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in this naturalifts were mistaken ; for stances grow colder by the fluids they the royal academy at Petersburg, contain or are mixed with being evahave not long since congealed it into a porated. If both these methods, icy mass by a method well known to therefore, are practised upon the same almoft every philofopher before, but body at the same time, they will inprosecuted by none of them with equal crease the cold to almost any degree of perseverance. The Rnllian acade. intenreness wc defire. mifts only used the same arts by The Russian experiment at Peterwhich philosophers were accustomed Iburg, of congealing quick filver was to make artificial ice at pleasure. We thus: At a time when the quick-filfhall firft give the common method of ver was found to have fallen extrememaking ice, and then the new art of ly low, and the cold consequently to freezing quick filver.
be very intense, the mercury being by It was said in the beginning of this de Lille's thermometer, which is beft chapter, that fal ammoniac being adapted for measuring the degrees of mixed with pounded ice or snow, cold, as Fahrenheit's for measuring melted them, and at the same time those of heat, being, I say, by this made them co!der. A fimilar, thoi thermometer, fallen to 250 degrees, not so intense a cold, may also be thus they encreased the cold by mixing the given to snow-water by aniy falt what. fuming spirit of nitre, and having lover ; such as alum, copperas, falt- been left to cool in snow, with half as petre, or common sea fult, which we much snow in a common glass, ftirruse at our tables. Now, if we take ing it till it becomes of the confiftesce about four pounds of soow, or pound- of pap, the thermometer being dipped ed ice, and mix them with about a into this composition, the quick-silver pound of falt; in this composition, if funk to 470 degrees. Upon a repetiwe set a water glass up to the edges in tion of this experiment, when the water, and filled with water, we shall mercury (which contrary to the manfoon ieethelalt diffolve the ice or snow; ner nf water, inftead of diiating ftill but while diffolving, it will at the same continued to contrait with increased time freeze the waier in the glass into cold) funk to goo degrees, they broke one solid mass of ice, or at least will the glass, and it was found frozep into Jeave a fufficient quantity Ricking to an hard solid mars; but what was the fides to thew the truth of the most extraordinary, it bore the hamexperiment.
mer like a common metal, and was Naturalifts all in fift upon the ne- beat into the Mape of an half crown. ceffity of using falt of some kind or Arlaf however, it began to break and other in this experiment ; but I have being thawed, recovered its former often made ice by the fire side, with fluidity. From hence we see that the out any salt whatsoever, and which spirits either of salt or pitre, are por. every person that pleases may readily sessed of the power of cooling liquors try. It is only to fill a small deep in a much higher degree than the pewter dish wito water and upon that common substances in concrete. If to place a common pewter plate filled, common salt.petre firks the thermo. but not heaped with snow. Bring meter to 11 degrees, spirit of nitre this fimple apparatus near the fire, ftir will be found to fok it eight degrees the Inow in the plate with a cane or ftill lower, as has been discovered by any other instrument. The snow will Fahrenheit. From all that has been diffolve, and the ice will be formed said upon this subjeit, we can give vpon the back of the plate which was probable reasons for the different defer in the dish of wa*er. I have tried grees of cold in different regions, it frequently without falt, and it an- though under the same latitude, and fwers, though not with equal efficacy, consequently blessed with equal proBut of late there has been a more portions of rolar heat. Thus for ineffeétual method of congealing Auids Atance, the latitude of Moscow and than any yet mentioned. It has been Edinburgh, is precisely the same, yet discovered that Avids Randing in a in the one the cold is often found to current of air, grow by this means be forty degrees greater than freezing much colder than before. It has while the other seldom feels above been discovered also, that all sub. five. One reason may be that the air
Ejay on Taste.
of the one country may be more reign of King Charles II. which the charged with salts proper for produc- authors too of that time deemed an jag cold than the other. It may be Augustan age; when nothing was in alio observed, that the internal or cen- vogue but an affected brilliancy of tral heat of one region may be exceed wit; wheo the fimple majesty of Mile ed by that in the fame parallel, and ton was over looked, and paradise loft it mut therefore be for this reason almost entirely unknown; when Cowe colder. It may be said, that a coun. ley's laboured and unnatural conceita try wnich lies high, and on whore were admired as the quintessence of mountains ice gataers in great quoti genius ; Waller's gay prightliners was ties, will upon that account be colder m ftaken for the tender (pirit of love fill, for c, as we have seen, is not poetry, and such writers as Suckling only produce i by cold, but also pro. and Etheridge were beld in efteem for duces coid. Tue regions of North- dramatic composition. America are coider by far than those Wisat conclufion are we to form of hnilar latitudes in Europe, and from such instances as there? Is there probably for the reasons already any thing that can be called a ftandmentioned.
ard of tafe, by appealing to which we may diftinguilh between a good and a bad taite? Or is there in truth no Such diftin&ion; and are we to hold
according to the proverb, there is no (Continued from page 23.) difputing of taite ; but that whatever LAVING viewed tafte in its moft
pleases is right, for that reason that it
does please? N improved and perseft ftate, "
If ihere be no such thing as any come next to consider its deviations
Alandard of taste, this consequence from that ftate, the Auduations apd
muft immediately follow that all taftes changes to which it is liable, and to en
are equally good ; a position, the abquire whether, in the midnt of these,
surdity of which presently becomes there be any means of diftinguishing
glaring. For is there any one who a true from a corrupt tafte. This is
will serioully maintain that the taste of the moft difñcult part of our task. For it must be acknowledged, that no prio.
a Horrentot or Laplander is as deli
cate and corred as that of a Longinus ciple of the human miod is, in its oper
or an Addison? or that he can be ations, more fodtuating and caprici.
charged with no defe&t or incapacity ous than tafle Its variations have been
who thinks a common news writer as so great and frequent, as to create.
excellent an historian as Tacitus ? Svípcion with some of its being merely
There is therefore some foundation for arbitrary; grounded on no foundati.
the preference of one man's taste to 01, ascertainable by no standard, but
that of another ; or, there is a good wholly dependant on changing fancy;
and a bad, right and a wrong in taste, the consequence of which would be,
as in other things. that all fiodies or regular enquiries
The diverfity of taftes which preConcerning the objects of tafte were
vails among mankind, does not in n. In eloquence and poetry, the
every case infer corruption of tafte. Alitics at no time reliMed anything
The tastes of men may differ very tut what was full of ornament, and
considerably as to their obje&t, and 1plendid in a degree that we should de
yet none of them be wrong. One man Lombate gaudy; whilft the Greeks ad
relishes poetry moft ; another takes mired only chale and fimple heauties,
pleasure in nothing but biftory. The and despired the Afiatic oftentation. In
young are amused with gay and our own country, how many writing
sprightly compositions. The elderly that were greatly extolled two or three
are more entertained with those of a Cer:uries ago, are now fallen into en.
graver cast. It is not in matters of tre disrepote and oblivion? How very
tafie, as in questions of mere reason, Ciferent is the tasle of poetry which pre.
where there is but one conclusion that vails in Great Britain now, from what
can be true, and all the rest are erroprevailed there no longer ago than the
Qeous. Truth, which is the objet of
reason, reason, is one į benuty, which is the of mankind the ultimate appeal muf object of tafte, is manifold. Tate ever lie, in all works of talie. therefore admits of latitude and di. But have we then, it will be said versity of obje&ts, in sufficient con. no other criterion of wbat is beauti fiftency with goodness or juftness of ful, than the approbation of the ma tafte. When we say that Nature is jority? Muft we collect the voice o the ftandard of tafte, we lay down a others, before we form any judgmen principle very juft and true, as far as for ourselves, of what deserves an it can be applied. There is no doubt, plause in eloquence or poetry? By ni that in all cases where ao imitation is means; there are principles of reasoi joteoded of some obje& that exifts in and sound judgment which can be ap nature, as in representing human cha- plied to matters of tafte, as well as t racters or actions, conformity to na. the fubjects of science and philosophy ture affords a full and diftinct criterion He who aumires or censures aoy worl of what is beautiful. Reason hath, of genius, is always ready, if his tal in such cales full scope for exerting its is in any degree improved, to affig aut nority ; for approving or con- some reasons of his decifion. He al demoing ; by comparing the copy peals to pripciples, and points out th with the orig nal. But there are in ground on which he proceeds. Tal Romerable cases in which this role is a sort of compound power in whit cannot be applied ; and conformity the light of the onderstanding alwa ro nature is an expreffion frequently miagles, more or less, with the fe ved, without any diftin&t or deter- ings of sentiment. minate meaning. We muft therefore But, though reason can carry os fearch for fomewhat that can be ren a certain length in judging concer dered more clear and precise, to be ing 'works of taste, it is not to be ft the Standard of tafte.
gotten that the ultimate conclufia Tafte, as before explained, is ulti to which our reasonings lead, re mately founded on an internal fense at laft to leore and perception. ! of beauty, which is natural to men, may speculate and argue concern and which, in its application to parti propriety of conduct in a tragedy, cular objects is capable of being guided an epic poem. Juft reasonings and enlightened by reason. Now, the subjeät will correâ tbe capriu were there any one person who, por unenlightened taste, and establi pi felfed in full perfection all the powers ciples for judging of what deser of human nature, whore internal praise. But, at the same time, il fenfes were in every inftance exqui- reasonings appeal always, in the fire and juft, and whore reason was resort, to feeling. The foundai unerring and sure, the determinations upon which they reft, is what of such a person concerning beauty, been found from experience to pl woold, beyond doubt, be a perfe&t mankind molt voiversally. U Aandard for the tafle of all others. this ground we prefer a fimple and Wherever their taste differed from tural, to an artificial and affcated A bis, ir could be imputed only to some a regular and well-connected Rory imperfe&tion in their natural powers. loose and scattered garratives ; a But as there is no such living standard, Castrophe which is tender and pa no one person to whom all mankind tic, to one which leaves us onmo will allow such fubmission to be due, It is from consulting our own jo ' what is there of fufficient authority to , nation and heart, and from atten be the tandard of the various and op to the feelings of others, that any s pofite tastes of men ? Most certainly ciples are formed which acquire there is nothing but the talle, as far as therity in matters of tafte. it can be gathered, of human nature. When we refer to the concor That which men concur the most in sentiments of men as the ultimate admiring, must be held to be beauti of what is to be accounted beau ful. He talte mult be esteemed juft in the arts, this is always to be and truc, which coincides with the derstood of mea placed in such a general (eotiments of men. In this tions as are favourable to the pr Kandard we must red. To the fense excrtions of tafte. We refer to