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A man, I found
those who have really gazed upon such
hymns are sung by conflicting congrea scene, no words of mine could fill their gations and whose religious poems are minds with pictures so fair or so sweet found in all lands and encountered in all as those which the mere mention of an works that pretend to give examples of English lane will conjure up for them, if lofty poetical thought, from among the their hearts be open and warm and true.
productions of modern writers. But I am loth to believe even a conceit If his looks are kindly and frank his so delightful, embellished by fancy and manner is doubly so. adorned by the fondness which time him, more free from the prejudice of age casts over all that is fair and past, could than I had hoped to see in one of his recall one-half the tender details on years, and certainly in one who had seen which my eyes rested that brief but and experienced so much. Not that pleasant autumn day.
larger experience should not and does “Underwood,” and well and literally not oftentimes widen a man's sympathies, is it named, is but a few minutes walk giving breadth to, and begetting tolerfrom the far famed Cystral Palace at Syd ance in his views, but that there does enham, and a few moments soon found seem to come with ripening age a conme at my destination, after the train servatism which oftens leans decidedly from London had reached the Palace. towards, if it does not actually encroach It was very unusual, too, but I had on the domain of dogmatism. He is a formed no mental picture of him I had most profound believer in the Scriptures, come to see, and was neither disap and worshiper of God, and for that pointed nor surprised when ushered into reason must necessarily have strong rethe presence of a venerable old gentle ligious convictions. This his writings
who extended a cordial greeting make plain in almost every line. I and from whose countenance beamed, and speak of this as giving emphasis to the whose whole bearing bespoke, habitual liberality of views I have already menbenevolence and humane consideration. tioned, as I hold it to be a fact, which It was in a quiet little parlor, warm and few will be disposed to challenge, that * cozy, and apparently used by the poet as we find in such cases even less of tolerhis study that he received me, while a few ance in old age for the opinions of youth, moments later one of his daughters, who than where such pronounced religious acts as his amanuensis, entered the room. inclinations are wanting-and even in A man of rather less than average height, such cases the dogmatism is truly severe he is somewhat heavily built, and this it enough. His great desire seemed to be is, in all probability, that inclines one to to hear truthfully and honestly, and the belief that in less ripened years he without bias to present that which he may have appeared to be considerably had learned as true. His conversation taller. He wears a full beard, like his hair, was fresh yet pregnant with vital insilvery white, and while the former covers quiries and with conclusions that had a face that is full and fleshy, the latter is been reached after prolonged reflection, the glory of a head well shaped, and such and extensive experience, but so as phrenologists would deem, betokened pressed as to win by their gentleness a largely developed and naturally pre where they might otherwise have prodominating humanitarian attribute or voked opposition. He has no fear that quality. A kindly eye, full and intelli you will learn something from him or gent, evidencing the capacity of its pos about him; and even at an age when sessor for sustained and elevated thought; most people are more ambitious for rest a broad forehead and high, almost un than sustained labor, he prosecutes his marked by lines and above which the work, and points with just pride to the silvery hair is a trifle thin. Such is the volumes which a life of industry and author of “Proverbial Philosophy," a that congenial labor which “doth physic book that is known and loved by all pain” have enabled him to give to the civili zed nations. This the man whose world—and they make no mean library
in themselves, though they yet fail to sat that he had read considerably, and so isfy his noble aspirations. An egotism far as he could ascertain, her's was the that would be contemptible in one of only good reign of fifty years, of which meaner talents and less commendable either sacred or profane history gave results, may be condoned, or rather any record.
He also referred to the justified in Mr. Tupper. And I could reign of Manasseh which covered a not repress an exclamation of surprise period of fisty-five years; and the Scrip. when he showed me twenty-seven large tures record the deplorable fact that he books literally filled with references to was anything but what a king of Israel himself, either clippings from newspapers
should have been. It seemed to please (which were criticisms on his various Mr. Tupper, not that there had been no works and more particularly on his last good jubilee reigns save that of Queen production, "My Autobiography") or Victoria, but that he should be alive to letters from persons the world over. write an ode for one so good as he held Among others, one from the Queen
her to be, and on such an occasion. signed by Lord Iddesleigh, expressive of “Moreover," he remarked, "it was I the pleasure "My Autobiography” had
who wrote her coronation ode fifty years given Her Majesty; and then later the ago, and who, therefore, fitter to write note from myself asking for the inter that which is to commemorate her view. I could not, I say, repressa
unparalleled jubilee year.” slight exclamation of surprise when, I remember also in the first interview pointing to the others and then to mine, having mentioned that I had often found he quietly remarked: “You see, I have breathing throughout that which he wrote, immortalized you. In these volumes I the same tender and elevating spirit that keep all that is written to me or about was the fragrance, the very soul of the me, and when you write me again, I writings of our own Longfellow, whose shall put the letter in another book of name I can hardly mention without a the same kind." And a wonderful col sigh of gratitude, for I never read lection it is! Newspaper articles, letters his shorter poems without feeling new in various languages and from persons inspirations and better resolves firing my of great distinction, because of intellec heart and coursing through my veins tual endowments and cultivation, as well with each pulsation. He smiled a pleasas those great for the reason that they are ant smile and said he himself had noticed nobly born; while intermingling these a marked resemblance. “I am more are printed titles of books, scraps, circu like Longfellow than any of the poets. lars, envelopes, and even photographs. In some things I resemble Tennyson These are the result of many years somewhat, but I am very unlike Robert patient and careful collection; and I am Browning." At first blush there is also sure many are the curious, painful, hap a resemblance between the features of py, and entertaining histories associated Mr. Tupper and Longfellow. Both with the fragments that go to comprise venerable, both silvered of head and 'this library of life—if only those histories with full and silvery beards, both full of were revealed.
face, lighted with a smile of benevolence, Mr. Tupper has visited America. He easy of access, considerate, humane, was here in 1867, and was, at the time of int. I do not know that the resem. my visit, negotiating with a New York blance goes farther. publisher for a description of a journey Though Mr. Tupper has written much, through several counties in Ireland though his poems are more particularly made by him as early as 1851. When I those of a religious nature and of worldcalled on him again in October of the wide admiration, yet I feel justified in same year, 1886, he was then writing or stating that his earlier and more lasting had just written an ode on the jubilee reputation is due to that masterpiece of year of the reign of Victoria. He re its kind, “Proverbial Philosophy," a nd marked while speaking on this subject, I can hardly think of a time when it will
not be as pleasant as it is fresh, and as full of thoughts potential for good, as it is based upon a work and subjects most ennobling to the human race. Of his other works, I care
say little, even were I competent to give a fair judgment, nor to make reference to his life. With the former all should be somewhat acquainted, and could find profit in a greater familiarity. As for the latter, I can only say that his fine preservation, clear mind, his unfurrowed brow, which nevertheless has known of thoughts long and deep on life problems, the sweet and gentle and truthful spirit of his writings, and his known purity of life, record for him his worth as a man and poet,
with greater fidelity than even the pen of the friendliest, biographer. I have rejoiced for the time spent in his company, and have ever felt the better for it. I could wish that the lives of many I know and esteem of young men in Utahwhen as near the close as that of Martin Farquhar Tupper, might exercise an influence for good, that has been as long and as widely felt among mankind, which, as his
destined too, will linger after death, still working for good and shedding happiness in life, as the fragrance of Mowers doth linger, even when their freshness hath faded and their petals gone down into the ashes of death.
R. W. Sloan.
I.-THE ETERNITY OF MATTER.
can be no appeal upon purely rational EXCEPTING the body of worshipers grounds. This point would be debatcommonly known as Mormons, there is able were there in existence an opno professedly Christian society that posing maxim that all things were maintains the doctrine of the eternity of created out of nothing; but no such proall substances.
position was ever defended as a self-eviIndeed, so intense is the general relig dent truth. It owes its origin to religious ious antipathy to the idea, that the few of intluences—not to human reasoning powmodern times who have dared to enter ers or innate ideas, and these facts incontain it, have been regarded as moral trovertibly sustain the rationality of the lepers, polluted with the odor of atheism, maxim, "ex nihilo nihil fit." if not actually suffering from the blight It must be apparent to all that an and curse of the thing itself. Though attempt to appeal from the rationality of the general reputation of the doctrine is this principle amounts simply to a quesodious, we submit that it is entitled to tion of the reliability of the rational the most impartial consideration, because faculties of mankind in forming rational it savors strongly of rational philosophy; judgments. It denies the correctness of and we all have learned by bitter experi intuitive convictions—casts out the race ence that“humanum est errare et neseire." upon the troubled sea of life, without
To demonstrate the rationality of the mental rudder or compass, and demoldoctrine it is but necessary to cite the ishes all criteria for judging between the fact that the human mind, expressing its right and the wrong.
Any system of natural faculties and endowments in a religion or of philosophy which requires natural way, and when uninfluenced by this to command our faith or acceptance ecclesiastical dictation, formulated an bears prima facie evidence of an unhalciently that grand concensus of universal lowed origin. The idea that God can conviction-innate and intelligent-which purpose to crush out of existence any is expressed in the maxim "ex nihilo natural endowments, or to trammel the nihil fit."
use of our reasoning powers in his effort to That is the handwriting on the wall to make us religious, is foul with the slime of which a free and intelligent humanity the serpent-it is the moloch of pious reshas affixed its seal, and from it there olutions—the tomb of genuine religion.
But we have digressed from our pur seen, not being made out of the things pose, for it is not designed specially to which do appear; this therefore must treat the subject from a purely rational refer to the material creation: and as or philosophical standpoint, but from a the word is used in the plural number, Biblical one; and those of our readers it may comprehend not only the rth who desire to make themselves familiar and the visible heavens, but the whole with the system of rational arguments, planetary system; the different worlds by which the doctrine of the eternity of which, in our system at least, revolve matter is sustained, are referred to round the sun. The apostle states that Prof. Orson Pratt's treatise, entitled the these things were not made out of a pre“Great First Cause."
existent matter; for if they were, that An examination of the writings just matter, however extended or modified referred to will show us that the faith of must appear in that thing into which it the Saints is fortified by every principle of is compounded and modified, consesound philosophy; and without further quently it could not be said that the preliminaries we will proceed to ascer things which are seen are not made out tain what men, who spake as they were
of the things that appear. moved upon by the Holy Ghost, have According to Moses and the apostle we taught respecting the matter. In the believe that God made all things out of course of our investigation we shall nothing." find that the doctrine is invested with a Though entertaining the highest redivine authority which infidels only pre spect for the piety and learning of the sume to assail. If, however, no impos- justly celebrated author of this quotaing array of Scriptural texts can be pro tion, it is denied that he can find any duced to prove this truth, the reason is warrant whatever in the apostle's lansimply because the Bible nowhere treats guage for his anti-scriptural idea, that extensively on the materials of creation. all things were created out of nothing. The first passage suggested for considera Neither Moses nor Paul ever taught such tion is found in the writings of the a doctrine. If we admit, for the sake of scholarly and philosophical apostle, Paul. argument, that God did create all things In the common English version the text out of nothing, the position will involve is as follows: "Through faith we under conclusions and inferences which are stand that the worlds were framed by sadly at variance with the faith, teachthe word of God, so that things which ings and practice of the Saints. are seen were not made out of things Paul states in the most precise manthat do appear.” Heb. xi, 3.
ner, that God “framed the worlds by This language is always quoted by our faith; so that things which are seen opponents with the strongest assurance, were not made out of things that do in their attempts to prove from Bibical appear,” or according to popular theosources that God created all things out logy, the things that are seen were made of nothing, and it may, therefore, be out of nothing. Having doctored the regarded as the tower of their strength. apostle's rather peculiar expression with Particular attention will be invited a modern interpretation, special attention while we endeavor to ascertain what is now directed to the two little words, Paul meant when he wrote that Scrip “so that." It is needless to state that as ture. General Christian opinion respect Paul used them they express a conseing the teachings of the text is vigorously quence; and his language may be para. expressed by the learned Dr. Adam phrased thus: God made the worlds by Clarke, as follows:
faith, consequently, they were made out “By worlds, tous alwaç, we are to un of nothing; or to note the variations of derstand the material fabric of the uni the absurd theology; since the worlds verse; for atw can have no reference were made out of nothing, they were here to age or any measurement of time, made by faith-by the faith of God. for he speaks of the things which are In pointing out the significance of the
connective, “so that," no point has been substance some time was not itself, but strained for effect. Paul affirms that God was something else, or nothing. made the worlds by faith. Popular the
Evident is it from these few reflections ology assures us they were made out of that the text can not be interpreted in its nothing; and the Euç To of the Greek, most apparent sense, as the English vertranslated "so that,” being equivalent to
sion gives it, and an attempt will now be "wherefore" or "for which reason,
made to determine its true sense upon a proves the correctness of our para
rational and scriptural basis, A key by phrase of the text. But who will be which we may unlock its general signifilieve the worlds were made out of cation is offered us in the design which nothing because they were framed by
Paul had in view when he wrote the faith; or admit that faith can operate eleventh chapter of Hebrews; and, solely upon an absolute void. But a indeed, we find the same purpose promfurther exception must be taken to the inently exhibited in all his writings, and apparent sense of the English translation. in all other scriptures. Paul wrote the As a Christian, we like not to confess chapter from which our text is taken, for that God actually inspired an Apostle to the special object of teaching us that faith teach that the things which are seen are is the principle of power in God and not, or were not made out of things that in man.
This force is invisible, and diaare seen; or, in Biblical language, "were metrically opposed to the visible, physinot made out of things that appear.” cal agencies upon which mankind are so Such an idea is tantamount to the doc prone to rely; and which are falsely pretrine that a block of wood, for instance, sumed to be the source of power. is not made out of the material out of The Apostle opposes the power of this which it is made, but is made out of some invisible faith against mere brute force, thing out of which it is not made. and in a masterpiece of eloquence and When absurd trash of that nature is set argument well calculated to inspire faith up for the Gospel of the Son of God, in in the heart of every reader, awards the fidelity becomes a redeeming virtue, and sceptre of supremacy to faith, demonfaith a badge of mental imbecility. strating the justice of his course by an
But some Christian will accuse us of appeal to some of the most notable facts misrepresenting the position assumed by in Jewish history, as well as by a citation Paul. It will be claimed that he did not of a cardinal tenet of the national faith, mean that blocks of wood are now not viz: that God works by faith. This made out of the material that compose design of the Apostle is so apparent that them—that rocks are now not made out a mere mention of it would have sufficed, of their own substance, but that at some but it is important that we hold it in view time they were not made out of what in interpreting the sense of the text, they were made out of. The element of which may be rendered thus: “We untime has now entered into the philoso derstand that the worlds were framed by phy, but does not appear to rationalize faith, therefore the things which are seen it; and if we attempt to reason in the not made by visible, physical same manner respecting the very first agencies, but by the invisible power of element, presumably created out of noth faith, which is not seen." Thus the ing, the same contradictory statements things which are seen were not made by confront us that appear so absurd when things that appear; and we submit to the we affirm of anything that exists now judgment of our candid readers if this that it is not made out of its own sub meaning does not supply a rational and stance, but of something else.
consistent interpretation of Paul's lanauthority in heaven, or beneath it, can guage. ever make it a truth that the elements of But the passage is by no means disthe earth are composed of the elements of posed of and some of the words of the the sun, and vice versa, so no authority Greek text will now be considered. The anywhere can ever make it a truth that list is headed with kamnprobat; this is the