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them of. When they are individuals modes of worship. For the civil aaof civil community, it is the duty of thority, had grasped religious power; government, to preserve them full in and coercive eftablishments followed the exercise of this power. They de- ! of consequence. The minority, accurive no authority from their religion, . fed of heresy, láid their Creeds before over any one of their fellow men; the Emperor, which the majority tore bat fair perfuafion, and rober argu- in pieces. Terrified at the smiles of ment, all men are intitled to use,when their new lord, the Emperor, on this any one will hear them. Still each irreligious outrage, those men who maq is, alone, the judge, whether ar. had before, in support of their princiguments can produce conviction in his ples, faced death in all its forms, now ona mind. For “every man's pri- yielded their freedom : thus contenti vate perfuafion, or belief, must be ing themselves, with appealing from " founded upon evidence proposed to the candle of the Lord in their own « his own mind, and he cannot but be bosoms, to the deftru&tive and bewil« lieve, according as things appear to dering torch of human authority. The "himself, got to others ; con vi&tion consequence of which was, says Doc« is always produced by the light tor Larder, that "the christian reli

which is ftrack into the mind ; and «gion, which, for 300 years after the 4aever by compulfion, or human au- "ascension of Jesus, had been spreadlethority." Chriftians bave power, "ing over a large part of Afa, 'Eu. by the rules of the gospel, tó with. " rope, and Africa, without the affiftdraw themselves from those, whose “ance of secular power, and church principles, and practice, they disap- "authority, and at the convening of prove. The scripture doctrine of caft- the council of Nice, was almoft ing them out, can be only a metapho "every where, through those counsical description of that act of the « tries, in a Aourishing condition ; in mind, which closes the door of religi- «the space of another 300 years, or ous community again ft the offender. "a little more, was greatly corrupted This, however, hath been much abo. "t in a large part of that extent, its sed, and had its share in the foundati. «glory debased, and its light almost on of persecution. That men who are "extinguished.” Previous to this unblessed with, and profers to be go. happy council, the chriftians had only verned by, the precepts, and exam the allurements of foft perfuafion, and ples, of the mcek, and benevolent Je- the force of disinterefted argoment, to fus, fhould claim authority over the support their cause, a caure which, consciences of others, in religious like a mighty torrent, bore down the matters, is no less the shame of past, stubborn prejudice of ages, and Aashed than it will be the aftonifhment of like lightöing, from one part of the future ages.

hemisphere to another. This allem• The christian religion opposed it. bly laid the foundation of that horrid self to the vices and follies of the Hierarcby, which hath fince deluged Torld, waded through persecutions, the world in the blood of innocents. wars, and murders, for the three first An unusual rage of party suceeded; centuries of it ; and spread wider,and which produced another council in with more purity, in those years,than the year 381, at Conftantinople : The for the like space of time in any period Emperor of Rome, was from the time Since. In the beginning of the fourth of the former council, looked up to, century, the Emperor Conftantine as the head of the church, and he calwas converted to a belief of the chrif. led this council, as he said, because tian religion. The chriftians, through. "he would have all his subjects, to out Asia, Africa, and Europe, ftood «be of the same religion, as that, aftonished, to find that civil arm their " which was held by Damalus, Bimop prote&or, which before had been their «of Rome, and Peter, B:fhop of Alex Jefroyer. A general council was “andria.Another general council conveyed by Conftantine, in the year was called at Ephesus, in the year 325, at Nice. Three hundred Bishops, 431, to determine whether “the Viro or Prefbyters, were afsembled on this "gin Mary was Theotokos, the mocall, to eftablish articles of faith, and “ther of God, or Christotokos, the

« mother a mother of Chrif only ; that is, whe. "and men cealed to think, because "ther the two natures of Jesus, were " that thinking was a crime.” In a u united after the incarnation, so as period of one thousand years, next « to occa Gon, a mutual community of succeeding the last council above« properties :" And they resolved the ment io ned, the benevolent and hoformer, by a warm majority, and ly religion of our Lord, inftead of bewith some foul play in the proceedings. ing enjoyed, as a system which spoke This was like all other determinations peace on earth, and good will to meo, of the majority, in articles of faith. was improved to debase the human If what they resolved to be true, was soul, and to render mankind wretched not so before they met, it was as far and miserable. Mysteries, fabricated from truth after they had dispersed, by cunning devices, and cftablished and if it was true, their result made it by luft of power totally enveloped, the not a whit the more ro. Here the pure and fimple principles of all relimajority had a compleat triumph, gion : The conrequence was, that the and no doubt pretended they had done power of the national church increarmuch for the advancement of religion; ed, and the wealth of Europe, &c. was and we can easily conceive how enor in the hands of ecclefiafticks. Tithes mously their pride muft bloat and rise, were claimed as, a right, but never when they saw all those, who had a granted in Europe, until the time of luft for domination croud to their Charlemagne, A.D. 794. At a Synod gates, and bow at their feet. Another held at Franckfort, a capitulary was general council was held at Chalce. made, wherein it was said, “that in don, A. D. 451, when the president “ the last famine, the ears of corn called in the proconful of Asia, with were found empty, having been dean armed hoft, and an outrageous rab- . " voured by devils, and that the ble, to support the result of the ma. " voices of those infernal spirits, had jority, which some had spirit enough « been heard reproaching them, with to oppose. The advanced weapons, "not having paid tithes." This device contained ruch irrefflible arguments, procured an ordinance for tithes, as caused convi&tion to set in filence which the power of the clergy hath on the tongue of the conquered mino- been capable of supporting, in a great rity. the firft settlers of this ftate, went into ed by tne earthquake of Feb. 5, 783, exile, with their families.

measure, in Europe until this day. There now appeared a new power The tafte for truth, and the love of on earth, a secular prince at the head freedom, in the fifteenth century, beof the church. There was an appa- gan to awake from the nap of ages;but rent church of human invention, but as the civil authority ftill claimed the the church of Christ appeared not at power of ruling in holy chiogs, Luther all. Rites and ceremonies, no longer and Calvin, and their followers, felt had their foundation in the gospel, themselves obnoxious to the rack, nnbut were decreed by the double man, til Heory the eighth, inftigated more the man of civil and religious authori- by the luft of temporal, then the love ty. Religion, in this new dress, and of spiritual enjoyments, revolted false form, and thus affimilated to the agaioft the Pope, and, as a wit exprefpride and corruption of men's hearts, ses it ; becanie a fit engine in the hand of ty

* In the great Saint Peter's fead, rants toenllave the human race. Phi. losophy, or the love of truth, had

« Proclaim'd himself the church's

head.” formerly been encouraged, and then Jately tolerated, by the Greeks and This measure of Henry taught Romans ; but now, as if that religion, the fettered world, to suppose a poffi. which was intended, to enlighten the bility of Making off the shackles of a world, to disclose the false, and fup. majority. The history of cruelties port the true philosophy of men, was exercised on those, who afterwards to be employed for the extirpation of diffented from the established church all science, a solemn darkness over- of England, is too well known to need spread the human mind throughout all being mentioned in this production. Christendom, the few ideas conceived, Finally, the few, who dared to think fell into duft for want of urrerance, for themselves, zinong it whom, were


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which continued to be felt (enfibly, When our ancestors, pilgrim-like, though less violently, to May 23. This forf landed on this continent, then a tract is comprehended between the 38th gloomy wilderness, it is too evident, and 39th deg. of N. lat. ; and the great that they rather wished to obtain the eft force of the earthquake seems to free exercise of the right of conscience have exerted itself from the foot of for themselves, than to procure the those mountains of the Appennines calinvaluable bleffing for others. From Jed Monte Deio, Monte Sacro, and the grant of the charter in 1692, reli- Monte Coulone,extending westward to gious liberty, was more tolerated, the Tyrrhene Sea: the towns, village, than it had been before : Great Bri- and farm houses neareft to those mountzin at length attacked the civil tains fituated either on the hills, or in rights of the colonies, which inftant. the plain, were totally ruined by the ly brought on the inveftigation of first thock of Feb. s, about noon, which those effential, unalienable, personal was instantaneous, without warning, rights, a surrender and an annihilati- from the bottom upwards, and the on whereof, are the same by nature, greatest mortality was there; even the and which we join in civil society to moft diftant towns had been greatly preserv e, and not to yield to the con. Hamaged by subsequent shocks, espetroul of the magistrate ; an amazing cially those of Feb. 7, 26, 28, and light was kindled; the human miod March 1. The motions of the earth expanded; the importance of person had been various, either whirling like al rights was comprehended, and fully a vortex, horizontal, or by pulsations underftood. While the people were or beatings from the bottom upwards, thus enlightened, and in the full por- the rains continual and violent, often feflion of that freedom, for which they accompanied with lightning, and irreJavished their treasure, and while the gular and furious gufts of wind. blood of patriots smoked to heaven, From the city of Amantea, fituated on in defence of liberty, a Convention the coast of the Tyrrhene Sea, in Calawas called by the people, to compile bria Citra, and proceeding weft ward a Declaration of Rights, and to to Cape Spartivento in Calabria Ultra, form a Conftitution of Civil Govern- and then up the East coaft, as far as ment. There was no feet or party Cape d'Alice, a part of Calabria Citra, unrepresented in this great affair, and on the Ionian Sea, there is not a town the dome was reared and compleat or village, either on the coast orinland, ed, with apartments, amply sufficient but is totally deftroyed, or has sufferfor each sed to worfhip God according ed more or less, amounting in all to to the di&tates of their own consciences. near 400 pacse, or villages, containing No sooner had the fun fhone upon 100 inhabitants. The sum total of the this fabrick, but the luftre of it was mortality in both Calabrias and in Sicily confessed in Europe and America ; by the earthquakes alone, as returned men hailed it as the temple of free to the Secretary of State's Office in Nadom, and the monument of political ples, is!32,367 ; but, including ftranfelicity. But should it be neglected, it gers, the number of lives loft may fair. will imperceptibly decay, and the ly be stated at 40,000. wrinkled hand of Time will med the o r the number of fhocks, amount. duft of diffolution upon it. It

ing to some hundreds, the longeft and

moft violent were those of Feb. 5, 6, ABSTRACT of Sir WM. HAMILTON'g 27, March 1 and 28 ; and of these the Account of the late EARTHQUAKES first and lat must have been tremenin CALABRIA and SICILY.

dous, the motion of the earth being lo A CIRCLE, whose radius is equal violent that the heads of the largeft A to 22 Italian miles, included in a trees almoft touched the ground from nother, with a radius of 72 miles round fide to side. They alone were senfibly the city of Oppido in Calabria, will felt in Naples. nearly take in the whole of that coun- : Sir Wm. Hamilton setting out from ary that has any mark of being affect Naples, May 2, on a tour of twenty



days over the scene of devaftation in out alive.Many acres of land, with trees Calabria and Sicily, found at Cedraro and cornfields on them, had been dethe firft fymptoms of the earth- tached into the ravine in like manger, quakes, the inhabitants having quitted from a height of at leaft 500 feet, and their houses, though not one of them to the diftance of three guariers of a had suffered.

mile: on some the produce was still At St. Lucido the baron's palace and growing, others were lying in the botchurch had fuffered. --The town of tom in an inclined fituation, others quite Pizzo, in Calabria Ultra, was greatly overturned; some had inet and flopped damaged Feb, 5, and compleatly ruin the course of ariver, whose waters were ed March 23.

now forming a great lake. Another Monte Leone was greatly damaged river disappeared at the shock, and re. by the laft. Mileto, situate in a bot- turning again overflowed the country. tom, was totally defroyed. Its great The whole town of Mollochi di Setto, Tiver, the ancient Metaurus®, was near Terra Nuovo, was detached into perfe&tly dry for some feconds, and the ravine; and a vineyard, of many then returned again and overflowed, acres, lay there near it, in perfedt order and its ftrong timber bridge undulated but in an inclined situation, with a foot in a moft extraordinary manner. So path through it. Water-mills being riano and the noble Dominican con- jammed between two detached pieces vent are a heap of ruins. St. Pietro had been lifted up above the river. and Rosarno, Poliftene, Casal Nuovo, Many acres were sunk eight or ten Castellace, Milicusco, ruined ; and in feet below the level of the plain, and the latter the princess Gerace Grimal- many raised to the same height. Cracks di, and 4000 of her subjects, perished "parallel to every ravine, iodicate that, by the explosion of Feb. 5. An inha- had the mocks continued, the like difbitant of Casal Nuovo, at the moment severings would haveensued. The upof the thóck, overlooking the plain per foil of the banks of the ravine was from the hill, instead of the town sawa a reddith earth, and the under one ve, thick cloud of white duft, like smoke, ry compact, and like a soft ftone. The the natural effe & of the crushing of the shock feems to have acted with greater buildings, and the mortar flying off. force on the lower and more compac The whole plain, in which three towns ftratum than on the upper cultivated ftood, for four days journey presented cruft, the former having driven, from a scene of misery not to be described. under the latter, some hundred yard The shock was so great that all the in further in the ravine. Thus a moon habitants were buried, dead or alive, tain,about 250 feet high,and about 4c! under the ruin of their houses in an feet in diameter,is well attested to hav inftant. In other towns fome walls travelled or flid down the ravine fou aod parts of houses are left ftaoding,

miles on Feb. 5; on which day th but here you neither diftinguish fireet greateft force of the earthquake reem nor house ; all lie in one confused heap to have been exerted in the neigh of ruins. The foil of this whole love.

bourbood of Oppido, and at Cafal NV ly plain is a loft sandy clay. Over a ova and Terra Non

ova and Terra Noova. 'The phænd ravine, or chafm, 500 feet deep, and

mena exhibited in other parts of th three quarters of a mile broad, cut by

plains of Calabria Ulira are of th rivers and mountain torrents in the fame nature, but in a less degree: course of ages, near Terra Nuova, two Sir Wm. Hamilton proceeded fror huge portions of earth,on which a great Oppido, rfrough the same beautif part of the town ftood, confifting of country and ruined towns and vill some hundreds of houses, were detach. ges, to Seminara and Palmi. Atti ed into the ravine, and nearly acrossit, latter, which fands low and near ti about half a mile from the placewhere 'fea, 1 400 lives were loft, and 4003 ba they stood, and many of the inhabi rels of oil (for which it is a fa psi tantsinthem, who were afterwards dug produced a river of oil fowing into ci

fea. In going over the beautif * One may give Horace's words; woody mountains of Bagnara and «Teftis Metaurum flumen," a new ap- lano, by a road dangerous both fro plication.

robbers and precipices, he felt


{mart Mock of an earthquake, accom- common food of the poor. On the paip by a loud explosion like that sth of February, and the three follow. of pringing a moe. At Torre del iog days, the sea, about a quarter Pezzolo an epidemical disorder had of a mile from the citadel, role, and already manifested itself. Reggio is boiled in a moft extracrdinary man. lels dimaged than was expected, ner,and with a moft horrid and alarm. though not a house is habitable, or ing noise, the water in other parts of 10.10!ted, about 126 persons baving the Faro being persely calm. On 16 ibeir lives. Both in 1770 and the night between February 5 and 6, a 100 the inhabi:ants had been driven great wave passed over the point of into barracks by the same cause. che entrance of the Faro, carrying off

Here, quicung this deligorful but boals, and above 24 people, tearing DD. ippo country inany of whole in up trees, and leaviug fome hundred hab tagis speak no other language weight of fish on the shore. The but Greek) and the beautiful groves prince of Scilla, fearing that the rock of oranza, mulberry, and fig-trees *, of Scilla, on which the town and our "quititive naturalift Tailed to caftle stood, might be detached into Meniga, where he landed May 14. the sea, as, during the first shock of The force of the earthquakes there, February 5, at noon, part of a rock had as a Reggio, had been nothing to what been, was returoing, with 2473 of his it was in the plain. All the beauti. subjects, to a little port or beaciz ful front of the Polazzata, or crescent surrounded by rocks at its foot. had been 10 some parts totally ruin. About midnight a second Mock de. ed, in others less ; and there were tached a whole mountain, much highcracks in the earth of the quay, parter than that of Scilla, between it and of which is runk above a foot below the torre del cavallo, which, falling 10the level of the sea, which, at the to the sea, then perfectly calm, raised edge of the quay, is so deep that the the wave which broke on the point largest thips can lie alouglide. Ma of the Faro in Sicily, and returning Dy houses are ftill ftanding, and others on the beach at Scilla, swept off or lit:le damaged, even in the lower dathed against the rocks, the vchappy town, but in the upper the fhecks prioce and all the people with him, see in to have had scarcely any effect. and was immediately followed by one Out of 30,000 inhabitants, not above or two more waves less confiderable. 700 had perished ; several ftreets were This wave was at first rumour affirminhabited, and bufiners going on ; ed to have been formed of boiling waidough the generality of the inhabi. ter, but all who had been involved in tants were in tents and barracks and survived it, assured Sir Wm. H. Neither the port oor citadel have re they did not feel any symptom of heat ceived any damage. A small filh in it í nor did fire issue from any talled Cicirelli, like our whitebait, cracks, as was reported. . waruch used to be scarce and difficult

Returning along the coast of the to catch, is, fince the hocks, easily ta. Two Calabrias, and the Principato ken near the surface, and become the Citra, Sir William found Tropcea and

Paula little damaged, but all the inha..Agrume is the general Qame of bitants in barracks. At the former, all kinds of orange, lemon, cedrate, May 15, were severe bur Mort fhocks. and burgimot trees. The fig trees There were five during his stay in Cabear iwice a year, in June and Auguft. Jabria and Sicily, 'hree of them rather One fogte gentleman, wliore chriftiap alarming, and at Melfina,in the night, name is Agamemnon, could gather, he conftantiy felt a little tremor of the from a garden of no great extent, earth. 170,000 legions, 200,000 oranges, equal. The result of these exact enquiries to those at Malta, and burgamots is, that the prerent earthquakes are Elough to produce 200 quarts from occafioned by the operation of a voltheir rinds, whicb, alter squeezing, fed cano, the seat of which seems to lie the cartie, and gave a strong taste to deep, either under the bottom of the their fleih.

sea, between the island of Stromboli

, . .. N'

. and

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