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fentiments of mankind in polished mately determined, by comparing and flourishing nations when arts them with the general taste of manare cultivated and manners refined; kind. In every compofition, what when works of genius are subje&t to interefts the imagination and touches free discullion, and taste is improved the heart, pleases all ages and nations. by science and philosophy. Even There is a certain Aring, wbich being among nations, at such a period of properly struck, the human heart is Society, I admit that accidental causes lo made as to answer it.. may occasionally warp the proper operations of taffe ; fometimes the

r e ftate of religion, sometimes the form of government, may for a while per- Description (with an elegant vertit; a liceotious court may intros Engraving) of the celebrated dace a taste for falfe ornaments and ditolate writings. The usage of one

Tomb of Madame Langhans, adm red genius may procure admira executed by Mr. John Auton for his faults, and even render n utus Nahl. late Sculptor to then fifh:onable. Sometimes envy may have power to bear down, for a

the King of Prussa, and lattie, productions of great merit ; which is to be seen in the walle popular humour, or party (pirit, nay, at other times, exalt to a high

choir of the parish courch of though fhort-lived réputation, what Bitde deferved it.

Hindlebanck,two leagues from But though such disual circumstances give the appear

Berne. ance of caprice to the judgments of tafte, that appearance is easily correc

HIS Lady, who was esteemed to ed. In the courfe of time, the genu

be the greatest beauty in Switcate of human nature never fails zerland, died in child bed at Hindle"Do disclose itself, and to gain tbe al- banck, in the delivery of her first in

andaat over any fantaftic and cor- fant, at the age of twenty eight. Her apled modes of taste which may husband, who was parson of the vildance to have been introduced. lage, deeply afflicted at the loss, found bele may have currency for a while, in M.Nahl,an artift,who,by his efforts, and mallead fuperficial judges ; but eternized the grief of the husband, eing subjected to examination, by and the memory of the beloved wife. grees they pass away while that This ingenious man, whom the chief love remains which is founded on magistrate of Erlach in Berne, had and reason, and the native feelings previously engaged to ere& in the meo. Not that there is any ftand- fame church, the Mausoleum of his

oftafte, to which, in every parti- illustrious father, affe&ed with the calar instance,we can resort for a clear Sorrow of the pious and widowed no immediate determination. The clergyınan, in whose house he lodged, caclulion which is fufficient for us to employed his chiffel for his consolaLast upon, is, that taste is far from be- tion, and faished with a fkilful and

an arbitrary principle, which is a friendly hand, the TOMB of which Dject to the fancy of every indivi- we have here given the engraving.

qual, and which admits of no criteri. The innumerable variety of these en for determining whether it be falle monuments of human fragility appeartree. Its foundation is the fameed to have exhausted all the resources

human minds. It is built upon of art and genius; but M. Nahl was. iments and perceptions, which be- not deterred by this vulgar sentiwag to our nature, and which, in ge- ment. Madame Langhans having di

ral, operate with the same Daifor- ed on Easter:eve, the circumstance of ply as our other intellectual princi- the event happening in that critical

: When these sentiments are per moment, inspired him with fo happy Etted by ignorance and prejudice, an allusion to the certainty of our rehey are capable of beiog re&ified. furreion, fonew, so simple, and at Aer Cound and natural fate is ulti- the fame time so sublime, that we can


not withhold from it our admirati. Serenity succeeds to grief and Arife, on.

Time flies----- Eternity begins. From a single block of free ftone, but of a very fine grain, he formed the

In this blessed hope figures aodine tomb. The tomb bursts Sure that her Saviour will fulfill hia asunder, as if the day of general re

promise, tribution was arrived, when the re

Reposes in this Tomb, pulchres muft render up their dead. Guarded by a tender and Corrowful The stone which covers the tomb rises

husband, up as it breaks in the centre, and dif. MARY MAGDALEN WABER, I covers within its opening breast this Born 8th August, 17253 beautiful woman and her infant juft And who departed this life on Eafter recovered from the dead. She rises

Eve, 1751, on the instant of her awakening, and

The wite of seems on the point of taking her fight

GEORGE LANGHANS, to the Heavens. The (entiment of her Preacher of the gospel at Hindel happy immortality gives a serene and

banck, majefticcomposure to her countenance. With one arm the appears to push up the stone, which yet opposes her passage, and with the other presses to.

- On Criticism and Genius. her bolom her re animated in'ant, who also with his little hands seems

By Dr. BLA!R. inclined to affift in disengaging them. TRUE Criticism is the applicatio selves from the dismal abode. The l o taste and of good sense to tl cleft, where the stone separates into several fine arts. The object whi three pieces is so paturally expressed, it propores is, to diftingu th what that the spectator is disposed to wait be utiful and what is faulty in eve in expectation of seeing the tomb open performance; from particular inte altogether.

ces to ascend to general principles, 2 As the inscription and verses of the fo to form rules or conclusions ca Tombstone, which were written by cerning the several kinds of beau the celebrated M de Haller, could in works of genius. not with propriety be introduced in The rules of criticism are not for the engraving, we insert them here in ed by an induftion a priori, or a tr a free translation from the original of abstract reasoning independent German.

fa&ts and obs rvations. Criticism Hark! the majettic sound! the trum- an art founded wholly on experies pet hear!

on the observation of fuchs beaul See the aftonilh'd tombs give up as have come nearest to the ftandi their prey !

of taste ; that is of such beauties Oh God! my Saviour! 'tis thy voice have been found to please mank I hear !

moft generally. For example ; A And with my child, I come t'eter- totle's rules concerning the voiiy nal day,

a&tion in dramatic and epic comp Awake my infant ; open now thine tion, were not rules forint discove eyes,

by logical reasoning, and then appl Leave the corruption of thy mortal to poetry ; but thiev were drawn fi birth,

the practice of Homer and Sophoc · Arise my child, to thy Redeemer they were founded upon observ rise,

the superior pleasure which we reci And taste at length the joy denied from the relation of an action wl on earth,

is one and entire, beyond what Before his face death muft yield to receive from the relation of scatti life ;

and unconnexed facts. Such oh Hope to real joy..--there, purged vations taking their rise at first f from fins,

feeling and experience, were fo upon examination to be so conso

To Tearon, and to the principles of pedants, not critics. For all rules of. Lonio nature, as to pais into efta. genuine criticisın are ultimately foundDuhed rules, and to be convenieully ed op feeling ; and taste and feeling are applied for judging of the excellency necessary to guide us in the applicatidary performance. This is the most on of these rules to every particular Batural account of the or gin of cri- instance. As there is nothing in ticum.

which all sorts of persons more readiA masterly genius, it is true, will ly affect to be judges than in works of himself, untaught, compofe in ruch of taste, there is no doubt that the a minder as lhi be agree ble to the number of incompetent critics will almost material rules of criticism ; for ways be great. But this affords no as these roles are founded in nature, more foundation for a general in vecRituie will often suo reft thert in prac. tive again ft criric sm, than the numtice, Homer, it is inore than proba ber of bad philosophers or reasonings be, was acquainted with no systems of affords against reason and philosophy. the art of poetry. Guided by genius An objection more plaufible may be alone, he composed in verre a regular forn:ed against criticism, from the aptory, which all pofterity has admir plause, that some performances have ed. But this is no argument against received from the public,' which, the usefulness of criticism as an art. when accurately considered, are found For as do human genius je perfeA, to contradiet the rules establimed by there is no writer but my receive criticism. Now, the public is the rua Glance from critical observat ons preme julge, to whom the laft app-al upon the beauties and fagi:s of those, must be made in every work of taste; who bave gone before him No ob as the standard of taste is founded on fervations or rules can indeed sopply the sentiments, that are natural and the defect of genius, or inspire it where common to all men. But with respect it is wanting. But they may often to this we may observe, that the sense dired it into its proper channel; they of the public is too haftily judged of. may correat its extravagances, and The genuine public talte does not alpoot out to it the moft just and pro. ways appear in the first applause given per imitation of nature. Critical upon the publication of any new work. Tales are defigned chiefly to Mew the Tnere are both a great vulgar and a fauks, that ought to be avoided. To sinall, apt to be catched and dazzled Bafore we must be indebted for the by very superficial beauties, the adProduction of em near beauties.

miration of which in a little time passes From what has been said, we are away ; and sometimes a writer may enabled to form a judgment concern. acquire great temporary reputation ing those complaints, which it has long merely by his compliance with the beea fashiocable for petty authors to paffions or prejudices, with the partymake against critics and criticism. spirit or fuperft tious notions, that Critics have been represented as the may chance to rule for a time almost great abridgers of the native liberty a whole nation. In such cases, though of genius; as the imposers of unna. the public may seem to praise, true Total thackles and boods upon writers, criticism may with reason condemn ; from whose cruel perfecutions they and it will in progress of time gain daft fy to the public, and implore its the ascendant; for the judgment of prorect on. Such fupplicatory pre- true criticism and the voice of the faces are not calculated to give very public, when once become unprejufavourable ideas of the genius of the diced and dispassionate, will ever coinagtbor. For every good writer will cide at last. be pleased to have his work examined Instances, I admit, there are of by the principles of found understand.. some works that contain gross transing, and true tafte. The declamations greflions of the laws of criticism, ac. againft criticism commonly proceed quiring, neverthelefs, a general and epon tbis fuppofition, that critics are even a lasting admiration. Such are fechas judge by role, not by feeling ; the plays of Shakespeare, which, con. Vaicb is so far from being true, that fidered as dramat c poems, are irresey, who judge after this manner, are sular in the highen degree. But then



we are to remark, that they have press the minds of others. Refined gained the public admiration, not by taste forms a good critic; but gen) US their being irregular, not by their is further necessary to form the poet or tranfgreffion of the rules of art, but the orator. in spite of such transgreflions. They It is also proper to observe, that pofless other beauties, which are con. genius is a word, which, in common formable to just rules ; and the force acceptation, extends much farther of these beauties has been so great as than to the objects of taste. It is oled to overpower all censure, and to to fignify that talent or aplitude give the public a degree of fatisfa Aion which we receive from nature, foi superior to the disgust arising from excelling in any one thing whatever their blemithes. Shakespeare pleases, Tous we speak of gen us for mathe not by his bringing the transa&tions matics, as well as genius for poelry of many years into one play ; not by of a genius (or wur, for politics, or to his grotesque mixtures of tragedy and any mechanical employment. comedy in one piece, nor by the train. Tois tiient or aptitude for excellin ed thoughts and affected witticums, in some one particular, is, I have fac which he sometimes err. ploys. There what we receive from nature. B we consider as blemishes, and impute art and ftudy, no dubt, it may them to the grossnels of the age in greatly improved ; but by them alor which he lived. But be pleares, by it cannot be acquired. As genius 19 his animated and masterly represen. higher faculty thao taste, it is eve tations of charallers, by the liveliners · according to the usual frugality of bis descriptions, the force of his nature, more limited in the (phere fentiments, and his poflefling, beyond its operations. It is not uncommi all writers, the natural language of to meet with persons, who have passion : Beauties, which true criti. excellent tafte in several of the pul cilin no less teaches us to place in the arts, such as music, poetry, paint: highe{t rank, than nature teacheth us and eloquence, all together ; but to feel.

find one who is an excellent perfora Thus much concerning the origin, in all these arts, is much more rar office and importance of crit cism, or rather, indeed, such an oue is 1 Let us now consider the destinction to be looked for. A sort of univ between Taste and Geoius.

ral gen us, or one, who is equally a Tifte and genius are two words lie- ind iterently turned towards feve quently joined together, and there. different profesions and arts, is ! fore, by inaccurate thinkers, con- likely to excel in any. Altho founded. They signify however, ibere may be some few exceptid two quite different things. The d.fi yet in general it holds, that when ference between them can be clearly bent of the mind is wholly direded pointed out; and it is of importance wards some one object, exclusive to remember it. Talle confifts in the a manner, of others, there is the power of judging : Genius, in the est prospect of eminence in that, wl power of executing. One may have ever it be. The rays muft conve a confiderable degree of taste ju poe. to a point, in order to glow inten try, eloquence, or any of the fine arts, This remark is of great importand who has little or hardly any genius for young people, in leading them to composition or execution in any of amine with care, and to pursue these arts : But genius cannot be ardor, the current and pointin found without including talte allo. nature towards those exertions of Genius, :herefore, dererved to be onius, in which they are most likel considered as a higher power of the excel. mind than tafie. Genius always in A genius for any of the fine art ports something inventive or crea. before observed, always fupi tive ; which does not reft in mere taste; and it is clear, that the impi (enfibility to beauty, where it is per- ment of rafte, will serve both to ceived, but which can, moreover,pro. ward aad corre&t the operation duce new beauties, and exhibit them genius. In proportion as the in such a manner, as strongly to im. of a poet, or orator, becomes 1


rined with relped to the beauties of nism,that Priestly,and others imagine, compostion, it will certainly ailiit him - is not the subject of this investigation. to produce the more fin fhed beaut es But thus much may be proper to be in his work Genius, however, in a faid, that if we conceive with Doétor poet or oraior, may sometimes exist in Priestly, that the man, who commits a higher degree inaa tafie; that is, ge murder, is no more a free agent in the mios may be bold and iirong, when crime, than the sword he commits it taste is deitner very delicale, nor ve with, and that the persecutor and perTy corred. This is often the care in secured, are both alike employed in the infancy of arts ; a period, when the service, and glorification of God, gedius frequenly exerts itself with there remains no further service, or great vigour,and executes with much use for conscience ; for there is no warmb; while tafte, which requires difference between right and wrong, experience, and improves by nower morality or immorality, as they re.. degrees, bare not yet attained its full speat the Deity. growth. Homer and Saxespeare are But if we go upon the common hy. proofs of what I now all-rt; in whore pothesis, that man is a free agent, admirable wiitings are round inflances accountable for his conduct, created of rodeness andigdelicacy, whichi, the with the powers of reАeation, hy which more refined tale or later writers,who he can inquire, where is the Lord his had far inferior genius to them, would M.ker,as our own feelings, the comhaze tinght them to avoid. As all mon consent of mankind, and the rehuman perfe4ion is limited, this may velation of God in the gospel seem very probably be the law of our na: 1o witness; then the power of deciding ture, that it is not given to one man upon the fitness or unfitness of our to execute with vigour and fire, and, a&tions is of great consequence to at the same time, to attend to all the U8. Tefler and more refined graces, that Conscience in matters of religion, is belong to the exact perfection of his the power of deciding for ourselves, work: While, on the other hand, a whether the devotion of our hearts, thorough taste for those inferior graces and the ads of religious worship, of. is, for the most part, accompanied fered by us to the Deity, are such as with a diminution of sublimity and he requires of us. A man may subforce.

mit to give up his property, and life,

to the controul of a monarchy, when For the Boston MAGAZINE. he verily believes, that a democracy

would better secure the valuable deAn Elay upon the right to a

pofit. He may acquiesce in a system free Exercise of Conscience, of jurisprudence, which he conceives

to be very imperfect, and perhaps in religious matters.

dangerous in its tendency, because be THE wire author of our being has cannot obtain a better: But when he

beftowed upon us the organs of comes to worship him, who being a seose, by which are communicated to spirit is to be worth pped in spirit and ibe foul the ideas of external objects, truth, even him, before whiiall reethat the mind may arraoge, dispose ,and ing eye,each thought fiands compleatimprove them, to the honour of our ly revealed, he dares not to worship Creator, as well as to our own rati. with a form, which his conscience con'onal felicity. Conscience is that pow. demns as unfit. er of the miod, which decides upon the If conscience then is a principle, propriety, and fitness of this arrange that can never be given up, wvile we meat, aud of all determinations and realize the being of a God, the right a&tions consequent to it.

to a free exercise of it exceeds the Who the mind possesses right to all other enjoyinents, a8 power of volition so perfealy inde- much as the busiefs of eternity, in its pendent, that it aAs without the ne. importance, exceecis that of time. cefn y of impelling motives, as Clark, The idea of the divine right to rePrice, and others fuppore; or whei her ligious freedom has opened and ex. it is caly that piece of moral mecha. panded, and will continue to open



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