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treated upon the subject at all, that Moses was right when he used the word “God” in the first, and the title “Lord God” in the second account of creation? If Moses was uninspired when he wrote Genesis, the rest of the Bible is false, for it testifies as he does. Thus we find the very facts which infidelity claims are sufficient to demonstrate that Genesis is not an inspired book, demonstrates the very opposite, if there are any inspired teachings anywhere extant on this earth. If Genesis falls, the Bible must go and Mormonism with it, but if the other portions of the Scriptures are true, Genesis is also, and the Gospel of the Latter-day Saints must stand, for all these teach alike respecting the work of creation. In conclusion we remind our readers that no fact of geological science can be
used as a weapon of assault against the first account of creation as recorded in Genesis. As that narrative refers wholly to a spiritual creation, when the spirit of God moved upon a spiritual deep, and when spiritual earths, suns,
beasts and man were formed, the scientific principles upon which such organizations were effected, are placed beyond the reach of an investigation, at present. Infidelity must assail the second account of creation, and that only in its attempts to disprove the science of the Bible respecting the formation of the earth.
Thos. W. Brookbank.
Economy wisely directed is not only not stingy or mean, but the thing that makes benevolence and generosity possible.
servation and experiment suggested FRICTIONAL, OR STATIC ELECTRICITY. others, and before long it was learned
The wonderful advances made of late that this power of attraction could be years in the various fields of experimen-excited by rubbing on many substances tal science has removed this term, with besides amber. Knowledge upon this many others, from the vocabulary of the subject grew rapidly, but not till 1600 A. specialist and the domain of strictly tech D. was a proper arrangement and sysnical application, to the category of fa tematic classification of the matter intromiliar expressions. At present the word duced; and it is with this date that the "Electricity” has a double application, science of electricity is usually said to designating a particular force, and the have originated. At that time an experscience which deals with such force and imenter named Gilbert, of Colchester,
England, published a list of substances The electric force has long been known possessing electric properties. to exist. As early as 600 B. C. the cele Contrary to popular belief, many exbrated Grecian philosopher, Thales, ob periments in electricity are of themselves served that if a piece of amber be rubbed extremely simple-though not less invigorously with silk, it acquires the pro structive for that—and a little thought perty of attracting very light bodies, and effort bestowed in this direction will such as particles of floating dust, bits of reward the patient observer with a much paper, shavings of wood, etc. This clearer conception of the subject, than observation, with the simple experiments could possibly be gained from reading it suggested, may be regarded as the alone. Ignorance of such a matter as pioneer step in the survey of a field now the one before us is to-day inexcusable apparently illimitable, and growing on the part of anyone who possesses wider with every new discovery. The the ability to read and the power to Greeks applied the term Electron to this think. A firm belief that a few judicmysterious attractive agent, the same iously arranged and carefully conducted being their name for amber. Each ob experiments will prove of decided good
in the direction indicated, induces the thread of fine silk from any support writer to submit the following selection about which it can swing freely. Bring of simple processes, each of which may the glass rod near, after being properly be successfully performed with little or rubbed with silk, and notice that the no expense, and with but ordinary inge- pith or cork ball is attracted toward the nuity, provided such be coupled with glass, will cling to it, aud then be rethose indispensable endowments of
pelled. Now approach with the shellac every successful experimenter and dis rod newly rubbed with flannel or fur, coverer-perseverance and an unswery and observe that the ball is very strongly ing zeal in the search for truth. Let it attracted. From these simple processes be remembered that every experiment our minds are prepared for the concluis a question addressed to nature; if sion that glass rubbed with silk is posproperly framed and expressed, an un sessed of electric properties opposite to mistakable reply will be manifested in those of shellac excited by flannel. The the resulting phenomena.
early experimenters spoke of two kinds Experiment 1. Secure a small cylin of electricity, viz: vitreous, or that proder of glass, such as an Argand lamp duced by rubbing glass, and resinous, or chimney, or a long bottle like those in
that developed on resir-like bodies. For which olive oil is usually sold, or, better convenience sake, the term positive and still, a piece of glass tubing about three
the symbol + has been applied to vitfourths of an inch in diameter, and two reous electricity, and negative, reprefeet long, which can be obtained of any sented by to the resinous kind. dealer in chemical supplies for a few
Experiment 4. Rub a metallic rod, cents. Provide also a piece of silk, dark such as a fire poker or a butcher's color preferable, though not essential "steel” with either flannel or silk, and a silk handkerchief will answer well. See
test the condition of the same by bringthat both glass and silk are dry and
ing it near the suspended ball. No atRub the glass with the silk vig traction is noticed; from which fact, suborously for some time, then bring the stances are spoken of as belonging to excited glass near bits of tissue paper, one of the two classes; electrics, or those bran, finely cut cork, or
that become excited or electrified by friclight bodies. In every instance these
tion; and non-electrics, or those that particles will fly toward the glass, re
appear incapable of such action. If we main in contact a short time, and finally could provide the metal used above with be driven forcibly away.
a glass or rubber handle, after proper Experiment 2. Provide a rod of shel
rubbing, the bar would attract as the lac, or a stick of sealing wax, or a cylin glass or rubber would do. But to more der of vulcanized caoutchouc-one of fully understand this indication perform. the round rubber rulers now commonly Experiment 5. Suspend the bar of sold by stationers will do well. If neither metal used above in a stirrup formed by of these be obtainable, procure a piece doubling a silk handkerchief or a wide of wood of the required shape, and silk ribbon. Bring one end near the cover it completely with a mixture of suspended ball, and touch the other end two-thirds resin and one-third beeswax, with the excited glass or shellac, all conpreviously melted together. Rub this tact of the bar with the body or wall berod with a piece of flannel, or, better, ing avoided. The ball will be attracted. with the fur side of a cat or rabbit skin, Repeat the experiment, using a stick of and bring it near the light bodies, as dry wood in place of the metallic bar, in the case of the glass rod in Experi no evidence of attraction is found. We ment 1, and similar results will be ob may therefore speak of some substances served.
as being capable of conveying or conExperiment 3. Prepare a pea-sized ducting the electric force from one place ball of cork, or of pith from the elder or to another, as in the case of the iron bar sunflower plant, and suspend it on a which carried the force from the excited
rod to the suspended ball; such bodies are called conductors; others lacking this power are called non-conductors or insulators. In the case of the bar used in Experiment 3 it is probable that by friction electricity
was developed, as when glass or silk was used, but the metal being a conductor allowed the electric force to diffuse itself throughout the whole bar, thence through the body of the experimenter to the ground. An insulating handle would cut off all such communication.
Mr. Gray, an English investigator, used a glass tube with a cork in one end. After rubbing the tube he found the cork capable of attracting light bodies as was the tube itself. He now placed a stick of wood in the cork, and found that too to be electrified whenever the glass was.
His next step was to transmit the electric excitement through several yards of stout thread, suspended from the ceiling by loops of silk. One of these loops being accidentally broken he substituted for it a loop of ordinary thread, and found all attempts to produce electric excitement at the end futile. He supposed the thread loop to be too coarse, and replaced it with a piece of very fine wire, with no better results. Though a score of silken supports remained intact the single loop of cotton or wire prevented the transmission. Gray concluded at once that the silk was effectual on account of some inherent quality in the substance, and not as a result of its fineness.
It is seen that the electrics or excitable bodies are all non-conductors; while the non-electrics are conductors. * Conductors may be imagined to possess a property with reference to electricity analogous to the transparency of glass regarding light. A non-conducting substance is as impassable to the electric force as is a stone wall to the sun's rays.
Electricity is being constantly developed in all our movements.
Experiment 6. Take a small sheet of ordinary brown or yellow wrapping paper, and while standing in a warm room draw it several times between the arm and the body so that both sides will be rubbed by the coat; the paper will cling tenaciously to the table or wall when brought near, proving its electrified condition.
Experiment 7. Warm a sheet of ordinary writing paper, place it on a dry table or board, and rub it with a common pencil eraser. The paper will be found strongly electrified and will resist considerable effort to draw it from the table.
If the foregoing experiments were performed in a dark room, in nearly every instance a spark would be seen to pass between the electrified body and that to which it was presented. Walking over a warm carpet with only woolen stockings on the feet, will often generate sufficient electricity to produce a distinct spark, if the knuckle be presented to the wall. A gas jet may be lighted in this manner. Blasts in mines have been prematurely exploded through the workmen touching the wires after having became electrified by friction in the passages. Electricity may be said to be in general the companion of friction. Two pieces of loaf sugar rubbed together will become even luminous in a dark room. A coat after being newly brushed is so highly electrified that it attracts all the dust and floating particles in the neighborhood.
Various machines have been devised for the development of this socalled frictional or static electricity, in stronger degree than could be realized by the simple rubbing processes already described. The first and simplest of the kind was constructed by the renowned Otto von Guericke in 1672, and consisted of a large globe of sulphur, attached to a crank so that it could be readily revolved in contact with the hand of the experimenter, or a pad of silk held against it; afterward, glass and ebonite took the place of the sulphur, and the cylindrical form superseded the spherical. Later still, flat discs of glass
* Following is a list of the commonest conducting and non-conducting materials:
Conductors, or non-electrics:-Metals, charcoal, metallic ores, water, alcohol, paper, living plants, flax, animals.
Non-conductors, or electrics:-Fats, wax, glass, leather, silk, rubber, furs, amber, resin baked wood, parchment, porcelain.
or ebonite came into use, and at present To the American philosopher, Benjathe plate machines are in greatest favor. min Franklin, belongs the honor of conThey have been constructed of sufficient clusively establishing the identity as resize to throw a spark from twelve to gards nature and effects between artificeighteen inches. By the use of such, and ial and atmospheric electricity. He sent proper condensers in the form of Leyden up a kite provided with an iron point jar batteries, most powerful effects may which was connected with a hempen be produced, such as melting and even string; thus furnishing a medium of comvolatilizing metals, firing combustibles munication between the clouds and the and explosives, and shattering to pieces earth. Nature answered the question ill conducting materials, through which thus boldly propounded, fully and gently. the discharge may be sent.
The tragic deaths of Prof. Richman and The great resemblance between these others in subsequent attempts to repeat effects and those of atmospheric electrics and extend the experiments of Franklin, ity appeared even to the early electri teach that the process employed by him cians. The color and form of the spark was by no means a safe one. He atfrom the machine suggested an analogy tached a large key to the lower end of with the lightning flash, and the sharp, the kite cord, and succeeded in drawing crackling noise, with thunder in miniature. therefrom sparks resembling those deSir Isaac Newton, among others, ob veloped by the electric machine. By served the similarity; to prove which, this demonstration too, the efficacy of a no less than to invite attention to
protecting conductor or lightning rod on somewhat rare relic of this wonderful houses was indicated. man, the following letter is introduced. The announcement of this remarkable It addressed to Dr. Law, and was ex discovery met with various receptions. hibited at a conversazione given to Prof. The Royal Society of London treated the Helmholtz at University College, London: account with feelings akin to scorn.
LONDON, DECEMBER 15, 1716. Derisive epithets were applied to FrankDear Doctor:-He that in ye mine of knowl lin's name and he was caricatured in a edge deepest diggeth, hath like every other
vulgar manner about the streets of many miner ye least breathing time, and must some
European cities. Frederick the Great, times at least come to terr, alt for air. In one
who though a monarch, delighted in the of these respiratory intervals I now sit doune to write to you, my friend.
company of scientific thinkers, used You ask me hou with
every endeavor within his power to conso much study I manage to retene my health, Ah my dear doctor, you have a better opinion
vince his people of the impostures of the of your lazy friend than he hath of himself.
“American mechanic.” Clergymen sought Morpheus is my best companion; without eight to impress upon their followers the or nine hours of him ye correspondent is not
dangers attending the employment of worth one scavenger's peruke. My practizes such an instrument as the proposed did at ye first hurt my stomach, but now I eat lightning rod, arguing that to attempt to heartily enow as ye will see when I come down ward off or in any way escape the desbeside you. I have been much amused by ye truction of the thunder bolt, was sacrisingular phenomena resulting from bringing a lege, and indicated a spirit as deeply needle into contact with a piece of amber or resin
rebellious as that of a child, who would fricated on silk clothe. Ye flame putteth me in
strive to avoid the chastising rod of an mind of sheet lightning on a small-hou very small-scale. But I shall in my epistles abjure
George III of England so far encourPhilosophy, whereof when I come down to Sakly I'll give you enow. I began to scrawl at five
aged the project, as to permit the erecmins frm nine of ye clk, and have in writing
tion of a rod on Buckingham Palace, but consumed ten mins. My Ld. Somerset is
the King's advisers convinced him that as announced.
a pointed conductor actually invited the Farewell. Gd bless you and help yr sincere
electric discharge, its use was highly friend.
Isaac Newton. dangerous, and that the whole affair of To Dr. Law, Suffolk.
placing a rod on the royal residence was
a deliberate attempt at regicide. The clouds is drawn away, and the storm is pointed and protecting rod was forth robbed of its destructive fury. At times with removed, and in place a pole sur the conditions are so favorable that the mounted by a ball was constructed. electrified state of these natural conducBut a revulsion in popular feeling toward tors and others manifests itself in tongues the philosopher of Philadelphia soon of fire, often appearing on the masts and came. The learned societies of the day arms of ships. Such is called St. Elmo's eagerly sought to enroll his name, and Fire, and its appearance is greeted by even the Royal Society of London ad sailors as a presage of a prosperous and mitted him as a Fellow.
J. E. Talmage. The present form of lightning rod is a metallic conductor projecting above A NATURAL WHISPERING GALLERY.the roof, and passing thence to the The greatest "whispering gallery” in the ground, electric communication with the world is that of the Grand Canyon, walls of the building being prevented by Colorado River. For years this chasm insulating holders. A broken rod, or one has been a matter of surprise to prosforming imperfect communication with pectors and miners, on account of its moist earth at the foot, is a source of de- wonderful transmissions of sound; but cided danger. It would appear most in it has only been since the advent of the accord with the teachings of experi railroad that any definite idea has been menters to place the rod a short distance entertained of the great distance it away from the building, supported on a travels within these walls. A train of pole, and reaching above the highest cars crossing the bridge at the Needles parts of the house. The object is to can be plainly heard on a quiet day gradually neutralize the highly electrified at Cottonwood Island, a distance of condition of the atmosphere by offering eighty-four miles. The fife and drum communication with the ground-the at Fort Mojave is distinctly heard at common reservoir of electric force. Bull's Head, a distance of eighty-four Nature has provided pointed conductors miles. The report of the sunrise gun and efficient protectors in every twig and at Fort Mojave can be heard at Eldoleaf, on tree and shrub. Through these rado Canyon, a distance of ninety-six silent mediators the ammunition of the miles.
THE MOUNTAIN AND THE VALE.
But when tears, like rain, have fallen
From the fountain of my woe,
And my soul has lost its fierceness,
Straight unto the vale I go;
Where the landscape, gently smiling,
O'er my heart pours healing balm,
And, as oil on troubled waters,
Brings from out its storm a calm.
Yes, I love both vale and mountain,
Ne'er from either would I part,
Each unto my life is needful, 'Mid the fountains and the flowers,
Both are dear unto my heart;
For the smiling vale doth soften
All the rugged steep makes sad,
And from icy rocks meander
Rills that make the valley glad.
0. F. Whitney.