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and expand, until religion shall be " neither was in the confitution al acknowledged by all men to be a mat. “ government granted him, nor ever ter between each individual and his' " was in the power of the people to God, and thall no longer be connec « grant." ted with, or be employed as an en The entire power of retaliation for gine of Atate policy.

injuries dove, and reprisals for prolo this essay, it is proposed to con. perty taken, as also fume part of the sider the security to be derived from right of felf-defence is given up, when our happy conftitutiou of government, we join in civil community ; hut one in the great affair of religious freedom, great end of this ceffion is, that the to Thew the line between the migi- rights of conscience, in religious malstrate's authority, and the citizens ters, might remain sacred and inviosight to the free exercise of conscience. lable: From whence it follows, that But in order to do this in such a mall- no one man or body of men, can have ner as to enlighten those, who have in such society a right to difforb an not made it their particular ftudy, it individual, in his way of worship, or will be necessary to review the causes to direct the creed of his profeffion : of some of the persecutions which have Nor Mall any individual under pretaken place in the world, as well as to tence of the obligation of conscience, dilate upon the folly and madness of obftruct the magiftrate in the business that intollerant fpirit, which hath of civil matters, or injure the person heretofore deluged the world in blood. or property of another: For while

!o a state of nature, before the fears the civil compat supports the magisand neceffities of mankind compelled trate in the execution of the civil law, them to civil society, each individual it protects each subje&t in his owa worshiped his God, in that manner, mode of worthip, and secures bim time and place, which his own consei- against persecution, for his particular ence determined to be best and most creed. fit. If he had no other revelation of There is nothing more amiable than the being a God, the contemplation of for a good man tolament and reprove his existence, the earth which yielded the vices and follies of others. And him his daily nouriMment, and the there is nothing more truly contemptfun, the moon, and the stars, woich he able, than for a narrow fouled bigot saw were ordained, gave such irgefifi. . to be wail that others do not believe as able demonstration of the widom and he believes, and worship as he wor. power of a great forft cause, that he thips. who attended to it, could not but bow These sentiments will not be conin adoration; and GOD ALONE WAS TO demued by those who have realized the PUNISH HIM, WHO BOWED NOT AT sweets of che liberty of conscience, and ALL.

yet perhaps there is pothing more cerIn this situation no one man could tain, than that a decided majority in I call annthera mode of worship in quer any ane nation, supported by that

1:011, because all men being born equal, bane of all religion, and temple no one cou d have any authority over for all hypocrisy, a NATURAL all other. When the human race were CHURCH, would open the dreadiul compelle , by their own weakness, lo gates of persecution, whenever the Su-l seek'telier,'fron their owo ferocity, preme Magistrate shall direct. And in the aid of civil society, they did not, it may not be without all foundation nor indeed could ley, give up their to suggeft, that the excellency of our fieedum of conscience to the w ll of confitution, with regard to the rights a ma ority, or the controul of the of conscience, arose as much from the magistrale ; for, as Mr. Locke says, variety of reas in the ffate, as from 6 as ristirivale judgınent of any odle the acknowledged wisdom of its comvi particudir person, if en onevus, pilers. * does not eximpi bin from the To have no religion at al., that is, recoletion of law, so the private to feel no devotion in our hearts to the "s juce meist of we magiftrate does Supreme Being,or to offer no expreffi" Dol give him any new right of im. ons of gratitude to him, for the varie

pofing luws upoi ine i ubjeci, which ciy of bleflings flowing from the gift of

lile,

We, cannot bat be highly criminal in To the Printers of the Bolton Magabis eye; and will, as it commonly

..zine. does, end in those a&ions, which ren O NE of the happieft effects of the der pen proper objects, for the paing U peace must be the advancement and penalties appointed by human of letters ; and every wodertaking, laws. But that men thould differ in which is inftrumental in a measure their ideas relating to the incorpre- ro beneficial, will always meet with heofible firft cause, and in their opini: the thanks and encouragement of 90 of the manner, in which he ought ingenious and 'well disposed people. to be worthipped, is neither inconilt. It is evident to me, that your Maga. eat with his will, or the rational na zine is thought to be of this nature, lort of man.

from the exertions, which I have seen We kuow but little of the religion used by all ranks of people in its fa. of the world before the deluge of vour ; and which has afforded me Noab; burfince that time the nations not a little amusement. Some of my have agreed in the worMip, by divers acquaintance have a great mind to forps, ol a Supreme author and pre- lend it their fullest affiftance, and to server of one waiverse. The rrym- hazard the reputation of their pens in bols have been indeed various, and its support. From this clars, I assure those symbols sometimes for purposes you much is to be expected. One of of fate, and somet.mes, through mere. them Mewed me a common place ignorance, have been adored, instead book, of his own collecting, containor the being they were intended to ing ancedotes, aphorisms and wise lead to; the Persians worshipped the sayings of all the great men both in fon, fire, &c. merely as symbols of the ancient and modern times. This great Oram: ses, they had Mythra as he declared to me would be at a less, and Mythras as a middle deity, your service with an index to all the The Egyprians worth pped Ofiris, beft writers upon the choicest subje&ts. Ifis aud Orus, and the Greeks Jupiter, He has also a compilation of mottos Miperva and Apollo. Whether suitable for any theme whatever, and these canons obiained ideas of a trini has got together every instance of hety from Noah or Abraham ; or whe- roim and gallantry from the feats of ther they worthipped the one God, Amadis de Gaul down to the present onder three diftinct characters, let day. Another genileman less adventtore decide, who inink it of impor- turous chures rather to risque the tunce. It is euough for the present fame of his grandfather; and has acpurpose, to say, that the feelings of tually overlooked a large closet of pareligion in the people of these nations pers to furnith you with materials: were not froig enough to compel its Nor has he been altogether unsucprol flors to act independently, and cessful in the search, having fumbled io nep.sition to the power of any ty. upon a very pretty eslay and several raat, who would d ate to them. peces of poetry on love, which, it

The horrid scenes of perfecutions seems, the old gentleman wrote, when were geaerally left to Mew one force, hie was addressing his third wife. I and exhibit extran: dinary prools of never should have known this circumthe truth of chriftiao ty.

ftance had it not been minuted in the The doctrines taught in this bene- margin, as the spirit and fire of the volent fyftem is all condescenson, compofition gives it the virility of and meekness. No right of controul twenty one. The dust is now about Can be lodged in the bosom of a chrır. being cleared from another Thelf, on tran, howe'er learned, grear or digni- which the writer having got over the bed --- be ye not called of men Rab- immediate inspiration of this passion, hi, faid our Lord To say that ano. we may exped to find an excellent thier is wrong in his religion, is perfe- treatise upon repentance, or other Crind in Embrio, to with to correct subject of that nature. I yellerday him by force, is persecution begun, to over heard two young men in very attempt to do it is perfecution in per. close conversatiou, the subjedt of

which was, a grievous complaint of (To be continued.) ill treatment from a scornful mistress,

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and a consultation upon a proper re- abused lady, the wife of Mr. SNAP medy. I cook the freedom of advil. DRAGON. She wifhes to know wheing the injured party to advertise her ther you will publith for her, what puder a fictitious name in your Maga: the calls certain meteorological obserzine. He liked the revenge very well,& vations on his temper, which the altold me,that there were twenty others, fures me are founded on trath, and who received affronts at the same ball taken with critical exactness. She with himself, and who, he did not thioks, that when he comes to fee the doubt, would be glad of seeking re- whole rummer months marked with dress in the same way. I mould ad. high winds and tempeftuous weather, vise you, therefore, to be prepared and the mercury set at every degree with a cafuift in the laws of love to in the barometer in the course of ose decide their cares, and make up a hour, the shall experience fome fae regular judgment. My own family vourable change in her climate. are all in motion. My wife, whom I hope you will not wholly negled, has prepared you a piece in delence of her To the Printers of the Boston sex, which, in defence of my quiet, I

o MAGAZINE. defire to see published. I know not,

THAT this earth, fince its crea Dow the will succeed at writing ; but,

1 tion, has at various times (uffer if the defence was to be made by.

ed great alterations of its surface a word of mouth, the lex, I am sure,

leait, and that the land, which is not could have no better advocate . How

covered with the moft venerable oak ever, I do not intend to ad ertise her at present. My boys and girls are

or smiling under the higheft cultivati all eoveloped with Enigmas and Re

on, was once but the bed of th

ocean, seems at this day to be beyon bufes, and one of them has ventured

the reach of dispute. How, or whe upon an Acroftic. Pray let your

there various changes have been effe acknowledgments to correspondents

ted, has as yet been but the subjed prove favourable to my wife at le-ft.

mere conjecture. History sacred a Even my paftry cook is engaged in

profane are filent on the matte the cause, and is determined never

From the present appearance of t again to RAISE his pes upon the

earth's surface, the texture of diff DOWNFALL of so much learning as he

ent terraqueous subftances, and Has destroyed in his oven. Being

various relaceous bodies found in feized with compunctions of consci,

howels of the earth, De Maillet, ence on this score, he confessed him

ingenious conjecturer, 'is of opini fell guilty of murdering the MAG.

that this globe was originally coyei NALIA, five hundred manufcript ser.

with waters, and that the land mods which he purchased for half

formed at first, and has been conti pence per dozen, and several quire of

ally forming from the retirement my owo fcribbling, all of which, he

them. The hiftory of Moses, o fupposed might have been of tome use.

this author, favours his conje However, I believe he will eally pro «Io the beginning God created cure your pardon for this outrage. « Heavens and the earth, and Being myself quite dilabled by this u earth was without form and vi accident in my writings, and hy old " and darkoers was upon the fac age and rheumatilm in my hody, you « the Deep and the spirit of mult expect little else from me than

"moved upon the face of the wAT enlifting others in your service. I " And God laid let the WATERS UI bave thought proper to give you this « the Heaven be gathered toget information, that you might see the unto one place, and let the general defire of people to find your « LAND appear." Whether De N. Magazine supported, and particular let's sentiments be founded on ti By that of your humble servant,

or not, can never be reduced to FACETUS. tainty ; yet as nothing affords are P.S. I have one enquiry to make pleasure to the human mind, tha in behalf of a worthy, but much attention to those events, which

have happened in some remote peri- hauren, stones are dug, the whole o ods of past time, and wbich pecefla whore fubitance is composed of mall tily lead the undertanding to a con. petrified shells. They are united by templation of the sublimeft scenes in a fine sand, which forms a very hard the natural world, the following dif- fone, and of which the walls of that coveries may not be uninteresting.co city are built. Ac Vaguine, a small your readers.

i

town in Provence, we find another De Maillet relates, that in the year mountain full of thells and large oyr1714, the great Duke of Turcany, ters. The fields adjacent to Havre having employed men to dig a ditch de Grace are also full of Oyfter from the Old Ivarmiary at Leghorn, thells. to the new, called St. James, through Appearances of the same kind have a rock, which at the depth of twenty been discovered in America. As our feet terminated in mud, found a trec soldiers, in tbe year 1776, were digof ten or twelve feet in length and ging the well in the fort at Nantasket, bollow within. This was taken by a large body of clam shells was found myself, lays De Maillet, and others, fixty feet below the summit of the to be a pump. The horns, bones and heighth. Many of them were whole teeth of animals were also found here. and perfe&tly sound, I have also, adds the same author, The earth between York and feen is the steep rock of the Apennine James Rivers in Virginia is still more mountains, which a torrent had un extraordinary. Between these two dermined, the prow of a thip,that food rivers, the land is very level, and its Out fix cubits. This ship was com- surface about forty feet above high pletely pern fied.

water mark, Near York-town, Bertazzolo relates, that, in laying where the banks are perpendicular, the foundation of the Auice of Go. you firft see a ftratum of earth interveraolo, in the territories of Mantua, mixed with small shells, which has ke met with several pieces of thips. the appearance of clay and fand. And De Maillet says, that he has seen This is about five feet high. On this. in the royal academy of Paris, a bone lies horizontally small white shells,the taken from the skeleton of a man, en cockle, clam and others; then comes tirely petrified, and found in the a body of earth, similar to that first plaifter quarry of Montmartu.

mentioned, and of about eighteen Several mountains of Tuscany are inches think. On this earth lies anoti/2/2/2/2/2ti2ūtiẦētiâ?2tiņģēņēmēģ22ņēmēģģģģēò► ther thin body of small shells, then a. especially the mountains of Pira. Some third body of earth, and of about the of the banks are two or three miles in fame thickness with the last. On this extent, and hid under earth and fand, lies another body of white mells of three or four feet deep. There are various kinds, and of about three feet Such appearances in the mountains thick, with very little sand or earth of Peru, Virginia, on the coaft of mixed with them. On this lies a boDauphine island, and at a place about dy of oyster tells about fix feet fix miles from Bourdeaux, in the pa.. thick, and then a hody of earth to the Tilh of Croix du Mont. There, on surface. The oyster thells are so unithe top of a high mountain, we find ted by a very Atrong cement, that they two beds of ftone; the uppermoft of fall, when undermined, in large bodies

thich is hve or fix feet thick ; and a from one to twenty tons weight. All bed of oy Aer felis twenty or twen- there Arata seem to be perfearly ly four feet thick. Most of these horizontal. oyfiers are clore and contain a small The account of these different ftrata gointity of argillacious earth, which of eartbrand Thells, I had from a genseems to be the fubftance of the oyster tleman, whore long residence at Yorkdiffolved. There og fer mells are town gave him an opportunity to exunited in a baok by the land, which amine them with accuracy. This being mixed and petrified, form at gentleman further informed me, that present bur one common body. 5 after riding seven miles from York.

About ball a league from Frank, town, he discovered, at a place from fort, out of a mounsain called Saxen. which a large body of earth had been

removed, removed, the same appsarances as in . On HARMONY the bank first mentioned. What the inhabitants of York-town call their The universe began fone, and with which they build their From harmony to harmony, houses, is nothing more than shells Thro' all the compass of the potes united by a strong cement, which seems it ran, petrified in a degree, but is however The diapafon closing full in man. affected by the ra:0.

DRYDEN. I was informed by the same gen. THOUGH I am neither quatleman,that, a few monihs face, about 1 lified to play a violin, nor so haptwelve miles weft of Rapaharnock ri. Py as to be able to oblige a seled comver in Virginia, and about fifty miles pany with a long, yet I prosess myfrom the salt water, be law, as a num. sell a devoted admirer of harmony. ber of people were digging up earth Textend it not only to founds, but to for a mill dam, a horizontal ftratum actions, chara&ers and sentiments; of sea muri intermixed with small and there, wheu beautifully ranged Melis. It was as fall and as soft, han and well proportioned, give me the the same smell, and in every refpe&t same pleasure as the mot enchanting resembled the mud in any of our harcomb nation of rounds. I have ofbours. This was hut a few feet be- ten accustomed myself to consider the Jow the surface of the pond at which world as a concert of harmony, con. they were raising the dain, though more ducted by the infinite Author of or. than a hundred feet below the land der and beauty ; in which all the dirnearly adjacent. The soil and the lea cordant voices, opinions and a&tions mud were entirely unconveded, and of mankind con pire to swell the the transition from the one to the general melody. otier immediate. Near to this place, It is surprifog, that pbilosophers the same gentleman met win a num mould differro widely in their defiber of ftones, in the facing of a mill nitions of man. The reverend dean dam, con ifting entirely of petrified of St. Patrick's will peeds have him sand and shells. Some of the shells to be a broomstick ; the famous anwere entire. The petrified find cient philosopher called him a creahad ro natural an appearance, that ture of two legs, and without fea. he attempted to brush it away with thers ; some describe him as an inhis hand, in order to take out a small visible animal, others as a visible one ; [collop thell, that appeared fresh and but

l a musical one. He is furwhole

nished with a variety of Arings, There discoveries prove beyond a which, when properly touched by exdoubt, that this earth has at some ternal obje&s, awaken the most period of its existence under gone very pleanng rounds. The love of fame, great mutations. As no record can the delire of happiness, hope and fear be found of these events, they proba. are his grand keys, and the virtues hly took place at a very diftant period, are the o&aves, which are always in when letters were in general unknown harmony with each other, and with to men. Though their caures may the correspondent sounds of any never be absolutely determined, yet other inftrument; his paffions are in the public cannot but with for the unison with those of his whole species; sentiments of the learned and ingeni. so that if any of them are moved in ous on the subje&.

a violent degree, he is immediately responsive, and swells into rapture, or

languishes into melancholy ; So exA. B.

quisitely has heaven conftructed and tuned the human organ, that it does

not always wait till reason puts it in. December 20th, 1783.

to motion ; it instantly catches the found and warbles in agreeable symphony. Thus it is that glory Aes

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