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following me returned after an absence phical principles, and a priAice of that of fix weeks, about the time sufficient art consonant to suco principles, in for lying-in, aad a ftrange le fer from every part of the United States of ner to Mr. Fontaine was put in the America, would make them eminent. papers, importing that she had been in ly independent. Germany. All th:s time the game of The Earth hath God given to the the policies went on, and the fume children of men; and from a rational done upon tnem are said to annount cultivation of that earth, may be proto half a million. As the parties be. duced, every thing necessary for food, came more and more interded, it was physick and cloathing,even to luxury. neceffary for toe lady to be upon her i heartily with that some benevo. guard ; and fuch was the spirit and lent pen, equal to the talk, would address the thewed upon all occafions, take up the theme, and, for the good when any attempt was made at a dira of this young world, amuse the learn. covery, that no man dorst offer any ed and initru& the vulgar, in this imviolence: however, to avoid too criti. portant art. I mean to throw my mite cal observations the shifted about from into the public treasury, and, though place to place. At length, a quarrel it be bot a mire, I hope it will be ac. with Mr: Maurande, one of her chun cepted, in as much as I give accord. trymen, to whom the had imparted jng to that I have. the secret, and to whom she had given To write a regular syftem of huf. Strong demonftrations of her sex, bandry, might not lo well antwer the brought the matter to light, and Mr. porpoie of a Magazine publication, as Hayes, a surgeon, in Lerefter-fields, not being ro immediately oferul. Cli. inaintained a proiecution against the mate, foil, feed and plants, domeftic under.writer of a policy tor 700 l. and exotic, and appropriating the seed the evidence produced was clear and to its propereft foil, are subje&ts that positive, a verdict was given for Mr. may be handled occasionally, and H yes, the ad of July, and before the when any person thall be in a MOOD, eod of the monti,our heroine decamp- fo handle either of those subjects, the ed for France; in an advertisement be- mind then would be onfettered, and, * fore Melert England, the disclaimed all in time, a regular fyftem might grow joterest in the policies ; but advised out of such fpeculations. I mean to trofe nho may be insers by the decisi. have to hand in the sublimer parts of Coo! tne Court of King's Bench, not this scheme, but to fag fomething apon to pay tire money. This is a pitiful the mere practical part. As the feed is evasiou ; undoubte.tiy the presents committed to the earth for the present mnade tei, or any collateral be ieft the fealon, I Malt only make frime few might have for the secret, might be remarks on the erroneous mode of cutse demanded on its discovery: Me tuie, common among us. I have fpare was therefore in the rgio return time, at present, only to mention honte ; but it is the height of van sy that very oferol root, the potatoe. aud French duplicity tolay," she gots Tuis root delights mottin a rich loom, to enjoy, near her aug uit master, a but not too moilt: wer land produces

rearer ampurance of tranquility, than too much top and watry fruit, which all tue magna charti's of wis illind will no keep thicugh the winter, and could give er," witen it is well known is always ftrong and unpleasant to the the bá received an order from court tafte, Very dry land, produces a to conhoe herieli witou the walls oi a small crop, and nurley fiunt. Land convene. In a word, after all the great that is apt te bake (as we commonly praises beftuwed upon trer ; serious, phrase it; fhould also be avoided. impartial persons will only conder The earth for this crnp Mould he diri as a successiul, accomplithed op weli vlooghed and kept clear of wreds, poftr.

and not Mady, as all orchard, &c.

But the priacipal error in tending a To the Editors of the Boston Maga field of potatoes, is, the enormous hoil. zine.

ing. I have found, by many years exHE true knowledge of Prac. perience, that if potatoes are planted fc.l Hubb.núry, upon philoso. iud meilon Sul, they need scarcely

any

aby hilling, they will bed ihemselves candor, as the time allowed me was very at that distance from the surface of mort, if this should be acceptable, you the ground which gives them the inay perhaps hear further from gieatefi advantage to procure pourith-,

AGRICOL A. ment; this deptin, I have observed, is generally about four inches, and this,

On Education. depth, the plant hads by something which I will venture to call infoc,

THAT menin the original con. it seems to be so much Ike, bur in a I ftitution of their minds, are nearly lower degree, that principle, or rather upon an equality, has been asserted, faculty, in ite lowest order of the by some of the greatest men, who have. brute creation.

written in ancient or modern times. If the earth in which you plant po. This was the opinion of Mr. Addison, tatoes thould be card, and noi yield to who seems to have fudied human naThe preffyre of the roois, it will then ture, and wrote with clearners, and be neceffary to hill them, but, great precision, upon every subject, about: care thould be taken not to earth them which, he has employed his pen. Sitoo much, never let them be covered. milar were the sentiments of the late above four inchts, and this billing must, Lord Chefer field, who, in a peculiar be given with discretior, lor if they manuner, made man his particular. have bedded themselves (as they will ftudy. I would not have it thought in mellow, land) four inches, and from there observaions, that I con. you add four inches more earth, you ceive there exifts a perfeët equality fuffocate the fruit. Take an example; in the rational powers of every india potatoes, just before they blossom, be- vidual of the human species; for it gin to form their bulbs, if you leave must be plain, that there are, among them now, the fruit will grow rapidly, our race, emincoc and towering ima. but if you should add earth to the hiliginations, which as far exceed, in the young bulbs (for want of that air fublimity of sentiment, the common that can pervade four inches of earth) level of mankind, as there are bills willperifhand others will sprout above, and mountains in the natural world, them; this will be the progress of rearing their lofty heads above the nature, so long as you continue to bur weighbouring plains. These sublime den them with earth Therefore, to pro fpiritsimbibe the dews of heaven, and cure an early crop of potatoes, be sure impari their blessings to the country to give them your last earth as soon as which they inhabit, and hence, bethe plant is bg enough to receive it, come as useful to their fellow men, as when they know (excuse the mode of thole mountains are, in beftowing ferexpreffion) you have left earthing tility to ine loil below them. But, them they will begin to vegetate and would it not be as unreasonable to say increase with great rapidity,but will not that, because the land, in the neighwhile you keep burdening and fliAing bourliood of mountains, produced in them. Thus much (at preient)as to the much greater abundance, than that, culture, a word relative to the time of at a diftance from such a situation, gathering this crop most conclude this that therefore, the band of cultivation essay. Every prodoAion of the earth was not useful, in affifing the earth in has its time of maturity, consequently general ? And would it not be equal. the potatoe, if you harvest them before ly absurd, to afiert, that because there they are ripe, the juice will be crude; were to be found, here, and there, in they will be unpleasant to the tafte the course of a century, men of unand will not keep so well as if suffered, common genius, who were enlightned to grow longer; the sign of ripeness in as it were, with a ray from heaven, to this fruit, is, the torning and lading of inftru&t and illumioare the age, in the leaf and thrinking of the fialk. which they lived, that therefore, is It is remarkable in almost all bulbous, was neceffary, for mankind to attend. roots, especially the onion and potatoe, to the rodiments of letters, or. exert that they receive their first nourish- themselves in the education of youth. ment from the root, and finish their That there is a considerable fimilarity growth by what they receive from the of mental powers, among men, is preto top. I liope this will be received with ty certain, but witalnad.ng the forego.

[graphic]

ing remark.We have seen men,of ro ru ever, ready to acknowledge the great perior natural talents to their brethren advantages enjoyed in private aca. who, from the circumstance of losing a demies, by those pupils who have the leg or an arm, or some other bodily in good fortune, to be born of such pa. jury, have been obliged to apply them. rents or connected with such patrons, selves to the nudy of books, making ve who have the ability, and inclination ry confiderable improvements in litera. to procure such infiruction for those ture, and becoming able ftatesmen, ikil under their care, for these, under the ful pl yficians, eminent lawyers, or lear- tutelage of men of great ability and ned divines, who would have remain selected from the literati for this exed but for there seeming misfortunes, press purpose, muft, like the intervale unknowing and unknown.

in the neighbourhood of the moun T:e utility of education, is a point taids alluded to above, share largely, which seems to be so well eftablished, of that fertility, acquired by that it must appear, to thore unacquain- fuperior genius and eminence. How. ted with the present ftale of it, in the ever, ruch is tbe fituation of much commonwealih, to be voneceffary the greater part of this land, indeed of ro use any arguments, to persuade the every community, that it cannot be inhabitants into a sense of its impor- expected, that many can receive such fance. But, to what cause can it be peculiar advantages ättributed, that the country have ne. I know it has been said, that had not glected their anciert, laudable inftitu. private academies been inflituted in tion of grammar schools? If the war the time of war, the spirit of education was the sole cause of this cegled, now would have been abolished. This that is over, why, in the name of good seems to be beggiog the question ; I fente, can they cmit this very impor- grant, that during the war, from a tant concern any longer ? can they be great variety of extraordinary causes, contented, to have their children ile zeal and attention to town schools, wanting in that krowledge, which is remitted, in many places ; but, had pecchary to preserve their freedom ! there been no such inftitution as aca. Can you, ye inaiteprive parents ! feedemies, men of wealth and infuence, the more enlightened part of the com would probably have procured inmurity, with all their asiduity pro. ftructors in their respe&tive towns. curing the necessary inflruét on for The state of Conne&ticut have, with ther Chidren, to render item emi. great good sense, attended to this inftipent, and useful, and perhaps (though tution of schools, in all their towns, ro at preisnt it my be foreigo to their that at this season of the year, when views) to make their children Syracus our schools in the country, were forof your heire; and masters of that merly but little frequented, a traveller property which you have procured can scarcely pass through a town in with labour and toil? And will you that Rate but he observes the schools not take the only rep to prevent the thropged and generally attepded by consequences, wlich narurally attend youth of both fexes. This intellisuch exertions?

gence I have from a gentleman, who I may not suppore the negled of has lately been through a great part of for porting grammar schools can be the that country, and made the above reeffe&t of parfimony ; men, who have mark, with that pleasure, which we been excited to a sense of freedom, by Mould exped the fight would produce, the medium of that infru&tion, the in the miid of a true republican. But foundation of which was firft laid in my fellow countrymen ! Mhould you The iftitution of grammar schools, can continue your negligence and inattennever withhold from their offspring, tion, to this important inftitution in the same means of instruction which your advanced age, you may see the was the basis of their own freedom and laurels of your youthful days wither independence.

on your brows; your filver locks may It will not do to persuade your bow in obeisance to a tyrant's manselvea, or be persuaded, that private date, and your aged shoulders may academies will prove sufficient lor the bend beneath a load imposed by some diffusion of knowledge. I am how. baughty master.

Description

Description of Exdiriments made beater's fkin, he probably would have

plucked the very laurels that now with tbe Aerostatic Machine, adorn the brows of Montgolfier and invented by Meffieurs De Charles.

J. The honour of the discovery is Montgolher,ot. From the certainly due to the brothers Stephen Appendix to the fixty-ninth and Joseph Montgolfier, proprietors

of a considerable paper manufacture Volume of the Alonthly Re

at Aononay, a town in the Vivarais, view.

about thirty six miles fouth of Lyons : E avail ourselves of this op. and their invention is the more to be V portunity to lay before our

adm red, as it is not the effct of the *Teaders a brief, hiftorical account of

late discovery of a permanent eiaftic the very interesting discovery whici fuid lighter than the common are, but has of late attracted the notice of the of properties of matter long known, whole philosophical world ; and which and in the hands of the many acute our fanguine neighbours did not philosophers of this and of the last (crople, at the very first, to dignify century. They conceived that the with the name of AERIAL NAVIGA:

ca. effe at ibey looked for might be ob. TION.

tained by confining vapours lighter Although the Author of this book than common air, in an inverted bag, be koown to have warmly efpoured or covering, sufficiently compact to the party of Montgolfier, in opposi- prevent their eya poration, and so tion to that of Charles (for there are light, that when inflated, its ow! parties even concerning Balloons) yet

weight, added to that of the inclosed his reputa:ion, as a man of learning

vapour, migiit fall somewhat short of and veracity is sufficientiy established,

the weight of the air which its bulk and the facts be here atledges are in

displaces. general, as we have had oportunities. On these principles, they prepared to ascertain by collateral evidence, matters for an experiment. They ftated with sufficient accuracy to juf. formed a big, or balloon, of linen tify usin taking him for our guide in cloth, lined with paper, nearly this narrative.

spherical, and measuring about 35 rere The Preface contains a short survey in diameter *, its solid contents were of what projects have formerly been about 22,000 cub c feet, a space nearly fuggefted for the purpore of floating aqual to that occupied by 1980 lb. of heavy bodies in the atmosphere ; the common air, of a mean temparature, principal of which are those of Lana, on the level of the sea. The vapour, a Jesuit of Brescia, and of Galien, a which, by conje&ure, was about half Domin'can of Avignon, both' which as light as common air, weighed 990lb. however were, upon well enablished 'The balloon, together with a wooden principles, found by theory to be in frame rulpended to the bottom, which pomible in the execution. Due ho. was to firve as bailaft, weighed 4901b. nour is paid to Mr. Cavailo of London, wlience it appears that the whole must who, in 1732, seemingly with a view have been about 500 lb. lighter than to this discovery, tried to fill hags of an equal bulk of common air. This paper and bladders with inflammable difference of specific gravity, by whicla air ; but failed in his attempis, by the these bodies are made to rire, we Mall unexpected permeability of paper to henceforth, without warranting the inflammable air, and the too great propriety of the expreffion, call their proportional weight of the common power of ascension.' fized bladders. Had he then thought "The 5th of June 1783, was fixed on of employing gummed Glk, or gold. For the display of this fingular experi

• The imp. Hibility of Lana's pro- * All the measures here given are je & was demonstrated by Hook ; see French. The French foot is to the his Pbilofophical Colled ons, No. I. Eogl: 1h as 144 10 133; a French toise p. 28. And since by Leibnitz. Gali is lix French feet, cr, fix and threeen's rever needed any confution), e'rilis Eng! I feet.

S s

ment. ment. The States of Vivarais, wbo of water. This globe measured 12 feet were then assembled at Annonay, were 2 inches in diameter, its solid coninvited to the exhibition. The faccid tents were 943 feet 6 lines cubic, and bag was suspended on a pole 35 feet it's power of ascension was found equal high ; ftraw and chopped wool were to 35lb. burot under the opening at the hot The 27th of August 1783, having tom; the vapour, or rather smoke, been fixed on for the exhibition of this foco infiated ihe bag, so as to diftend experiment,the balloon was conveyed, it in all its parts; and,on a sudden,this in the preceding night floating in the immense mars ascended in the air with air, from a court near the Place des Tuc

eloc:tv.thatin less than ten mi- Victoires, where it had been confruft. nutes it appeared to be about 1000 ed, to the Champ de Mars. Our au. toises above the heads of the spe&tators. thor indulges Lis lively imagination A breeze carried it about 1200 toises in a loits description of this nocturnal from the fpot whence it departed ; and procefhon, which, he says, moved along then the vapour, either escaping thro' in the dead of night, aliended by a come loop holes that had been acci- party or guards, with lighted torches, dentally left in the construction, or and seemed ro awful, inat ile hackbeing condensed by the coldness of the ney coach men who happened to be circumambient air,the globe descended in its way, descended Iroin their seats, gradually on a vineyard, with so little and devoutly proftrated themselves preffure that none of the stakes were before the supernatural being that ad. broken,and scarce any of the branches vanced in such solemo ftare. of the vines bent.

The concourse of people, on foot II. The rumour of this successful and in carriages, was lo immense in experiment soon reached the metro the Champ de Mars, that a large polis, and roured the emulation of the body of troops were drawo out to Pirifian philosophers. Without wait. prevent difturbances. At five o'clock ing for particular instructions from in the alter noon, a figoal having been the inventors, they reflected on a me. given by the bring of a mortar, the tcd or treir own; and resolved, in- cords that confined the globe were cut,

ead ci vapour, lo use inflammable and it rose, in less than two minutes, air; the rzecific weight of which, when to a height of near 500 toises. It pure, they kie:v to be to that of con. there entered a cloud, but soon ap. mon air nearly as ien loone.

peared again, ascending to a much The process of producing this a'r, greater height; and at laft it was fort being very expensive, the auihor of among other clouds. tie book now before us, set on loot a Our Author juftly censures the fubscriptiog; and having soon raised condu&t of this experiment ; observing a suficientíum, M. CHARLES, Pro. that too much inflammable air, and felicr of experimental philosophy, and that even some common air had beea and M. ROBERT, a mailiemalicul in introduced into the globe, which being flrument maker, were set to work: closed on all fides, left no room for the and they confiructed a globe of lute. expansion of this elaftic' fuid when it Atring (lielas) glazed over with elar- Thould arrive to a more rarified meditic gun: diffolved in some kind of spirit om. We find, in faê, that it must or effent al oil. Aller niany difficul. have burft in consequence of this exlifs and disappointinents, which will panion ; since, after having floated ever attend forntefl.2's, they succeeded, about three quarters of an hour, it fell in two days, to fill this į love with in- in a field near Goness, a village about Mammable air, pioduced from 1000 lb. fiteen miles N, N. W: of the Champ of iron filiags, and 498 Th of vitriolic de Mars. It must be allowed, that avid, diluted in four tires its quantity the mere evaporation of the air could

not well have been the cause of its derWe muiere al leaf commerr.o. cending ro roon. Many periodical rate the name of Cavendish; to whoin papers have already entertained the it is acknowledged ou all hands, the public with ludicrous accounts of the discovery of the specific gravity of affonil rent of the peasants who infiammable air, as well as of many found it, and of the rough treatment it Giler of its propertics, is solely due received ai ti.eir hands.

III. It

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