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vail on every house master to adopt a uniform cause of the disagreeable taste it leaves in the system. There is just cause, meanwhile, for mouth when bitten. throwing up of hats, or any other decorous act No flower has more wealth of alias than the of jubilation, on account of the disfavor which pansy. Oberon explains its color :has fallen upon scarlet geraniums, yellow cal Yet mark'd I where the dart of Cnpid fell ; ceolarias, and blue lobelias. People sickened It fell upon a little western flower, of these, not because they lacked brilliancy or
Before milk white, now purple with love's
wound, beauty, but because every one had them, and
And maidens call it Love-in idleness, because they flowered for a few weeks only in
This is not to be understood as love in indolate summer and autumn, and left bare, brown
lence; Love - in- idleness, or Love-in idle, beds for all our solace during the rest of the
which was the commoner name, means love in year. “La vertu est une triste chose, car
vain, as in the Pardoner's Tale" :elle ne laisse point de souvenirs,” and so it was with bedding out. It may be that gen.
The other heste of hym is this,
Take not in ydel my name nor amys. erations yet unborn may revert to it, and find it rich in associations of the Victorian age,
Spenser calls it the Pawnce, and Dr. Prior hallowed by memories of the introduction of
enumerates the following names for it :-Herb battues, crinolines, croquet, dîners à la Russe,
Trinity, Three-faces-under-a-hood, Fancy, and other cherished institutions. Meanwhile
Flamy, Kiss-me-ere I-rise, Jump up-and-kisswe part with it without a sigh.
me, Pink-of-my-John, and others such as fond
lovers use. One great charm in the old class of flowers
With all these to choose from, it (herbaceous stuff, as gardeners contemptuously
seems unfair that this spoiled child should called them but a few years back) is their per
have stolen from the walltower the name that manence. Many of them are not only tech. it had earned from its cordial propertiesnically perennial, in the sense of not having to Heartsease—a name, too, that had nothing in be resown annually, but seem to bave the
it of amatory allusion, in which the profligate property of perpetual youth. In many an old pansy is so deeply involved. country-house garden there are vigorous
There are plenty of flowers named in the clumps of scarlet lychnis or fragrant dittany interest of lovers, for these have from the coeval with the mighty oaks in the park out
earliest times been incorrigible in appropriatside, and a girl to-day may gather a posy from ing blossoms to their own purpose, but some the self-same plant on which another of her of these names are the result of blunders. It kin dropped tears at the thought of lover or
is hardly likely that any swain would choose husband riding with Falkland at Newbury or
the coarse annual called Love-lies-bleeding to Rupert at Marston Moor.
express his pain ; there has been some con.
fusion here between the classical amaranthus But, inasmuch as we lately took occasion to find fault with the scientific nomenclature of
So also the Solanum lycopersicum, plants, we propose now to review some of the named Pomi dei Mori by the Italians, was old English names, of which some are no more glossed Pommes d'amour by the French, which than homely, while others are full of tender
our people called Love-apples, till they bor.
rowed the American name or plaintive meaning. Some flowers there be
tomato.” The with titles of both qualities, of which is that straggling Goose-grass, too, of which the one known to everybody now as Forget-me. myriad little burrs cling to men's coats, denot; but in all old herbals it is called Scor. rives its popular name, Loveman, from that pion-grass, because its flower-spike was sup
habit, and not from amorous association, posed to resemble a scorpion's tail, and there
School Boards and other engines of mealy. fore, according to the doctrine of signatures,
mouthedness have laid a ban upon some of it was prescribed as a remedy against the bite
our old plant names, and it must be confessed of a scorpion. The present popular name,
that the true meaning of Wake-Robin and indeed, has not belonged to this pretty blue
Cuckoo pint is best exchanged for the general flower for much more than half a century. suggestion of vernal growth with which they Somewhere in the 'twenties a ballad was writ
invest the common hedge arum. The spot.
ted Orchisten connecting it with the story of a drowned lover, and thereafter it was known no more as
That liberal shepherds give a grosser name, Scorpion-grass ; but up to that time Forget. But our cold maids do Dead Men's Fingers me-not was the name of one of the bugles, be call them
seems to have lost all but the last of these Asphodělus. Another kind of narcissus (N. innames ; but we foresee that the finger of the comparabilis) is well named Nonpareil, though Inquisition wi some day be laid upon the the fragrant double form of it has fared less common name of the ineadow saffron, called happily as Butter and-eggs. Naked Ladies, when its pink flowers rise The herbalists, in preparing simples, were shivering without leaves from the mould in au. responsible for as many flower-Dames as lovtumn. But never let " our cold maids" blush ers were in making posies. Eyebright, Feverto welcome the Cardamine pratensis as Lady's few, Fleabane, are well enough, and so is TutSinock, for the reference here and in many san, that is toute-saine, the countryman's name other names, such as the Lady's Mantle, for St. John's Wort ; for, as Gerarde says, which in Swedish is Mariekápa, is to “Our “The leves, floures and seeds stamped and Lady."
put into a glasse with oile olive, and set in Names designed for one plant very often the sunne for certain weekes doth make an became transferred to another. Thus the oile of the color of blood, which is a most terms woodbine and honeysuckle seem now, pretious remedy for deep wounds, and those fitly enough, attached to the same plant ; but that are thorow the body.” A l-heal, or Parkinson, no mean authority, spoke of red Wound wort, however, is another p ant-clover as honeysuckle, and in the “Midsum- Stachys palustris—useful for stanching bleed. mer Night's Dream” the woodbine means the ing. bitter sweet or woody nightshade
But the doctrine of signatures, whereby the
fancied resemblance of parts of plants to orSo doth the woodbine the sweet honeysuckle gans in the human body was held to indicate Gently entwist.
their healing properties, produced some ugly We have even heard it maintained that eglan names. We prefer to call the pretty spring tine was a name for honeysuckle, but this is flower hepatica rather than Liver-wort, though to forget the etymology, the aiglante, or prickly
both mean the same thing, because the leaves one, the sweet-briar. There is another flower resemble the shape of the human liver ; and which has two names so equal in merit that pulmonaria is a pleasanter name than Lung. one hesitates which to use the London Pride,
wort. or None-so-Pretty.
Yet there is an aroma about these old-world Fair Maids of France is a title all too sweet Dames which is wanting in the pedantic prefor the double buttercup to which it has been cision of Latin classification. Howbeit it is assigned, not worth cultivating save for its not every one who thinks so. Not long since poetic name ; but its white counterpart, Bach
an enthusiast was showing a sympathetic but elor's Buttons, is well called, according to Ger inexpert friend the glories of his rock gararde, “ from their similitude to the jagged den, and drew his attention to the trailing cloathe buttons, antiently worn in this king sprays of a pretty creeper. "It is very like dom."
Creeping Jenny,” remarked the visitor, “It Much has been written on the question of is Creeping Jenny," confessed the proprietor ; what is the true gilliflower, and the upshot is
“ but we don't call it so on a rockwork. It is that thereby Chaucer, Spenser, and Shake. Lysimachia nummularia aurea.” speare meant the clove carnation, the name being a corruption of caryophyllum, a clove ;
ANIMAL LIFE IN THE DEEP SEA, -It is not but doubtless later authorities applied the surprising that the naturalists of the early name to the wallflower and stock. Another part of the present century could not believe name for this flower was Sops-in-wine
in the existence of a fauna at the bottom of
the deep seas. The absence of any evidence Many a clove gilofre And notemuge to put in ale,
obtained by accurate systematic research, toWhether it be moist or stale.
gether with the consideration of the physical
character of the ocean bed, were quite suffiSo likewise has there been controversy over cient to lead scientific men of that period to the identity of Homer's asphodel. It was doubt the existence of any animal life in water probably a kind of narcissus, and the connec. deeper than a few hundred fathoms. We now tion has been kept up in our daffodil, through know, however that there is a very considerold French Fleur d'asphodille, though Lucian able fauna at enormous depths in all the great and later writers assigned it to a plant with oceans, and we have acquired, moreover, con. an edible root, which Linnæus classed as siderable information concerning some of
those peculiar physical conditions of the enable the fish to regain its proper sphere of abyss that fifty years ago were merely mat- life at the bottom; but beyond that limit the ters of speculation among scientific men. muscles are not strong enough to drive the The peculiar physical conditions of the deep body downward, and the fish, becoming more seas may be briefly stated to be these : It is and more distended as it goes, is gradually absolutely dark so far as actual sunlight is killed on its long and involuntary journey to concerned, the temperature is only a few de. the surface of the sea. The deep sea fish, grees above freezing point, the pressure is enor- then, are exposed to a danger that no other mous, there is little or no movement of the animals in this world are subject to-namely, water, the bottom is composed of a uniform that of tumbling upward. That such acci. fine soft mud, and there is no plant life. All dents do occasionally occur is evidenced by of these physical conditions we can appreciate the fact that some fish, which are now known except the enormous pressure. Absolute dark. to be true deep sea forms, were discovered ness we know, the temperature of the deep dead and floating on the surface of the ocean seas is not an extraordinary one, the absence of long before our modern investigations were movement in the water and the fine soft mud commenced. are conditions that we can readily appreciate ; Until quite recently, every one agreed that but the pressure is far greater than anything no rays of sunlight could possibly penetrate we can realize. At a depth of twenty-five the sea to a greater depth than a few hundred hundred fathoms the pressure is, roughly fathoms. Within the last few years a few auspeaking, two and a half tons per square inch thors have maintained that it is quite possible -that is to say, several times greater than the that a few rays of sunlight do penetrate even pressure exerted by the steam upon the piston to the greatest depths of the ocean - a view of our most powerful engines. Or, to put the mainly based on the fact that so many deepmatter in other words, the pressure per square sea animals possess extremely perfect and inch upon the body of every animal that lives complicated eyes and very brilliant colors. at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean is about There seems to me to be very slight grounds twenty five times greater than the pressure for this view. We have no sound information that will drive a railway train.
to go upon to be able to judge of the amount It is only reasonable to suppose that the of light given off by phosphorescent animals ability to sustain this enormous pressure can at the bottom of the deep sea. The faint light only be acquired by animals after generations they show on deck after their long journey of gradual migrations from shallow waters. from the depths in which they live to the surThose forms that are brought up by the dredge face may be extremely small compared with from the depths of the ocean are usually killed the light they give in their natural home unand distorted by the enormous and rapid der a pressure of two tons and a half to the diminution of pressure in their journey to square inch. The complex eyes that many the surface, and it is extremely probable that deep-sea animals exhibit were almost certainshallow-water forms would be similarly killed ly not evolved as such, but are simple modifi. and crushed out of shape were they suddenly cations of eyes possessed by a shallow-water plunged into very deep water. The fish that ancestry. The more recent experiments that live at these enormous depths are, in conse- have been made tend to show that no sunlight quence of the enormous pressure, liable to a whatever penetrates to a greater depth, to curious form of accident. If, in chasing their take an extreme limit, than five hundred fathprey or for any other reason, they rise to a oms. But although it is very highly probable considerable distance above the floor of the that not a glimmer of sunlight ever penetrates ocean, the gases of their swimming bladder to the depths of the ocean, there is in some become considerably expanded and their spe- places, undoubtedly, a very considerable illacific gravity very greatly reduced. Up to a mination due to the phosphorescence of the certain limit the muscles of their bodies can inhabitants of the deep waters. — Popular Scicounteract the tendency to float upward and ence Monthly (U. S.).
MANY things combine to call renew
I. ed attention to Constantinople as an historic city, with her wonderful past Of all the cities of Europe the New and her mysterious future. The pic. Rome of the Bosphorus, in its power turesque old capital of the Padishah is over the imagination of men, can yield fast fading away from our eyes, under the first place to none save to its own the influence of the Treaty of San Ste- mother, the Old Rome of the Tiber. fano, railways, European reforms, and And of all cities of the world she stands the ebb of the Moslem population from foremost in beauty of situation, in the Europe. Those who wish to see some marvel of her geographical position, as remnants of Oriental life and color on the eternal link between the East and this side of the Bosphorus, should hast- the West. We inay almost add that en to visit the Moslem capital before she is foremost in the vast continuity the turban and the hadji have quite and gorgeous multiplicity of her hisdisappeared from her khans. On the toric interests. For if Constantinople other hand, an unusual stimulus has can present us with nothing that can been given of late by European scholars vie in sublimity and pathos with the to the history and the antiquities of memories of Rome, Athens, Jerusalem, this legendary “mother of dead em. it has for the historic mind a peculiar pires.
fascination of its own, in the enormous NEW SERIES. – VOL LIX, No 6.
persistence of imperial power concen- most wonderful peninsula, as its heart trated under varied forms in one unique and its head. It has been concentrated spot of our earthly globe.
for a far longer period, and in a more Byzantium, to use that which has definite way, than even it was in the been the ordinary name with all Greek original Seven Hills ; for Rome herself writers from Herodotus down to Pas- was the local seat of empire for scarcely pates in our own day, is one of the old four centuries, and even for that in an est cities of Europe : historically speak- intermittent form ; and vast as bas ing, if we neglect inere prehistoric leg- been the continuity of the Roman end, little younger than Athens or Church for at least thirteen centuries, Rome. Like thein, Byzantium appears its life, and even its official governto have been founded on a prehistoric inent, have had many seats and continfort. Hardly any of the ancient towns ual movements. But from the days of of Italy and Southern Europe can show Constantine, Constantinople has been, so authentic and renerable a record. both in the temporal and spiritual doThere is no reason to doubt that Byzan- mains, the centre, the home, the paltium has been a historic city for some ladium of the empire of the East. For 2,550 years : during the whole of that fifteen centuries the Lord of Constantiperiod, with no real break in her life, nople has never ceased to be the Lord it has been the scene of events recorded of the contiguous East; and, while sea in the annals of mankind ; it has been and rock hold in their accustomed fought for and held by men famous in places, the Lord of Constantinople world history; it has played a substan- must continue to be Lord of Southtive part in the drama of civilization. Eastern Europe and of North-Western So singular a sequence of historic inter Asia. est can hardly be claimed for any city This continuity and concentration of in Europe, except for Rome herself. imperial rule in an imperial city has
For nearly a thousand years before no parallel in the history of mankind. it became the capital of an empire, By- Rome was the local centre of empire zantium was a Greek city cf much im- for barely four centuries, and for sixportance, the prize of contending na- teen centuries she has wholly lost that tions, and with striking prescience even claim. The royal cities that once flourthen chosen out by philosophic histo- ished in the valleys of the Ganges, the rians for its commanding position and Euphrates, or the Nile, were all abanimmense capabilities. After the lapse doned after some centuries of splendor, of nearly a thousand years, Byzantium and have long lost their inperial rank. became Constantinople, the centre of Memphis, Babylon, Tyre, Carthage, the Roman Empire. Since then it has Alexandria, Syracuse, Athens, had pebeen the capital city of an empire for riods of glory, but no great continuity exactly 1,56Ā years—and that in a man- of empire.
of empire. London and Paris have ner, aud for a period such as no other been great capitals for at most a few imperial city has been in the annals of centuries; and Madrid, Berlin, Viencivilized man. There is no actual na, and St. Petersburg, are things of break ; although, for the dynasty of yesterday in the long roll of human the Palæologi, from the Latin Empire civilization. There is but one city of down to the capture by the Ottomans, the world of which it can be said that, the empire outside the capital has a for fifteen centuries and a half, it bas shrunken and almost phantom domin- been the continuous seat of empire, jon. But it is yet true, that for 1,564 under all the changes of race, instituyears Constantinople has ever been, and tions, customs, and religion. And this still is, the sole regular residence of may be ultimately traced to its incomEmperors and Sultans, the sole and parable physical and geographical capacontinuous centre of civil and military bilities. administration, the supreme court of Mere duration of imperial power and law and justice, and the official centre variety of historical interest are indeed of the imperial religion.
far different from true greatness or naDuring all this period the life of the tional dignity. But as an object of the empire has been concentrated in that historical imagination, the richness of