned. If he.labored in the darkness darkness, it is very reasonable to conclude at the work of creation before light was that he first of all things created light. produced, why did he not also continue

operations practical common sense in conducting His light?Along with this our readers will operations when He organized the uni find in these pages several other pertinverse as human beings do when they un- ent questions which will puzzle the wisdertake some great labor. Engineers est theologians to answer upon the basis do not set up their compasses nor drive of the popular system of interpreting the their stakes by night when surveying a narrative of creation as recorded by route for a proposed railroad, to cite a Moses; and in view of them it becomes practical illustration, but they work in manifest that some other method must the light that their labors may be done be adopted, and we submit to the judgaccurately and successfully!

ment of our readers that so far as we Now God projected the scientific work have progressed in this investigation the of creation in the midst of an awful night, theory herein advocated supplies a very and as the dawn of day was not then a

rational and consistent one. That it is regular occurrence as it is now, with the true is manifest, for no work of creation hardest kind of practical common sense is even hinted at in the record of the first He immediately set about making a day day's labor but that which we have nofor Himself, for evidently it is the very ticed; and with this single exhibition of first day that ever had a being that Moses omnipotent power the first period of writes. As God's work was about to creation began and closed. begin He needed light to see how to do We observe that Moses let fall the veil it. He thought but little of the plan of of revelation over a

sea of chaotic feeling out His labors as so many seem waters; and when it is listed again the to think He did. If the light of that first first scene that should be presented to day was not made for the Gods, for our gaze is that of the same unorganized whom, or for what was it made? There mass of elements. This point must be were no eyes but theirs in existence; an well taken, for when the veil was down earth, chaotic to the last degree, needed light only was formed, and then ensued no light, there were no plants, vegeta a night of repose. Now it must strike tation, nor animals to droop and die for all minds with a peculiar emphasis that lack of light, and the same question must when Moses again resumes his narrative recur, for whom, or for what was the by special reference to the earth's creafirst day made if not for the Gods. tion, he launches at once into a continuaReason tells us for no one, and for no tion of the subject just where he closed thing else. They must have created it in the second verse. Beginning his light because they needed it, hence, it account of the second day's work he became a first necessity, and consequent

writes: ly was first created. Our old sectarian "And God said, Let there be a firmanotions that light and darkness are alike ment (an expanse) in the midst of the to God, that He can see as well in abso waters; and let it divide the waters from lute darkness as He can in perfect light, the waters,” etc. In order that the will suggest that it might have been poorest understanding may be able to made for something else, even though comprehend the point that is now raised nothing but God and chaos were in ex what Moses writes respecting the formaistence. But if God needed no light to tion of the earth only will be (presented see how to conduct His operations, how

in the form of a continuous history, thus: are we to account for His strange fascina “And the earth was without form and tion for it after it was created. Scripture void; and darkness was upon the face of represents Him as ceasing from His labors the deep. And the Spirit of God moved at the approach night, and as resum upon the face of the waters. And God

said, Let there be a firmament in the the omission of all reference to "land" midst of the waters, and let it divide the on the second day of creation, and a waters from the waters." No violence further peculiarity respecting the work is hereby done to the grammatical con of that day remains to be pointed out, struction nor to the sense of the sacred viz: The whole of that time was occurecord. The language which speaks of pied in creating the firmament, and, the creation of light has been excluded hence, as the dawn of the second day from the text; but as this act was not broke upon a chaotic sea of elements, one of a material earthly formation, no so the close of that day must leave it in truth is perverted, but, on the contrary, the same condition, for an “expanse" what Moses teaches respecting the earth only, was created during the second is placed in a most conspicuous light, period of creation. If the present theory and the solution of some of the most of interpreting the sacred record be true, vexed questions of theology becomes Moses must list the veil on the morning much simplified.

of the third day, upon the "waters," and In this account of the second day's should he do so the facts we have herework all reference to land, or to any tofore cited in connection with the one thing solid is again ignored. Why | just mentioned will amount to a demonMoses could not write of earth or land stration that the theory is true. . will be apparent if we remember that he But further consideration of the second had disclosed to us nothing but a sea of day's work must now be resumed. "waters" on the first day, and nothing Pausing a moment to reflect upon the solid, was created on the second day. amount of time which was consumed in Had he even remotely hinted that any instituting the firmament, one is desirous land was in existence his record would to know what peculiar importance athave stultified itself. As it is there is taches to it that a whole day was occuthe charming consistency of truth in his pied in its creation. In a word, what history, and the seal of inspiration must and where is it? There is no firmament be affixed to his writings. Now we ask in the sea, i. e, the ocean, where some our learned opponents of sectarian pro have thought it should be located. clivities to inform us by what rule Again others have assumed that the of grammar, by what law or rule of

space which exists between the waters interpretation of any nature whatever, in the clouds and those of the ocean, is recognized among rational beings, as the firmament spoken of by Moses. legitimate, they make a distinction be But it seems like investing an imaginary tween the. "waters” spoken of in the something with all the grandeur of a sixth verse and those referred to in the stupendous act of creation to admit second. Their particular attention is such a theory. Allowing that those who requested to this matter, and the Scrip advocate this opinion make the waters ture is again quoted: “And the earth above the firmament signify visible was without form and void

clouds, still the “expanse" which exists and the Spirit of God brooded over between such waters and the sea is the face of the waters.

often imaginary, as when clouds ride And God said, Let there be a firmament upon the very face of the deep, and it is in the midst of the waters, and let it alway variable as they fly higher and divide the waters from the waters." lower. In point of fact, however, no

When the Almighty instituted that such "expanse” as the theory contemfirmament it is too probably manifest for plates has any existence whatever, since argument, that it was to divide between the atmosphere which meets the waves the "waters” over which the Spirit of of the sea is charged with moisture, or God was brooding. Certainly this must waters, just as that in the higher regions be confessed, or language has no depen is. Then, too, it would be difficult to dence nor connection.

assign any sufficient reason why Moses Attention has already been called to should mention only an “expanse" which

man

exists between the clouds of heaven stability and stedfastness; and striking and the sea, when the same kind must the true mean between these two oppohave been created between the clouds site and extreme views, the “firmament" and the land.

of Scripture, as indicated by the lanBut, finally, to oppose a conclusive guage of Moses, is a space which perargument to this theory, the word “firma anently and effectually divides bement" conveys to our minds the idea of tween the "waters" and "waters' of stability of metes and bounds, which creation. were to establish an absolute separation In attempting to define or locate the between the waters to be divided. The "firmament,” we must square our ideas water which forms the cloud rises from with facts, which have already been the sea in the form of vapor, passes pointed out viz: That the institution of through the “firmament,” which our the expanse was the second creative act friends have set up, and descends in the of the Gods, and that it was planted form of rain, etc., hence, it can not be a in the midst of the chaotic mass of waters, "firmament” in the scriptural sense of while as yet the earth was unseen and the term, for that was to be stable enough unbuilt. Then, too, in order to prevent to separate or divide between the waters the newly created worlds and systems above the "firmament," and those below from immediately lapsing in a grand it. We cannot conceive that waters chaos, (distinguishable from that which which are perpetually mingling and prevailed before creation began, only by commingling are divided or separated. the size of the bodies which should com

Dr. Adam Clarke in his notes on the pose the new, but riotous universe) Hebrew for the word “firmament” says every world when first organized had to that it means “to spread out as the cur be constructed upon a scientific basis of tains of a tent, a pavilion," and simply weight and measurement. signifies an "expanse" or "space.” In

Thos. W. Brookbank. fidel writers on the other hand, taking their cue from the Greek in the Sep. Nothing is more silly than the habit assert that the term implies something some people have of "speaking their solid, or a solid sphere. The word there minds.” A man of this trait will say a rude certainly does not convey the idea of thing for the mere pleasure of saying it.

ELECTRICITY.

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II.
GALVANIC, VOLTAIC OR DYNAMIC ELEC-

TRICITY.
In a former article, an attempt was
made to demonstrate that electric force
appeared to be developed in almost
every case of motion involving friction.
For purposes of easy understanding and
convenience, the force manifesting itself
under such conditions was called fric-
tional, or static electricity. Toward the
end of the last century, a series of very
interesting discoveries was made point-
ing to an entirely different method of
exciting electric force.

Aloysius Galvani, a professor of an-
atomy, at Bologne, had his attention

drawn to a peculiar twitching of the muscles of some recently killed frogs lying near an electric machine in operation. While pondering upon the cause of so wonderful a phenomenon, being nothing short of an apparent restoration of vital action and the movements of life in the dead body of an animal, he observed similar convulsive movements in the bodies of other frogs, which were suspended by copper hooks from an iron railing, whenever by accidental causes, the frogs would be thrown in contact with the iron. He soon found that the phenomenon could be produced at pleasure by proceeding as follows:

Experiment 1. Carefully remove the

contents of the abdomen from the body taste is perceptible, and an indescribable of a dead frog. The lumbar nerves will thrill is felt in the tongue. If the experibe exposed, as white threads lying along ment were made in a dark room, a flash the middle line of the back below the of light would probably appear before termination of the spinal column. Pass the eyes. This simple operation is especa thin narrow strip of copper under, and ially interesting from being the earliest of in contact with these nerves, and place its kind recorded. In 1767, some twentythe end of a similarly shaped strip of three years before the observations of zinc below the skin in contact with the Galvani, attention was called to this muscles of the leg. By bringing the free peculiar effect by Sulzer, a citizen of ends of the strips together, a violent Berlin. He advanced the somewhat convulsion is excited.

fanciful explanation that it was due to Galvani announced his discovery, and some vibratory motion occasioned by explained the phenomenon by the opera contact of the metals." The experition of a Vital Fluid or Animal electri ment may be varied by fastening the zinc city. Volta, a scientist residing at Pavia, and silver each to a long thin copper opposed this theory of Galvani, and wire; whenever the ends of the wire are advanced the idea that the mere contact brought in contact the same peculiar of dissimilar metals would produce sensations will be experienced. electricity. His belief was chiefly based Experiment 3. To realize a more in. upon the fact that the muscular contrac tense effect, construct a simple Galvanic tion in the frog was much greater when or Voltaic cell as follows. Procure a strips of two different metals were piece of copper and zinc, each about used, than with two strips of the same two by three inches. The ordinary metal. It is now generally believed that sheet metals, easily obtainable from any all such phenomena are produced by a tin or copper smith will do well. Even chemical or corroding action taking place if the copper be tinned on one side as on the metals. Volta constructed an is the case with most commercial sheetapparatus, (since called in his honor the copper, it will serve the purpose. The Voltaic Pile) consisting of pieces of experiment will be much clearer if the zinc and copper alternately piled upon zinc strip be first amalgamated. To do one another with strips of moistened this, the zinc should be well cleaned, cloth between. When the end pieces and then placed in a dish of quicksilver; of metal are connected by means of or a few drops of the latter may be wires, a perceptible electric demonstra rubbed over the strip; attach a thin tion is realized. The cloth pieces, damp copper wire to each of the strips. Now ened with strong brine or dilute acid half fill an ordinary tumbler with a serve the same purpose as the flesh of mixture of one part common sulphuric the frog in Galvani's experiment, by acid and twenty parts of water.* Place supplying moist connections between the strips of zinc and copper in the acid, the metals.

taking care that they do not touch. The saliva of the mouth exerts sufficient chemical effect upon most ordinary * Sulphuric acid, or as it is usually called, metals to develop a marked current of oil of vitriol, is an intense poison, and exelectricity; to demonstrate which, per

tremely corrosive upon the skin, dress, or any form the following:

organic material with which it may be brought Experiment 2. Place a small piece of

in contact, in consequence of which the sub

stance must be handled with great care. In clean zinc upon the tongue, a bit of

mixing the acid and water, use only glass or copper or silver-a silver coin will an

porcelain vessels, and pour the required amount swer well—under the tongue, being very

of acid into the measured volume of water, in a careful that the edge of the metals do

small stream, stirring vigorously meanwhile not touch at first. When all is arranged, with a strip of glass, or, lacking that, with a carefully bring the edges together; at thin piece of wood. Use no metallic utensil in the instant of contact a peculiar metallic

the process.

Bubbles will probably be seen to rise who has access to two or three cells of from the zinc plate, which consist of any ordinary style of battery, has the hydrogen gas produced by the decom power of producing some brilliant and position of the water by the zinc. No instructive results. A few cells of the bubbles are seen to rise from the copper. Bunsen, Daniels, or Gravity battery may If now the fine ends of the wires at be purchased for a reasonable price tached to the plates be brought together from any dealer in electrical or chemical the bubbles cease to rise from the zinc, supplies. and appear to come from the copper. If Experiment 4. Provide about twelve the zinc used were perfectly pure, or if

inches of small insulated copper wire, it had been thoroughly amalgamated i. e.: Wire covered with a layer of silk with mercury, no bubbles would have or caoutchouc. Coil the wire by windrisen from it at all. If the ends of the ing it closely around a small iron bar, as wires be placed in the mouth on oppo large as a lead pencil, and thrust the site sides of the tongue, an intense thrill projecting end of the iron coil into iron is felt.

filings or turnings. Most likely no effect This apparatus is really the galvanic will be produced. . Now close the ciror voltaic cell, several of these connected cuit of a small battery, by connecting the together by wires would form a gal ends of the coil with the battery wires, vanic or voltaic battery. Many varieties and again insert the end of the bar, of batteries are now in the market com around which the current is now passing, peting for favor, each consisting essen into iron filings. The filings will cling tially of substances corresponding to

to the bar as to an ordinary magnet or the zinc and copper, and one or two

loadstone. Thus the mere passage of exciting fluids. One of the metals, or electricity around an iron bar develops of the equivalent conducting substances magnetic properties in the bar. employed, must be acted upon by the Experiment 5. Attach one battery acid or other fluid more vigorously than wire to the end of a file, and draw the the other. The one chiefly corroded is point of the other wire across the rough called the generating or positive (+) surface of the file. Bright scintillations plate, and the other is termed the col or sparks will be observed, caused, lecting or negative (-) plate. In the doubtlessly, by the electricity actually simple cell, the zinc is + and the copper heating particles of the metal to incan

within the fluid, but the wires at desence, just as detached particles from tached to the plates are designated by a horse's shoe will burn when it "strikes opposite signs. Thus the wire connected fire" against a rock. Thus it is shown with the zinc is called the wire, and that dynamic electricity can produce that connected with the copper is +. brilliant luminous effects.

It is to be noticed that none of the Experiment 6. Connect the free ends effects referred to above are realized of the battery wires by a thin iron wire, until the plates within the liquid or the such as is used in the making of artificial wires outside are brought in contact, for flowers and the like. When the current which reason, the early investigators in passes, this iron wire will become red this field imagined that somthing actually hot; if the battery be sufficiently powerflowed through the wires from plate to ful the wire may be melted. Such illusplate, and hence they spoke of an elec trates the heating effects of the electric tric current, and the electric force devel current. oped by chemical action as above des Experiment 7. Dissolve a silver dime cribed is now often spoken of as current in a tablespoonful of nitric acid, dilute electricity. The term dynamic electricity with its own bulk of water, and to this would seem to be in stricter analogy to solution add an equal volume of strong static or frictional electricity.

brine. A white curdy solid known as The effects of dynamic electricity are silver chloride will at once be formed; very diverse; and wonderful. Any one allow it to subside, pour off the fluid,

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