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brother was heir apparent to the chieftainship; but on the death of the father, the older brother, whose name we have been unable to get, declined the office in favor of Red Cloud, on the ground of his superior talents and general fitness for the position. The matter was laid before the council and after discussion Red Cloud was accepted as the successor of his father. He was then about thirty years of age and had already distinguished himself by his speeches in council. The Dakotas were then a great nation, owning a vast empire including what is now Dakota and Wyoming and a good portion of Minnesota, indeed Minnesota is a Dakota word meaning Land of Lakes.

The Sioux war of 1862 was confined to Minnesota. That involved only one tribe, the Santee Sioux. The great Sioux War of 1864-67 between the tribes of Dakota and Wyoming served to bring Red Cloud to public notice in a pronounced way. At all councils between the representatives of the United States and the Sioux nation, Red Cloud represented his tribe. Many of his young men were in the Sioux army for years, however, before he took active command. He desired peace, and until the winter of 1866-67 he did not lose hope of securing a treaty of peace, which should be in a measure just to his people. But a council at Fort Laramie, held December, 1866, or January, 1867, his ultimatum was finally rejected by the United States Commissioners, and Red Cloud at once took chief command of his forces and made a most vigorous campaign. Before leaving the council he said: “I have done all that I could to stop this war, but I am now convinced that you do not want peace on just terms, henceforth I shall rely upon the Great Spirit, and my trusty rifle." About a year after he made that speech, Red Cloud was invited to another council with a commission of which General Sherman was chairman, and he was offered terms in perfect accord with his ultimatum of a year before. He signed this treaty (known as the treaty of 1868, because ratified in that year) and he has

kept it in letter and spirit faithfully to this day. But we regret to be obliged, as a just historian, to say that the United States has but very partially fulfilled its part of that treaty.

In the spring of 1868, Red Cloud, Spotted Tail, Old Man Afraid of his Horse, Swift Bear, American Horse, Red Dog, and a number of other Sioux Chiefs visited Washington on invitation of President Johnson. They also visited Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. by invitation of the authorities of those cities. Red Cloud then dressed as an Indian Chieftain of the first rank, and presented a very imposing though savage appearance. Now and for several years past he dresses like any other civilized man, and his bearing and manners are those of a gentleman.

Hon. Alonzo Bell, late Assistant Secretary of the Interior Department, says of him; “I have met Red Cloud in council, often, and I regard him the intellectual peer

of any man in the United States Senate, and as a diplomat and statesman he has few equals. I desire to add that I regard him as a man of the strictest integrity and highest sense of honor. I am proud to be able to count him among my personal friends.” Secretary Lamar says of a brief impromptu speech of Red Cloud, addressed to him, “It was one of the best specimens of eloquence to which I

ened.” President Cleveland speaks of his speeches in complimentary terms. Hon. G. W. Manypenny, formerly Commissioner of Indian affairs and Chairman of the Sioux Commission of 1876, has a high regard for Red Cloud. He believes him to be a man who has the welfare of his people at heart and is anxious that they should advance in the road to civilization. He says, “Red Cloud is a man of honor and integrity as well as of superior intellectual and rare executive ability,"

Fordyce Grinnell, M. D., of Newport, R. I., who was for some years l'. S. Surgeon at Pine Ridge Agency, says of Chief Red Cloud; “I have heard from the pulpit, eulogies upon men who, sustained by Christian faith, have borne wrongs with meekness, but I defy the




traditional history of the Dakotas, and
the fact, that, to quote his words: “The
days of the Indian are gone. His hunt-

recent annals of the Church to fur ing grounds are blotted out, his path is
nish a case surpassing that of Red fenced in by the white man. There is
Cloud, enduring, as he has with stoical no longer any room in this country for
fortitude for years, wrongs and insults the Indian. He must become a white
that cry to heaven for vengeance. I

man or die. My ancestors once owned refer to the persecutions and insults this whole country. They were then a heaped upon the Chief by the United proud people. Now this country belongs States agent."

to people who came from beyond the That Red Cloud has a keen sense of

They are so numerous that we humor is proven by the fact that when could not take our country from them if the organ of acquisitiveness was ex we should try. They have blotted out plained to him by a phrenologist, his eye the Indian trail, and in its place they have twinkled with fun as he said, “I think made a new road. We must travel with that is the biggest organ in the white them in this new road. I have been man's head."

walking in the white man's road for Red Cloud has visited Washington as many years. I ask my people to follow the representative of his people eight We were all created by the same different times in eighteen years. Some Great Spirit, and we draw our subsistof these visits have been brief, while on ence from our common mother, nature; other occasions he has spent months at we are alike in all respects except the the Capital in Conference with the Pres color of our skin. We have always ident, Secretary of the Interior, Commis traveled different roads; from now on, we sioner of Indian affairs, and the Com must travel even. We must build our mittees of Congress.

For some years

two houses into one, and hereafter live the United States agent sent to his peo

together like brothers."'--Selected.
ple has not had the confidence of Red
Cloud or his people.

The chief has HOW GOLD IS EXPORTED. asked the former administration to re The process of shipping gold across 12

move him and send them a better the ocean is thus described by a Boston man. To quote his words, “they would

paper: not hear” him. Soon after the inaugu

Each keg contains fifty thousand dolration of President Cleveland the chief lars in clear gold. It is from the Bank proceeded to Washington accompanied

of America, at New York, that most of by his interpreter. He spent two months

the gold is shipped from that city. The in the city as the guest of Dr. T. A.

foreign steamships sailing from Boston Bland, editor of the Council Fire, the

now carry little or no gold, although the well known organ of the Quaker Indian reverse was the case years ago. policy. He was treated with distin The shipments of gold are not generguished consideration by the President

ally on the bank's account. At a first and other officials, and by the best

glance, persons might well suppose that society people of the Capital city.

when the demand arises for gold to send tendered

abroad, the shipper would only have to him, and on all occasions he bore him

send in his order for his hundreds of self with the modesty of an American

thousands to the sub-treasury, where gentleman and the dignity of a prince of

millions of specie are on deposit. But royal blood.

there are sufficent reasons why this plan Chief Red Cloud is a wise Indian. He

will not work. The sub-treasury can has 'the pride of race common to his people. He holds in great respect the

pay out its coin only to creditors of the government. With the Bank of America,

the associated banks keep on deposit the political, social and religious customs

constantly an enormous sum of gold, of his race; yet he recognizes and accepts

sometimes amounting to forty million dollars. To the members of the bank association the Bank of America issues

Numerous receptions


its own certificates against these deposits, CHRIST BEFORE PILATE. redeemable on demand. So, when there The dispatches of the Associated Press is occasion for making a gold shipment, announce that the celebrated picture of the coin is prepared for that purpose in Munckacsy, entitled, “Christ before Pithe rear office of that bank, here it is late,” has been sold to Mr. Wanamaker, bagged and kegged and made ready for

the Philadelphia merchant, for one hunshipment.

dred thousand dollars. The price is Kegs in which gold is packed—"specie marvelous, but the picture is equally kegs” as the are called-are made of marvelous. It is thus described: extra hard wood. They must have an "The artist has chosen the moment extra iron hoop. Specie is not thrown when Pilate, confronted with the accusloosely into a keg, nor, upon the other ers of Christ, who have brought him hand, is it carefully wrapped in tissue bound to the tribunal, is unable to conpaper and piled up one coin upon an vince himself of the prisoner's guilt.

her. The keg serves only as a protec Pilate is represented as seated on a tion for canvas bags, into which the gold raised dais, clothed in white. On either is placed in the ordinary hit and miss side of the Roman governor are the fashion of pennies in a man's pocket. Jewish judges, Pharisees and scribes, Into each bag go five thousand dollars, and at his right is the high-priest, a suand ten bags fill a keg.

perb type of the haughty, imperious, In the interests of security, each keg fanatical Jew. He is denouncing the is treated to what is technically known Savior's pretentious claims and proclaimamong the shippers as the “red taping” ing his guilt as usurper and false prophet process. At each end of the keg, in the with jestures of imposing yet violent enprojecting rim of the staves about the forcement. In the centre of the picture head, are bored four holes at equidistant stands the Christ, facing, with calm, unintervals. A piece of red tape is run moved expression both his accusers and through these holes, crossing on the his Roman judge. Crowding about him, head of the keg, and the ends finally pushing him, brutally staring and sneermeet in the center. At the point of ing, are the jeering, mocking populace, meeting, the tape is sealed to the keg's crying aloud that his blood may be upon head by wax bearing the stamp of the their head. The most conspicuous figshipper.

ure among the multitude is a coarse, Gold crosses the ocean very much as cruel faced man of the people, who, with does every other kind of freight, without uplifted arms, and wide open mouth, is any special looking after. The average crying, “Crucify him! Crucify him!" In rate of insurance is about two thousand the foreground stands the figure of a on a shipment of one million. There are Roman soldier, pressing back the eager shippers who do not insure. Having to crowd with his long spear-headed lance. ship one million, they give it in equal All these forty figures are crowding the parts to half a dozen different vessels.

outer halls of a vast building whose It is a strict rule with some firms never grand architectural construction forms a to trust more than two hundred and fifty superb frame to this noble scene. thousand at a time on any one ship. Through the open portico one catches a

A certain party furnishes all the kegs glimpse of the outlying city of Jerusafor gold, and packs them. The man lem, over which the author has hung a who does this is a monopolist in his way. curtain of deep blue sky.” Shippers of large amounts always lose a It seems to be generally agreed that few dollars by abrasion, but not exceed Christ is not well-depicted; the artist ing sixteen ounces on a million dollar having portrayed fanaticism rather than shipment. The only protection to be benevolence. Michael Munckacsy is an found against abrasion lies in the ship Austro-Hungarian, and what seems rement of gold in bars instead of coin. markable, despite numerous precedents, Gold bars are not readily obtained. is entirely self-taught.

thinking, and in a week he had devised

MEN OF THOUGHT. A YOUNG assistant of chemistry in the If we take the railroad business in all Boston Institute of Technology happened its branches, we shall find that in every some years ago to be in the northern one of them the men that now are at the peninsula of Michigan, says the New head, and who are getting large salaries York Sun. While there he observed and are making money, began life withthat the Portage River and Lake Linden out a cent, except in a very few instances. were of a peculiar copper color, and, Thirty odd years ago a rosy-cheeked when he asked the cause, was told that young man ran one of the engines on it was copper that escaped from the the New York and New Haven road. smelting and stamping mills of the Calu He spent every moment of his spare met and Hecla mines. The young

time in studying mechanical engineering teacher put his thinking cap on, and then and surveying Soon his suggestions requested the company to allow him to respecting the building of engines, and experiment, with a view of saving this also respecting the construction and copper. The company was only too glad building department of that road, beto offer facilities. So the young man came so valuable that his services were gave up his summer vacation and set to recognized by promotion. He became work, and was able to devise a method assistant superintendent, then general by which about four per cent of the superintendent of the whole system, and copper mined was saved, and almost is now vice-president and director, and pure copper, too. The young professor has control of the entire mechanical deno longer earns a trifling salary, but has partment of the road. This is E. M. acquired a comfortable income by this Reed, and when he sees a discontented summer's vacation.

engineer, he says to him that the opporSome years ago, a mechanic near New tunities for advancement to-day are just Haven, was riding in a railway train, and as great, probably greater, than they was jolted and jarred as in the early days were thirty odd years ago, when he fired of railway travel passengers were apt to

on the road. Another superintendent, be. He didn't fret and fume, as the other C. N. Davidson, of the Hartford divipassengers did, but began to study and sion, years ago stood at the footboard, experiment, with a view to making a and secured his promotion because he spring that would reduce the jolting to a

made his services so valuable that the minimum. He at last succeeded, and

company could not do else than appoint his spring was adopted by every railroad him to responsible places. The general in the country. He is no longer a poor

superintendent of the great Wabash sysyoung mechanic. His name is Carlos

tem some years ago was a common teleFrench, and he has just been elected to

graph operator, in Delphi, Indiana, earnCongress from the New Haven district.

ing barely enough to pay his board and There died, a few days ago, in Water

clothing. But he made a study of the bury, a man who began life in the nar

railroad business as opportunity prerowest circumstances. He learned the

sented in that obscure town. By and by trade of a machinist, and he gave his whole soul to his trade. By and by he

the opportunity came for making a sug

gestion to the managers. It was a good startled wire manufacturers by producing

one. Railway managers are constantly a cold reducing machine, by which wire

on the lookout for men who show their was drawn cold. Seeing one day a

competency. No men in the world are Woman fretting because she had pricked quicker to reward fidelity and ability.

This operator was promoted to a more responsible post. Here his whole time was given to mastering his duties and bettering the service. So he was pro

her finger with a pin, he was set to the valuable safety pin. His name was E. J. Manville. He died a rich man.



moted again and again, until a year ago ation is now universally adopted on sidhe was made the general superintendent ings that are too short. It is called sawof the vast system, and with a salary ing. The young fellow, while riding on commensurate with his responsible du top of his car across the dreary prairies, ties. His name is Wade.

had studied out and solved the problem, General Superintendent Kerrigan, of and when the opportunity came, he was the whole five or six thousand miles of ready for it. He is now the general the Missouri Pacific system, began his manager of the great Northwestern career as an ordinary axman on the Iron system. Mountain road. He handled the ax well, and was next made rodman. He

Humanity may err, Divinity never. was absorbed in his work, and the com

The working of the good and brave, pany recognized his industry and value,

seen or unseen, endures literally forever, and to-day he receives ten thousand dol

and cannot die.-Carlyle. lars a year for m ing the system. The late Vice-President Hoxie himself, whom the Knights of Labor regarded ConfiCIUS

BELIEVERS.with so much bitterness, was in his early Confucius lived five hundred years belife a laboring man, even performing fore Christ, and his teachings and presuch duties as taking care of horses. cepts from the Chinese Bible held worldBut he did that work thoroughly, and ly advancement of little account, and when he was twitted with having once sought to attain rather the moral than been a hostler, he laughed and replied, the material elevation of mankind. Yes, I was the best one in Des Moines." Even now few Chinese will admit that

The late President Rutter, of the New the European standard of morality is York Central road, began life as a sta equal to their own. Christianity they tion agent on the line of the Erie road, consider to be a good enough religion in but he wasn't satisfied simply with being as far as, like Buddhism and other naprompt and accurate with his accounts. tive cults, it teaches men to do good;/but He made a study of the freight business, they cannot see that in practice it has so far as he could at his station, and made much impression upon the nations opened the eyes of his manager with his of Europe. Their own country has selvaluable suggestions and his quick and dom waged offensive war, while all successful solutions of some of the trou Europe appears to them an armed enblesome problems of freight transporta campment. England prides herself uption that he had to meet in that early on her religion and her big ships of war; day, before the business was systemat France sends her missionaries far into ized and so well understood as now. the interior and her torpedo boats cruise

Some years ago two long freight trains round the coast and sink all the unofmet at a siding on one of the Illinois fending junks that come in their way. prairies. The siding was not long This is, of course, the unfavorable side enough to allow the trains to pass. The of European character, as presents itself assistant manager of the road happened to the ordinary Chinaman. He does not, to be on one of the trains, and he was at however, fail to discern our good as well his wit's end to know what to do. There as our bad points. That we are truthstepped up a young brakeman, who said ful, he knows well, by experience, and he could manage the trains so as to that no bribe will ever tempt an Englishenable them to pass. The engineers man is a thing he often regrets, but laughed at him, but the manager asked never fails to admire. Though he does him to explain. With a stick he traced not altogether accept our ideas of proin the ground his plan, and it was so gress, still he is willing to adopt some simple that every on at once compre of our inventions. Steamers are rapidly hended it. In fifteen minutes the two supplanting the clumsy junks, and one trains had been moved by, and the oper very large and flourishing line is entirely

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