« הקודםהמשך »
On the Stature, Form, Colour, &c. of different Nations. 599
For four days, can manage his little The second great variety, in the canoe, in the moft lurious waves, and human fpecies, seems to be that of the calmly (ubfift in the midst of a tempelt Tartar race ; from whence, proba. that would quickly damh an Euro bly, the little men we have been pean boat to pieces. Their strength describing originally proceeded. The 18 not less amazing than their pati. Tartar country, taken in general, ence; a womaa among them will comprehends the greatest part of carry a piece of timber, or a fope, Asia, and is, consequently, a gene-. near double the weight of what an ral name given to a number of naEuropean can list. Their bodies are tions, of various forms and complexi. of a dark grey all over; and their ons. But, however they seem to dit. facesbrown, or olive. The rindure fer from each other, they all agree of their skins partly seems to arise in being very unlike the people of from their dirty manner of living, any other country. All these natibeing generally daubed with train ons have the upper part of the visage oil; and partly from the rigours of very broad, and wrinkled even while climate, as the sudden alterations of yet in their youth. Their noses are cold and raw air in winter, and of mort and fui, their eyes little and . burging heats in summer, thade their funk in their heads ; and, in fome of complexions by degrees, till, in a suc- them, they are seen five or fix inches ceffion of generations, they at last arunder. Their cheek bones are become almoft black. As the coun: high, the lower part of their visage tries in which these refide are the narrow, the chin long and advanced poft barren, fo the natives seem the forward, their teeth of an enormous moft barbarous of any part of the size and growing seperate from each earth. Their more fouthern neigh other, their eye brows thick, large, bours of America, treat them with and covering their eyes, their eyethe same scorn that a polithed na lids thick, the face broad and fat, tion would treat a savage one ; and the complexion olive coloured, and we may readily judge of the rudeness the hair black. They are of a mid. of those manners, which even a na dle size, extremely Atrong, and very tive of Canada can think more bar robuft. They have but little beard, barous than his own.
which grows ftraggliogly on the ch'n. But the gradations of nature are They have large thighs, and mort imperceptible; and, while the north legs. The ugliest of all are the Cil. is peopled with such miserable inha. moucks, in whore appearance there bitants, there are here and there to seems to be something frightful. be found, upon the edges of there They all lead an erratic life, remainregions, people of larger ftature, and ing under tents of hair, or skine. completer figure. A whole race of They live upon horse Hech and that the dwarfith breed is often found to of camels, either raw or a little rodcome down from the north, and set den between the horse and the saddle. tle more to the southward ; and, on They eat allo fith dried in the sun, the contrary, it sometimes happens Their most usual drink is mare's that southern nations are seen higher milk fermented with millet ground up, in the midft of these diminutive into meal. They all have the head tribes, where they have continued Maven, except a lock of hair, on the Tor time immemorial. Thus the top, which they let frow sufficiently OAiac Tartars seem to be a race that long to form into trees, on each side have travelled down from the north, of the face. The women, who are as and to he originally sprung from the ugly as the men, wear their hair, minute ravages we have been describ. which they sind up with bits of cop. ing. There are also Norwegians, per and other ornaments of a like and Finlanders, of proper ftature, nature. The majority of these na. who are seen to inhabit in lattudes tions have no religion, no settled no. higher even than Lapland. There, tions of morality, no decency of be. however, are but accidental migra. haviour. They are chiefly rubbers ; rioos, and serve as shades to unite the and the natives of Dagestan, who live diftio varieties of mankind.
near their more polished neighbours, G888
600 On the Stature, Form, Colour, &c. of different Nations. make a traffic of Tartar Naves who ed, as of a brown complexioo, : have been folen, and sell them to hort itature, a broad fat face, a very the Turks and poe Persians. Their little beard, and black hair. Tbier chief riches confift in horfes, of which cyftoms and ceremonies are bearly perhaps there are more in Tartary, the same; their ideas of beauty fit. than in any other part of the world. lar; aad their artifical deformities die The natives are taught by custom to blacked:og the teeth, and baadaging live in the same place witn their the icet, entirely al.ke in both costhorses ; they are continually em: tries. They both, therefore, pre ployed in managing them, and at last ceed from the f4me fiock ; aod 25bring them to such great obedience, though they differ very much from thau the horse lee ns a&ually to un their brutal progenitors, yet they derstand the rider's intention.
owe their civilization wholly to tbt To this race of meu also, we must mildoers of the climate in which they refer the Chinere and the Japanese, refide, and to the pecular fertility of however different they seem in toe'r the soil. To this tribe alfo, * may manners and cere!nonies. It is the refer the Cochin Chinese, the Samele, form of the body we are now prin the Tonguinele, and the ionabitant cipally considering ; and there is, of Aracın, Laos, and Pezu, wbo, between there countries, a furprising though all difering from the Cbiaeft, resemblance. It is in general allowed and each other, never nelers, bast that the Chinese have broad faces, too frong a resemblance, not to be small eyes, lai nores, and scarce any tray their common original. beard ; that they are broad and Ágocher, which makes the third square shouldered, and rather less in variety in the humaa species, is that Aature than Europeans. There are of the southern & fatics ; the form of marks common to them and the whore features and persons may be Tartars, and they may, therefore, be eally diftinguith-d from those of the considered as being derived from the Tarrar races. The nations that in fam: original. "I have observed, habit the peninsula of India, Peem says Chardin, that in all the people be the principal fock from wbedci from the eaft and the north of the the inhabitaors of the iDands tbat lit Carpian sea, to the peninsula o Ma scattered in the Indian Ocean, have lacca, that the lives of the face, iid been peopled. Tliey are, in general, the formation of the visage, is tic of a slender Rape, with long Arait fame. This has induced me to be black hair, and often with Ropa Jieve, that all thele nations are de- noíes. Thus they resemble the Ec. rived from the fame criginal, how. ropeans in &atore and features ; but ever different either their complex. greitly differ in colour and habit of ions or their manners may appear: body. The Indians are of an olive for as to the complexion, that pro- colour, and, in the more rootbern ceeds entirely from the climate and parts, note black ; although the the food ; and as to the manners, word Mogul, ia their language, fig. tiere are generally the result of their mifies a white min. The women are d fferen: degrees of wealth or power." extremely delicate, and battre very That they come from one Pock, 18 often : they are oi ao olive colour, 2% evident also, from this; that the Tar. well as the men ; their legs and thighs tare who retile in China, quickly re. are long, and their bodies fort, sembie the Chinese ; and, on the coa which is the opposite to what is feta trary, the Chinele who settle in Tar among the women of Borope. Tbey tary, non alimme the figure, and the are, as I am affured, by no meaosfo manners of the Tartars.
froiclul as the European women; bet
they feel the pains olcbild birth with Tue Japunere so much resemble the mich less lensibility, and are generalCainele, this one cannot hesitate to Ty up and well the day following. Ia rank them in the stine claro. They fal, ilere pains ferm greatest in all only differ is berug rather bronnel, Cuntriego where the women are the as they ipinah't a inore southern cii. delicale, or the conftitution enfeebled moite. Taey are, in general, dercrib. by luxury or indoleace. The wo
len of savage nations seem, in a great A Description of the Island of reasore, exempt from painful la. ours ; and even the hard working
Madeira, with an Account vives of the peasants among our. of the Manners and Customs elves, have this advantage, from a ife of industry, that their child.
of its Inbabitants. pearing is less painful. Over all Inlia, the children arrive rooner at (Continued from Page 554.) naturity, than with us of Europe. They often marry, and consummate,
VESTERDAY I made an excur. the husband at ten years old, and the
Y sion to the surrounding mounwise at eight ; and they frequently
tains, an undertaking of too much have cbildren at that age. However, . difficulty and fatigue fur Portuguese the women who are mothers lo soon, indolence to encounter. Mylelf and cease bearing before they are arrived two English gentlemen (one of them at thirty; and, at tha: time, they long resident here, and the same who appear wrinkled, and seem marked had served me before as interpreter) with all the deformities of age. The were the party. We were all mount. Indians have long been remarkable
ed on mules, and, agreable to the for their cowardice and effeminacy; custom of the country, the owners of every conqueror that has attempted the beafts ran on foot as guides, and the invasion of their country, having two others on foot also carried balkfucceeded. The warmth of the cli ets of provisions for ourselves, and mate entirely in Auences their man our mules, wine, &c. and although ners ; they are Bothful, submissive barefooted, ran among the cutting and luxurious : satisfied with sensual ftones fafter than we had occasion for happiness alone, they find no plea them to do; the basket bearers have füre in thinking; and contented with ing I believe near an hundred weight flavery, they are ready to obey any each to carry. We lat out before lix, mafter. Many tribes among them and ascended extreme teep and crag. cat nothing that has life ; they are sy ways; for about four mealured fearful of killing the meapeit iniect; miles the country was all as I have and have even erected hospitals for described it; then we gradually lessenthe maintainance of all kinds of ver. ed the number of vines and fruit trees, min. The Asiatic dress is a loore getting more among cherouts, wal. flowing garment, rather fitted for the nuts, and teel trees; and a little more purposes of peace and indolence, than corn than nearer the town, and more of industry or war. The vigour of craggy ground. The fig trees were the Asiatics is in general conforma. full very frequent. When we had ble to their dress and nourißhment; gone two miles further we had left fed upon rice, and cloathed in effemi the vines, and more cultivated parts
nate folk veftments, their soldiers are intirely, but yet all in our view, and - unable to oppose the onset of an we were among trees, in open groves
European army ; and, from the times or in tufis, as if designedly planted : of Alexander to the present day, fome places too perpendicular in apwe have scarce any instances of their pearance for a goat to climb, had yet success in arms. Upon the whole, corn in little strips to the very fumtherefore, they may be considered as mit; the more craggy, the more myra leeble race of sensualifts, too dull tle abounded; and, as I have already to find rapture in any pleasures, and said, you are to look on this Inand as too indolent to turn their gravity in one continued ridge of hills, with to wisdom. To this class we may smaller rising out of its fides ; there refer the Perfians and Arabians, and, was of course numbers of little hol. in general, the inbabitants of the lows, in there were the peasants hutts, iflands that lie scattered in the Indian being just like those of the wild India ocean.
ans, thatched with broom, or Aub(To be coatinued.)
ble, down within one yard of the ground, and standing on polls, the
Gides fides quite open ; there miserable By the time we had reached the cha thiags, however, ali ftood under cher pel, we had been five hours and a bal nut trees, with each a spot of vines, on our mules, and an half aa hoor e yaums, elders, canes, &c. close to had spent in breakfafting under for them, and ap orange tree or two; of the chefguts; and as near as I, by but as their produce was only for companions, and guides could judge, their own support, and pot (or fale, we had gone rather more than Elteta they had but i'mail parches. They Englith miles. Tbere was a poor I*. olteo gain about five pence, or (ix tle chapel, a little lodging hoale, and penca, by carrying a great burden of many Atables and large long rooms a3 wood (which Iy cut on the moun out houses over them; the ole ole tains) down to the towns, either for which was to accomodate a great to the Kirchen, or chiefly for the vine sort of people that an ually in tit frames. Itere the peasants children middle of June go there, originally a had on mostly only a coarse shirt, the à pilgrimage, but now more for merriboys especially; the men that, add a ment, or gaming, and stay four days: kind of drawers or trowsers ; the wo or even longer, lying promiscuouầy men a ragged petticoat, and sometimes on rushes Arewed on the foors at another round their mouiders; in night. The eat og and drinking er Mort their appearance of poverty is peoces are borne by a small justo of great.
the palives, who take their turor Aller going through much the Agreeable to their indolence, they fame country about four miles more, ever go by water as far as they can ; we began to have fewer chesauts, and the same rout by which we retarast, more pines, hur chiefy a kind of ve.. there was a priest, forbe lay brothers, Ty low under wood of pine, phyllerea and an hermit; the latter of whom, and wild pomegranate, and soon the amidit his long beard and dirt, #asas chernuts grew very scarce, and the merry as poffible; we dined with country of course much more barreo. the hermit and prie A on our own proThree miles more brought us to the vifions ; and what with Latia, of fummit of all we were to ascend; which botb underfood much less than when a little dowo on the other side even myself; what with Englith and we saw a plain (very level for Ma. French, of which they ftill koew less; deira) of about three or four miles and what with an attempt at Pacie. across every way, and in the middle guere on my part, about equal to ftood a little chapel, dedicated to St. their English, our conversation was a Antoine de Sarra, which means of the medley unequalled. They had walked wilderness. That plain was not at all in a very small part of this plain for a rocky, by the foil of a fiff red clay, garden, and had cut away the under. as were indeed the summits of many wood in walks, very rudely made, and of the most perpendicular hills, and kept; but had improved it by plast. the underwood high as in England at ing chernuts, oranges, jeflamine, botwelve or fourteen years growth. ney-fuckles, and myrtle on the fides The descent from the Tommit, from of the walks ; and made a copftant imwhence we saw the plain into it, was penetrable Made, very agreeable, aod about reventy or eighty yards, but indeed several narrow rides through that part was much lower than the the whole plain, wbich being noc circle of hills in general that encom.. rocky, but level, and the clay as good passed it, which formed a perfeat as gravel, hy so much dry weather as * horse thoe, whore opening fronted the is here, made the situation excefli vels
eant rea, where about three or four pleasant. leagues off were two other Illands After two hours itay here, giving 2 called the Serters. The hills on the small present of our wine, and a little back, facing the opening, were the mooey to be remembered in their bighed, and moft irregular of any we prayers, as is the custom, we far for. yet had seen, and so fingularly and ward, and crossed the rest of the plain beautifully broken, that only just ree: and about opposite to where we had inginem cannot give a proper idea of entered it ; we then ascended the them.
ridge again through the same kind of
vnderwood. As soon as we had got mirtle,but not as a fence, several openon the top of that ridge, we looked ings to go in being lelt: indeed fences down on a hollow plain of about three are not requisite, for neither cow, ox, hundred and fifty yards diameter, en mule, hog, and (near the vintage) cornpassed by a hill (of which the spot even dogs, are loose, but all tied to we stood on was part) of about twen aftake, the same of sheep and goats, ty-five yards perpendicular height excepting quite on the barren tops of very remarkable for the exa&tness of the mountains, where children always its circular form, for its perfeaiy watch them, and have them so tame uniform height, and slope, lengthen as to lead them by the horns, or cars ed into an easy descent ; from iis con- anywhere. Here we baited again tiouance without any apperture; all our guides, sent them and the mules cloathed with underwood to the he. to town by land, about eleven or ginning of the plain, which also was twelve miles, and took hoat ourselves regular in its form; gradually deep and coasted round (about as far) with ening towards the center, and called a very pleasant breeze, which brought the lake, as being generally filled us to Fonchall; the coafting being as with water, full sufficient, as all assure agreeable a part of our expedition as ed me, to float twenty men of war; apy; for the thore every moment im. but I wanted faith, as (unless my eye proved in beauty, the nearer we ap. deceived me) it was not in the middle proached this capital, where we ar(the very deepest part) above fifteen rived juft on the close of the evening. feet deeper than the level of the foot I forgot to mention, that (among the of the hill, and under wood; higher chesnut groves particularly) there than which the water never came. were perpetual rills of water falling
On departing thence we foon loft down all the hollows, and making, the under wood, and were in a very from the ruggedness of their chan. barren, craggy country ; no trees or nels, and their fleep descen:, a moft scarce any thing but vast quantities of agreeable sound; for it was too loud very low thrubby myrtle, all in full to be called murmur: we went un. bloom, growing like furze between der several that fell a great height, the ftones and rocks. We rode op in one particularly I believe near an this manner to the ridge of a very hundred feet, in three or four perpenhigh mountain that hung over a town dicular breaks; and in the very called Machico, the second in the fream (which was however small for Inand, though a small one; in a long a carcade) grew in the clefts of the broad, and very gently sloping valley rock Atunted chesnut, telus trees, and with a ftream through the middle, lac- myrtle; and the same, but still mare ing the sea, aud covered as about here of them, above and below it, and on with vines, and all sorts of the same each side. With a larger body of water fruit trees; and the contraft of that nothing could have exceeded it; and with the place we stood on, and round with what it had, it was ffill infinitely us, was exceflive romantick.
beautiful. I muft not omit that the We had been constantly gradually Portuguese indolence, contraded by descending from the lake, and con- the English gentlemen, who accomsinued to do the same through the last panied us, and was our interpreter, kind of barren country, to a town made what was really little more about seven Englim miles and a half, than an agreeable excursion, so great from St., Antoine de Sarra, on the sea a fatigue to him, as not to be recoverMore ; inconsiderable, but neat; the ed in some days; and the account of third in repute, not near so much such a preformance, scarce gains cre. cultivated as by Macbico, or this dit with the Portuguese, who hourly
place, but still agreeably so. In the come where I lodge to enquire into middle was a large square opening, or the truth of it: none of ihem nor
green, planted with abele trees, Tome any ftrangers who have made even · oranges, &c. like a grove, jeflamine, come stay on the island, having ever
honey.fuckles, and roles; and fur suffered their curiosity fo far to pre. .sounced on all four fides by a double vail, as to attempt this rout, which edge; the outer rolee, and the inner magnified through the perfpe&ive of