« הקודםהמשך »
The UNITED STATES in CON
GRESS assembled, Dec. 23, 1783. According to order, his Excellency the Commander in Chief was admitted to a public audience, and being seated, the President, after a pause, informed him that the United States in Congress allembled were prepared to receive his comsonications ; whereupon he arose, and addressed Congress as follows: Mr. PRESIDENT, a HE great events on
which my refignation e
depended having at
length taken place, I i ke have now the honour
of offering my fincere a
Congress, and of pre. lenting myself before them, to sur render into their hands the trust committed to me,and to claim the indulgence of retiring from the service of my coun
Happy in the confirmation of our independence and rovereignty, and pleased with the opportunity afforded The United States, of becoming a respec
table nation, I reiga with satisfaction the appointment I accepted with diffe dence...a diffidence in my abilities to accomplich ro arduous a talk; which, however, was superceded by a confi. dence in the reditude of our cause, the support of the supreme power of the Upion, and the patronage of Heaven.
The successful termination of the war has verified the most sanguine expe&ations ; and my gratitude for the interposition of providence, and the affiftance I have received from my countrymea, increases with every re-, view of the momentous conteft.
While I repeat my obligations to the army in general, I thould do injuftice to my own feelings not to acknowledge in this place, the peculiar services and diftinguilhed merits, of the gentlemen who have been attached to my person during the war.
It was impoffible the choiceof con. Adential officers to compose my family, should have been more fortunate.
Permit me, fir, to recommend in particular, those who bave continued in the service to the preseot moment, as worthy of the favourable notice and patronage of Congreis.
I consider it as an indifpenfible dui We feel with you our obligations to ty to close this last folemn act of my the army in general, and will particeOfficial life by commending the inter farly charge ourfelves with the inter. efts of our dea country to the pre- elts of those confidential officers who teation of Almighty God, and those have attended your perfon to this who have the superintendence of them affecting tromont. to his holy keeping
We join you in commending the Having now finisned the work as- intereits of our de ar country to the figned me,I retire from the great thea protection of Almighty God, beseechtre of adion ; and bidding an affe&i..ing trim to dispose the hearts and onate farewel to this avguft body, un minds of its citizens to improve the der whore order I have so long acted. opportunity afforded them of becoming
I bere offer my commiflion, and a happy and respe&able nation. And take may leave of all the employments for You we address to him our earn. of public lise.
et prayers, that a life so beloved,may He then advanced, and delivered be foitered with all his care ; that to the Prefideat his commifliod, with your days may be happy as they a copy of his address, and having re have been ILLUSTRIOUS, and that he' sumed his place, the President retura will finally give you that reward cd him the following answer :
which this world cannot give, he United States in Congress
Here we must let fall the fcencoeffembled, receive with moti
few tragedies ever drew more tears ons too affeding for utterance, the so
from 16 many beautiful eyes, as were lemo refignation of the authorities
affe Aed by the moving manner in under which you have led their troops
which his Excellency took his final with success, through a perilous and
leave of Congress. After which he * doubtful war
immediately let out for Mount VerCalled upon by your country to de
non, in Virginia, accompanied to fend, its invaded righte, you accepted
South river, by his Excellency our the sacred charge before it had form.
Governor, with the warmeft wishes ed alliances, and whilft it was without
of the city for his repore, health and ” fundo or a government to supportyou,
happiness. Long, long may he en. You have conducted the great mi joy them!
litary conteft with wisdom and forti.
of the civil power, through all disaster's • and changes. You have, by the love
TEAT is in the material world, and confidence of your fellow citizens,
the chief principle of a&ivity ; · "enabled them to difplay their martial
I I Hence plants and animal's degenius, and transmit their fame to rive their growth and vigort; and pofterity.
pature perfect in every energy, has * You tave persevered pill there endowed the animal body with a pow. * United States (aided by a magoani. er of generating its own heat. With
mous king and nation) jave been en out this, the temperature of the air in .' abled, under a juft Providence, to various climates, would have been de** close the war in freedom, tafely and ftructive of life, and man could only * independence ; on which happy event have been the inhabitant of the tem'we Sincerely join you in congratula- perate zones. . tions.
If a thousand different jh-animate Having defended the ftandard of bodies, healed to various degrees, be liberty in this new world; having brought together in a place where * taught a lefion useful to thore who in there is no pofitive cause of heat, the
Act, Qud to those who feel oppreffion, heat will immedialely begin to flow you retire from the great theatre of from the hoiter to the colder bodies, afron, with the blessing' of your fel. till all become af oge temperature. low-citizens. But the CLORY of your But this is by no means the case with Virues will nor tertinate with your respect to animated matters ; for military command; it will contime whatever be the peculiar degree of to animate remoteft ages.
heal ol'individual anirsals, they pro. lerve it fable and unchanged in every ftances ; but no rooner has the heart temperature to which they can be ex ceased to play, and the blood begun pored ; provided it be not altogether to ftagnare in its canals, than the ab
incompatible with life and health. Peace of the generating cause of heat • Togs we find toat the ouman hody is becomes manifeft: For the lifeless mala
pot only capable in certain circum- fioks to the temperature of the bodies faaces, of (upporting without any around it. We find, indeed, a few material change, a degree of heat, in deviations from the common procewhich the thermometer rises consider. dure of nature ; but they are too few, ably above the beat of boiling water, and too ambiguous, to affea in any but likewise that it ma'prains its usu. degree the general faa. † Mr. de al temperature, whilit the surroynd. Haen, who has attended in a particuing medium is several degrees below lar manner, to the subject of animal The point of congelation. It is there. Theat, brings as unanswerable objectifore evident, chat animals neither re- ons to its mechanical generation, two ceive their beat from the bodies around cafes, which fell within his own obthem, aor (uter from the infuence of servation. In the one, he found that external circu infances, any material the temperature of bis patient, during alterations in that heat which is pecu- the course of an inflammatory fever, har to their nature. Late accurate had not risen above 103 degrees, food observations how, that the degree of at the time he expired, and for two heat in the mpre perfed animals of the minutes after at 106. From the other Samne genus and species, continues it appears, that the heat of a person, ' very uniforply the same, whether who was dying of a lingering dilemtory be eovironed by mountains of per, role in the last agony, from one foow, near the pole, or exposed to a hundred degrees to 101, and continued vertical fun, in the fuitry regions of there flationary for 2 hours, and even tbe torrid zone.
after the expiration of fifteen hours, The ft buity and voiformity of hadonlyfallen to 85 degrees, though the animal heat," under such a disparity ambient medium did not exceed 60. of external circumftances, and so vait It may not be improper to obferve, il mlatitude in de temperature of the that the vital principle is not always amb ent air, leave no room to doubt immediately extinguished on the cearth it toe living body is furnished with ing of respiration. Breath and life # Pecular mechanism, or power of ge- have been considered in all ages, in Derane,finpporting and regulating ito breathing animals as fynonimous; a OW1 teroperatore ; and that this is so notion which has always been produce inapted to the circumstances of tho tive of the most unhappy consequences economy, or, to speak more accu to mankind, and daily in large coun.
dely, fo :mmediately dependant upon tries senda thousands to the grave bee them, that whatever be the heat of the fore their time. We cannot doubt, atinurbare, it mall have very little when we reflect on the many fortunate fungice either in dimimithing or en recoveries of persone drowned, and Creaftag that of the animal. It is ob. apparently dead, that the living prinferti that all animals are one degree ciple may remain in the body, after at ieft warmer than the ordinary tem- respiration, and all the other natural pe tre of the elefaent they inhabitt. and vital fun&tious seem at an end,and
All physiologiste agrec in allowing be agaio by proper means excited into a neceffary connection betwixt the action. The records of the humane degree of hest generated, and the ftare Society Thew, that within the year 1778 of circulation, and every one must there were 250 persons brought have observed that wbilst the motion to life in Britain. of ttie circulating mass contiques vi. It has been afferted that some inLarous and unimpaired, the tempera. Aances within the memory of people Ture of the body suffers no change living, bavcoccured in this town, of from the infoenice o external circum- 'persons who had been baried, and
who from after circumstances it is • Philo. Tr. 11. vol 65
probable had revived after burial. 4 Martin, ca Therm. iki
4 Ratio M edendi, vol. 1. 11.
But leaft any doubt the truth of an apothecary wbo had been in the such assertions, we can produce a liv. same circumftances, and they toge. ing inftance of this kind in a country. ther prevailed upon the physician so Man of our own, now living in Phila- see it. Every method was used to redelphia, who was for 48 hours to all cover it, and after much difficulty, appearance dead, in the year 1781 : evident tokens of life were discovered. His ftory, as related by himself, is as I was for sometime very weak, wild follows, and which can also be con- and loft, and thought crazy, but have firmed by the atteftation of a number at length recovered perfe& health. of other gentlemen now in Boston, Thus was I within an hour of being who were in that neighbourhood, and shut up in the place of Glence.” to whom the fa&t is well knowo.
It may, therefore, reasonably be "I was seized with a putrid fever in supposed, that though in the two Champagne, in the year 1781, of cases mentioned above, by de Haen, which I was ill a considerable while the organs of respiration had ceased At the time I was recovering, I found to ad ; yet not only the principle of my appetite voracious which was also life was ftill present for some time, observed by my friends. I was 20 but that some degree of circulation cordingly watched, left I should hurt was carried on, and consequently myfelf. The nurse that attended me some heat generated. Now, if the had a little girl in the house, who was final cause of respiration be to carry playing with an unbaked or half-baked off and 'tem per the heat generated in cake. I took an opportunity of de- the system, it plainly follows that if vouring this, in the absence of the any heat be ftill produced after this nurse. About noon, being seized ceases, that heat muft accumulate in with a new and violent fever, was put the body, and keep up its temperato bed, and about 9 or 10 o'clock, in ture. This however, will seldom ob. the evening (as I have fince under tain at the same debility which put a flood) I expired. I was considered as stop to the organs of breathing, muft an heretic (which proved a most for- in a fhort time abolish the powers of tunate circumftance and refused bu.. the heart and arteries. It is however, rial. The gentleman of the house, highly probable, that the circulation had, from acquaintance, acquired an is not fopt so early as is generally attachment, and was much affedted at imagined my sudden death, and became uneasy. It is our duty then to be extremely about my intermeot. After a great cautious in pronouncing people irre. deal of difficulty and interceffion, he coverably loft, and interving them obtained, from the head of some or before evident symptoms of putrefac. der in the neighbourhood, permiffion tion have taken place ; fince it apto bury me,but that it must be at mid. pears, by experiment, that life may pight, and very privately. The grave remain after the subsultory motion of was accordingly prepared, and coffin the heart hath ceased, the pulsation of brought: But it is not cuftomary to the arteries become imperceptible, put the corpse into it, until just before and every indication of breathing it is carried away. In this fiate there. ceased. fore, it remained 48 hours. My friend continued constantly in the Pfeftinae woon the life and
the Refleétions upon the Life and room. About ni o'clock, an hour before the remains were to be carried Death of Edward Drinker, a way, this gentleman was tempted to of the city of Philadelpbia, put his hand on my face, but found it cold. He then lad it on my breaft,
who died Nov. 17, 1782, in and thought be felt a warmth. This the 1o3d year of his age. alarmned him. He immediately went a way to the physician: But commu.
Written by an ingenious litenicatiog his discovery to no one in the rary Gentleman of that city, family, except the nurse, who was brdered to remain in the chamber
for the amusement of a Lady. with the cor pre, and the door to be LDWARD DRINKER was born ocked. . In his way, he called upon L on the 24th of December, 1680,
in a small cabip near the present cor the events of later years ; and so faith der of Walnut and Second Streets in ful was his memory to him, that his the city of Pailadelphia. He parents son informed me that he never heard came from a place called Beverly, in bim tell the same story twice, but to Mafiachusets Bay. The banks of the different persons, and in different Delaware, on which the city of Phi. companies. His eye-light failed him ladelphia now stands, were inhabited many years before his death, but his at the time of his birth by Indiaps, hearing was uniformly perre
hearing was uniformly perfed and un-' and a few Svedes and Hollanders. impaired. His appetite was good till He often talked to his companions of within a few weeks before his death. picking huckle-berries, and catching He generally ate a hearty Lreakfast rabbito on spots now the most popu. of a pint of tea or coffee as soon as he lous and improved of the city. He re- got out of his bed, with bread and collected the second time William Penn butter in proportion. He ate likeCare to Pennsylvania, and used to wise at eleven o'clock, and never failpoint to the place where the cabbin ed to eat plentifully at dinner of the Mood, in which he and his friends grosseft folid food. He drank tea in' that accompanied him were accommo. The evening, but gever ate any supper. dated upon their arrival. At twelve He had lost all his teeth 30 years beyears of age he went to Bolton, where fore his death (his fon says, by drawbe served as apprenticeship to a cabi. ing exceffive hot smoke of tobacco inDet maker. In the year 1745, here to his mouth) but the want of suitaturned to Philadelphia with his fami- ble mastication of his food did not 17, where he lived till the time of his prevent its speedy digeftion, nor imGealb. He was four times married, pair his health. Whether the gums, and had 8 children, all of whom were hardened by age, supplied the place by his forft wife. At one time of his of his teeth in a certain degree, or Dit be sat down at his own table with whether the joices of the mouth and 14 Children. Not long before his ftomach became so much more acrid death he heard of the birth of a grand. by time, as to perform the office of child to one of his grandchildren, the diffolving the food more speedily and fifth in succeffion from himself. more perfeAly, I know not; but I
He reta ped all his faculties till the have often observed, that old people latt years of his life ; ever his memo- are more subje& to cxceflive eating iy, so early and so generally dimio lhed by age, was but little impairsd. He not only remembered the inci:
taught when a boy perfe&ly, but had deats of his childhood or youth, butters of L
forgotten it from dirure. The Coun
y . I was nurled by a. Welsh woman, from whom the learn.
ed to speak ber language, which she • It is remarkable, that the inci- foon forgot after the bad acquired the dents of childhood and youth are fel French, which was her mother tongue. dom remembered or called forth till in the delirium of a fever, many years old age. I have sometimes been led, afterwards, Me was heard to muiter from this and other circumstances, to words which none of her family or at rospea that pothing is ever loft that is tendants underftood. An old Well lodged in the memory, however it may woman came to see her, who foon : be buried for a time by a variety of perceived that the sounds, which causes. How often do we find the were fo unintelligible to the family, , ; transaAions of early life, woich we were the Welsh language. When the bad reason to suppole were loft from recovered the could not recolle&t a. the mind forever, revived in our single word of the language Me had , memories by certain accidental fights Spoken in her fickness. I can conor sounds, particularly by certain ceive great advantages may be deriDotes or airs in mufic! I have known ved from this retentive power in our • young man speak French Auently memories, in the advancement of the when drunk, that could not pot two mind towards perfe&tion in knowfeatences together of the same lan.. Jedge (so essential to its happiness) in guage when sober. “He had been the future world,