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word which is translated ''framed” in the illustrate the various meanings of the text, and in order to invest it with any word; and all of them correspond with value whatever in favor of the doctrine those already supplied. of the creation of all things out of noth With these authoritative definitions ing, it must be shown that the term sig before them, the most illiterate must nifies to create in the absolute sense. perceive how appropriately Kainpoighal But this cannot be done, for the word (framed) expresses the act of forming means to repair, to restore from breach worlds out of elements previously in or decay, to mend, to put in order, to existence-of reducing a chaotic mass reform, to appoint, perfect, adjust, or of substance without form and void," train.
to worlds of order and harmony. It The following examples illustrate its is a significant fact that nowhere can meaning, “and going on from thence, he we find the claim advanced that the saw other two brethren
in Greek term, being considered, sig. ship with Zebebee, their father, mend nifies to create out of nothing. Our ing (katapribovtac) their nets.” Mat., iv: dictionary gives no such definition. 19, and Mark, i: 19, the same. Again, When the learned author whom we have 2 Cor., xiii: 2, “Be perfect" (kataprišaotte). quoted comments on Heb. xi, 3, he
Dr. Clark's comment, in loco, serves omits all reference to the signification of our cause too admirably to be omitted the words. To say the least, this neglect from the argument.
He writes: "Be is remarkable, for there is just where we compact; get into joint again; let unity would naturally suppose he would disand harmony be restored;" and when play the whole force of his scholastic speaking of the ninth verse, he says: “I attainments in illustrating the sense of have given the above paraphrase to this the original-there, where he would verse, because of the last term katapriai, pause to prove that the Greek for which we render perfection.” Kataptious, "framed” furnishes him with a solid from kara, intensive, and aprižu, to fit or foundation for the doctrine that all adapt, signifies the reducing of a dislo things are created out of nothing—there, cated limb to its proper place, and hence, where he would unmask his strength, as Beza says on this passage: “The and show us how “to adjust, adapt, knit Apostle's meaning is, that whereas the together, restore, or put in joint," members of the church were all, as it means to create in the most absolute were, dislocated and out of joint, they
He knew best why he thus should be united together in love, and ignored the splendid opportunity so they should endeavor to make perfect temptingly thrust upon his notice. what was amiss among them, either in His cause may not be aided by gatherfaith or morals. It is a metaphor, also, ing up the fragments he has left us from taken from a building; the several stones which to build a monumental pile of and timbers all being put in their proper testimony; but (at the imminent risk of place and situation, so that the whole marring the consistency of his doctrine, building might be complete, and be a with his own exposition of what the proper habitation for the owner." See apostle must mean), we will do so, and also, Eph., xi: 22.
write :-"Through faith we understand This lucid exposition of the meaning that the worlds were adjusted, knit of the term which our opponents would together, and put in joint by the word of have us believe, signifies the creation of God," etc. Doctrine of that character something out of nothing, is specially is quite scriptural. The opportunity is valuable since it is contributed by one of now afforded for some one versed in the the wisest and best of their own number. mysteries of modern interpretation to In another place, Luke, vi: 40, this same formulate some rule, which will require author says καταρτιζω signifes to adjust, the first portion of the text to imply a adapt, knit together, restore, or put in simple work of organization, and the order;' and he there cites examples to second to teach the creation of all things
out of nothing, when both acts refer to of elements is not meant when scripture the same process, which is expressed by speaks of world formations. Now if we "framed."
must go behind all sacred record for The next words requiring special at support of any doctrine, we launch at once tention are
auoras, which are trans into the domain of pure rationalism, and lated 'the worlds.” Such, however, is that affirms with respect to the eternity not their real meaning at all. The latter of matter, ex nihilo nihil fit. is compounded of two words—the first Evidently Heb. xi: 3, does not teach signifying “always,” and the other the creation af all things, or of anything, "being." The Greek terms used to ex out of nothing: but the exact reverse. press forever, forever and forever, ever It does teach that God, by the power of lasting, eternal and eternity, are all faith, reduced to order and harmony the derived from this same source, and all eternal elements of the world, and that can see that no question respecting the these visible creations were not made by meaning of the abovaç can be originated. material agencies which are seen, but by Notwithstanding this it is evident that the power of an invisible faith which is the apostle did refer to the act of cre not seen, or, does not appear. ation, and we perceive that he, by It would be a tedious task to take up metonomy, used “the eternities" for seriately, and thus explain the sense of ""the worlds." This fact is very impor all the scriptural passages which have tant, for the law of metonomy requires direct or remote reference to our subthat that which is signified by any certain ject; and our readers will have to be term must bear some distinct relation or content with the definition and a few resemblance to that thing by which it is illustrations of the meaning of the prinsignified. It is apparent, then, that if cipal Greek words that are respectively "the eternities' mean “the worlds," translated create, make, etc. something about the latter must be eter One of these is Kt, which signifies to nal; for that which some time began to settle, found, build, create, generally to be, can not possibly be signified by what make, render so and so. In the followalways was. Were this not so, we might ing passages of the Bible the word is as justly say of our mortal existence, translated "create." "Create in me a "the eternities are our inheritance," as clean heart." Psalms. li: 10. "For we are to represent “worlds" by "eternities,” his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus if there is no similarity whatever existing unto good works.” Eph. ii: 10. "Neither between them. But this similarity can was the man created for the woman. not consist in a likeness of substance, Cor. xi: 9. “Commanding to abstain for eternity is not material, and hence, from meats which God hath created," from necessity, we must refer the simil etc. I Tim. iv: 3. “For thou hast arity to an equality of duration. But we created all things, and for thy pleasure are not to infer, therefore, that the form they are and were created." Rev. iv. of the worlds is eternal. Science demon II. None of these passages afford any strates that this is comparatively recent, foundation whatever for the idea of a creand we conclude that the apostle simply ation out of nothing. The “creation" of taught that the elements out of which a new heart is the regeneration of the the worlds were framed are eternal. In
Our “creation" in Christ Jesus stating this proposition Paul placed him involves a purification simply, and a self in harmony with the declaration of consecration of powers to new purposes. Moses, who declares, as shall be shown God took a portion of the dust of the further on, that long before a single act earth-elements already in existenceof visible world generation was per and out of this created man. Meats are formed, “the Spirit of God moved upon created out of pre-existent substance. the face of the deep”-the chaotic mass If any difference whatever exists between of elements "without form and void” the manner in which things “are and thus clearly demonstrating that a creation were created,” the revelator ought to
have known it, but by association of ideas burned up, will not be destroyed, but be he teaches there is none.
renewed and refined, purged from all Another word, and the one, too, which moral and natural imperfections, and is principally relied upon by our oppon made the endless abode of blessed ents in their attempts to bolster up their spirits.
That such an event false theories, is TOLEW. This term has a may take place is very possible; and great variety of meanings, and more than from the terms used by St. Peter, is very one of them will be illustrated.
* And, indeed, it First: Create. “In the beginning God is more reasonable and philosophical to created the heaven and the earth.” Gen. conclude that the earth shall be refined i: 1. “So God created man in his own and restored, than finally destroyed.” image; in the image of God created he (Italics in original.) Admitting the poshim; male and female created he them.” sibility of a creation of substance out of Gen. i: 27. In these passages the form nothing by the mere fiat of Jehovah, we of the Greek verb for created is identical, deny that it is at all more reasonable and if ETOLNOEV in the first verse is not and philosophical to suppose that God synonymous with enouncev in the twenty shall construct a new earth out of the seventh, Moses is culpable for not point elements of this world, rather than form ing out the distinction. Violence is done a new and sanctified creation, matter to language when we affirm that the and all. Why is it more natural to think same word when used in expressing a Omnipotence shall refine base and sincontinuous act of creation, signifies in polluted substance, rather than annihilate the beginning of the act a creation out it, and then create a pure world, when of nothing, and further on in the process he can perform the act of creation as a simple moulding of elements into a easily as he can subject elements already determinate shape.
in existence to a refining process? Why Second: Make. "And I will make this economizing policy? The supremest (TOLNOW) thee a great nation." Gen. xii.2. power of the Almighty is manifested n
Nebuchadnezzar the king, made the work of creation, but if sectarian (ETOLNJEV) a golden image.” Dan. iii: 1. theology be true, and spirits are not pre“The Lord made (ETTONOE) the heaven existent, then the most awsul displays of and the earth, and the sea, and all things | omnipotent power have been manifested in them.” Ex. xx: II. In the last pas when there were in existence no beings sage the association of ideas compels us but the triune God to witness the grand to believe the heavens and the earth climax of creative power and energy, were made as all things in them are when nothing was unnaturalized and known to have been created, viz: out of transformed into a natural something; material previously in existence.
and is it rational to suppose that when "Behold I make (Touw) all things new.” the supreme hour has arrived, and a Rev. xxi: 5. In the first verse of this new creation is to be inaugurated and perchapter this is written, “And I saw a fected, the Almighty will descend to the new heaven and a new earth.” Latter common level of a mechanic, instead of day Saints know that the new earth here rising to the sublimity of an absolute spoken of is this earth in its sanctified creator, while untold billions stand state, created and made anew (after it round as witnesses of his departed glory? "shall be dissolved,” as Peter informs Looking at the question from the secus in his second epistle, chap. iii: 12) out tarian standpoint, it is highly probable, of the eternal elements of which it is now and hence, rational to suppose the earth composed. This opinion is not confined shall be destroyed, not refined; and new to the Saints only, Dr. Clarke says, “It worlds created, matter and all. In point does appear, from these promises, what of fact it is rational and philosophical the apostle says here, and what is said to suppose God will create the new earth in Rev. xxi: 27; xxii: 14, 15, that the out of the elements of the old one; and present earth, though destined to be
from this vantage ground it is rational
and philosophical to conclude the present earth was formed out of elements previously existent.
In order to disprove the truth of this proposition a necessity for a first creation of something out of nothing must be made apparent.
But this cannot be done; for since we conceive that some substance must be eternal, we cannot conceive that some substance must not be eternal. Further, God is eternal, and according to popular theology, He exists in regions beyond the bounds of time and space; that is, He is infinitely extended; consequently, let Him never be so attenuated; there must be an infinite quantity of His substance, and we fail to see how there can be an infinite quantity of substance in existence eternally, to which whole creations of new matter may be added, from time to time, making thus an infinity and something over, as it were. Some reverends, fresh from the schools of divinity, will reply that as God is composed of spiritual substance, and the worlds are framed of material elements; the argument just presented is voided. But our friend must not forget that his theology teaches that all spirits, excepting God, are created, and we still have an infinity of eternal spiritual substance and an increasing surplus added as the process of creation progresses. We can not understand how a fraction of a second can be added to infinite duration; nor how room can be tacked on to infinite space; thus making duration more than eternal and space more than infinite. But we
can conceive all this as easily as we can the idea that new spiritual substance can be added to the infinite quantity of which God was eternally composed. Our opponents are now offered a choice of alternatives, viz: First, to admit that their ideas of God are erroneous, or, second, the impossibility of the creation of even spiritual substance. If the first be accepted, the confession involves a limitation of the very power of God. He is incapable of existing everywhere, and if He cannot extend His own being, He cannot create something out of nothing. The admission of the second is the point now par
ticularly aimed at, but let either be confessed, the result is the same.
The definitions of Tolew already given comprise its principal signification, and all others are omitted for the present. Another word, tlacow, demands attention; it is, perhaps, more important than either κτιζω or ποιεω, because it supplies us with a key by which to determine the sense in which scriptural writers have used those two words. IIacow never can signify to create, or to make, in the absolute sense, but to form, mould, shape, fashion, etc. It is the term from which our word "plastic" is derived, and the corresponding word in Latin is fingo, from which the English transitive verb, “figure," is obtained. This means “to form or mould into any determinate shape.” The English term “figure" thus becomes synonymous with 1200w, and the latter is made synonymous with
and KT150;; consequently, these words, when used to signify an act of creation, simply mean to mould or fashion into some determinate shape. Proof of the statement respecting the synonymous character of 10000 KT15W and TOLEW, is found in the following passage of scripture: “For Adam
was first formed (E7aotin), then Eve. So God created (ETO170Ev) man in His own image." Gen., i: 27.
"Neither was the man created (FKT100n) for the woman, but the woman for the man." 1 Cor., xi: 9. In all these texts the word “figure" or "mould” may rightly be substituted for "formed” or “created.” But we have already discovered that Totu must have the same meaning when used in relation to the creation of the world, that it certainly has when the formation of a body for Adam is spoken of. As thus used, it is equivalent to the English "figure,” and it is apparent that Genesis i: I, should be translated, “In the beginning the Gods shaped, fashioned or moulded the heavens and the earth."
Additional proof of the synonymous character of the words being considered will be offered. In the revised version, Isaiah, xxix: 16, reads thus: “Ye turn things upside down. Shall the potter be counted as clay, that the thing made
(1200ua), should say of him that made it, He made (erinoac), me not; or the thing framed (TT0lpua), say of him that framed it, He hath no understanding,” or (Sepver.), Thou has not made (Tonnoas) me wisely. See also, Rom., ix: 20, 21, and Isaiah, xlv: 7, 18.
But the means at our disposal by which to determine the meaning of "create" when used in scripture are not exhausted, and another method will be pointed out. Antithetical terms are found in all languages, and when we know the signification of one of the terms, if we conceive an idea which is diametrically opposed to the meaning of the known term, the other term of the antithesis will express our conception. Thus war is opposed to peace, light to darkness, cold to heat, etc., and upon this same principle “destruction" must be the antithetical term opposed to creation. If, then, we can ascertain the sense in which Bible writers have used the word destruction or destroy, we very easily attach a correct meaning to the words creation, create, etc. The following passages of scripture are competent to illustrate the sacred meaning of the former: “I will blot out man, whom I have made, from the face of the earth.” Here the act of “blotting out” is opposed to that of “making;" and the threat was almost literally fulfilled, with respect to numbers, at the time of the flood, but no one suspects that the elements of which antedeluvian bodies were composed, suffered annihilation. “Lest the Lord thy God be very angry with thee and destroy thee,” Gen., vi: 15, or utterly destroy, as the Greek reads, “Therefore may God destroy thee forever.” Psalms, lii: 5. "Fear Him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.” Matt., x: 28. "The heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat; the earth, also, and the works that are therein shall be burned up. Seeing then that all these things shall be dissolved, what manner of persons ought ye to be in all conversation and godliness. Looking for and hasting unto the coming of the day of God,
wherein the heavens being on fire, shall be dissolved, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat.” 2 Pet., iii: 10, II, 12.
No other passage of scripture represents the final and complete dissolution of all things terrestrial, in a manner so void and awful as the passage just quoted.
According to the Apostle, the earth will not be dissolved merely, but the very elements of which it is composed shall be melted. How can the mind picture a scene of more terrible destruction than Peter depicts when under a divine inspiration? But dissolution and fusion are not absolute destruction, and not a single atom shall be annihilated. They (the heavens and the earth) will all be separated, all decomposed, but none of them destroyed. As they are the original matter out of which God formed the terraqueous globe, consequently, they may enter again into the composition of a new system, and, therefore, the Apostle says, verse thirteen, "we look for new heavens and a new earth;" the others being decomposed, a new system is to be formed out of this material. There is wonderful philosophical propriety in the words of the Apostle in describing this event." Certainly a new earth shall be formed out of the elements of this one, after they are refined and purified, and when some Moses of the future records the history of the great event, then a thousand years thereafter, when Satan is loosed for a little season upon the world, apostate Christianity will affirm that God created all things out of nothing. How can scripture teach us more plainly that worlds are made out of pre-existent elements? In the creations of the future, such are to be the facts, and such they were in the past, for time cannot enter as a factor into the method of forming worlds.
We have found that scriptural destruction means disorganization only, and since destruction and disorganization are thus made synonymous terms, creation, which is the antithesis of destruction, must mean organization and nothing more. Some may claim, however, that "annihil