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sa democracy the Supreme power is is a well known truth, that the prefent then placed in the whole body of noblemen ofEurope,in molt inffances, the people, united by the social con date the origin of their rank from the Iract, and acting in every infance by feudal adminiftration of government in
majority of voices. In this case it which property was the chief, if not is plain, that the whole property of the only source of diftinction. Bet those, who possess it, may be taken rank, when once obtained, is often from them against their unanimous preserved after the cause of it ceases voice, and thus rendered totally in to exist. The great Barons in the fecure; and perhaps subject to greater European nations, having at first acAuctuations, than if the government cumulated certain dignities and pow. was an absolute monarchy or a com- er, from the extent of their poffelpleat aristocracy. Nothing is more true, fions, foon united them to their per than that bodies of men are subje&t to soos ; and have been generally able all the vices, follies and passions of an in- amid all the revolutions, that have dividual, with this difference,that while taken place fince the eleventh century the latter generally pursues his mea: to retain in a greater or less degree, i fures with union, energy and system, hare in the adminiftration of govern the former are frequently hurried in- ment. Though, in England, they to sudden exertion by some paroxysm are deprived in a great measure of of zeal, the fever of parties or the rage their wealth, yet from the riches of of fact on.
their blood,the honours, the pomp and When the supreme power is so dif. peculiar priviledges that await them, posed by the conflitution of the govern they continue an effetual check upon ment, chat no law can be made, that that levelling spirit of the people, which thall affe& the persons and properties is the parent of democratical tyranny. of the governed, without the consent Kings owe their origin to war. of each, power may be then said to be Mankind ever have been formed in. ballanced between them, and while the to different societies, differing in their ballance is preserved, the one can never interests and or course their pursuits. encroach on the rights of the other; but A knowledge of these discordant in. if it be destroyed, whetherit be done interests can never fail to create a sense favour of the few or the many,usurpa- of danger ; and, as it is agreeable to tion and tyranny immediately rear principles of nature and reason, in their heads, and bring diffention and times of difficulty and diftress, to fly civil war in their train.
for affiftance to a single person in preIt is a melancholy idea,but it is a true ference to a multitude. Every roone, that the seeds of conteft, abuses ciety in the early and more warlike and corruption are rown in every go ages of the world was furnished with verment, at the very moment of its its particular leader. He led them to inftitution. The poor have in their own battle in war, and prelided at their miflaken notions, every thing to councils in peace. Nimrod, that gain by opprefing the rich ; the rich mighty hunter before the Lord, is I have everything to preserve by cramp- thipk the first king upon record. Poring the poor and rendering them fub- fessed of a bold and enterprizing spifervient to their views. These differ- rit, he gained the affe&ions of the Are ent and discordant interests have in all fyrian people, formed them to the use societies at some period or other of of arms, inured them to discipline their being,made their appearance and and fatigue, led them to victory and been diftingushed by various rights, established one of the moft extenfive immunities and powers. In some go. empires of the world. From him vernments these different rights have sprang the monarchs of the kingdoma been settled by compact, in others by of the eaft, who always commanded lawgivers, but in the greatest part by their armies in battle, rendering every ufurpation and power. Ia Athens the political inftitution subservient to men of property cooftituted the Sen- military views. The States of Greece, ate; In Rome, the body of Patricians; Sicily, Carthage and Rome, had at in France, Germany and the other first their kinge, who were officially Nations of Europe, the Nobility, It their chief commanders in war. When
tho the inhabitants of the north over-ran property of the governed secure ; pa Europe, and defroyed the Roman triotism confifts in endeavours to pred empire, the generals of their forces serve the ballance. Wherefore as this eftablished themselves their kings... ballance may be destroyed, as well by Warmly attached to those, who after the encroachments of the many on the participating their sufferings, were rights of the few, as by the encroachthe authors of their glory and success, ments of the few on the rights of the and long habited to render them im many, popular leaders may not, at plicit obedience, the people chearfully all times, be patriots. fubmitted to their government in the A ballaoce supposes three things, intervals of peace. Monarchy being The two scales and the hand that holds tbus eftablithed,that species of govern.
it. If the supreme power be altogement has continued through memora
ther divided between the persons and ble revolutions, in almoft every nati. property of the governed, though it on in Europe, to the present day. In be so diftributed, that the scales shall fome, the power of the kings is great perfe&ly poise, yet the experience of Jy encreased, in others diminished, but ages has taught us, that that governin all they have invariably retained meat cannot long continue free. So the supreme command of the armies. exorbitant are the defires of men for
Under the feudal fyftem we find, power, that each will be grasping at that civil power was divided into three the whole, and in a little time destroy diftin& branches. The king or lord pa: the ballance. In Athens the supreme Famount,had his fare,the great barons power was vested in the Senate and and the people had theirs. In France the People, and though the execution and some other European govern of the laws was placed in the hands of mente, a variety of events have concur
other magiftrates, yet as no checks yed to deprive the lords and commons were provided against the encroachof their whole authority,and vefted the ments of the Senate on the people, or supremepower absolutelyin the monarch the peoplcan the Senate, thatstate was In England we find the reverse. The constantly the sport of diffention and people have obtained their due pro
cabal. A few years after the inftiportion of political power, which, un- tution of Solon, Pififtratus rendered der the present form of their govern himself the tyrant of the city. After ment, is so wisely diftributed and his decease and the expulsion of his equally ballanced, that it is perhaps family, the laws of Solon were again beyond the reach of human wildom revived. But after a few years, being to devise a fyftem, in which life, and torn to pieces by internal feuds their the bieffings of it can be more effec- conftitution was again thrown afide, tually tecured. But if the ballance and the whole adminiAration of their Movid be destroyed,or in other words, affairs given to four hundred magic. if one branch of ihe government Should trates chosen by the people. But ever obtain the power of either of the these magiftrates proving a body of others, liberty would at once be ban- insupportable tyrants they were foon ithed and tyranny succeed in her place. deposed in rage. Thus for the want For instance, if the people should de- of some conftitutional checks, the gothrone the monarch, and usurp his vernment of Athens was as unflable authority, the rights both of persons as the tempers of its inhabitants, and aod of property would at once be continued constantly fuftuating una Moat. If the king on the other hand, til with all Greece, it submitted to the tould ever wreft from the people arms of Rome. Syracuse represents their previliges and powers, and at a fimilar picture. The supreme pow. tach them to himseli, life and all its er of the city was placed in the hands enjoyments would be held at the mis.. of the elders and the people. But erable tenure of an individual's will the latter roon destroyed the ballance, and caprice.
murdered the best and wiseft citizens, From the observations that have and sported away their liberty for the been made, if true, I think it is plain, adulating speeches of Dionyfius, who that when power is to disposed and proved one of the most cruel tyrants ballanced as to render the persons and upon record. It is also a well known
Truth, that the contefts between the About six years ago, I found myPatricians and Plebeians of Roine for self a student of the third class at the that part of the supreme power, which Cambridge university. My parents was vefted in the l'arquins, and which had placed me there with the defign on their expulsion, in a sense became os preparing me for one of the learned derelid, ended in the destruction of professions. Knowing my deftination, the ballance, and the consequent ruin I had hitherto ftudied the sciences of that great in stress of the world with no small degree of application,
Trele examples and many others except that my reading was now and that might be adduced from biftories then interruped by an elegant poem of Venice, Genoa, Holland and other or pathetick novel. There had no European States inconteftibly prove other effeat than to serve as agreeable the principles of human nature to be relaxations. My mind remained calm, fuch, that to preserve a government and was agitated with no emotions, free,or in other words,topreseryea bal. which were either tender or transJance of power between thepersons and porting. properties of the governed, it is not In the wioter, by the invitation of enough rodivide and ballance it betweu Mr. Andelt, a friend of my father, I them ; but a certain portion of the sun rode a few miles from Cambridge, to preme authority must be reserved and pass the vacation at his house. I aplodged in other hands which shall be proacted it without anxiety, as I had able at all times to check those en no presentiment of the tumults, which croachments, that must ever terminate were soon to agitate my breaft. Mr. in tyranny. With the means of prefev. Andell was a gentleman about fortying ibis ballance of power, the consti. five years old. He lived upon the tution of England is admirably fur. estate of his ancestors ; and he had, nished. How these means are provided by his industry and tafte, greatly imin that goverri men', and how the fu- proved it in convenience and beauty. preme power is distributed, billanced He was hospitable and generous ; and and checked in our own, may be the he entertained his vifitors in a man. fubject of some future observations. ner, which never failed to please. One
was at a loss which to armire noft,
tie ingenuity of his observations, the To the Editors of the Boston Ma:
gaiety of his wit, or the decency of GAZINE.
his language. He had one fault only, Gentlemen,
which was an excessive love of pruHere is nothing again ft which the dence : He allowed too little to the A old more frequently caution the feelings of the heart ; and ridiculed young, than the forming of attach them all as extravagant and roman. monis, when there is poimmediate prof tick. pect of supporting a family. Morhers His family confined of four fons are constantly enjoining upon their and a daughter. The daughter was daughters, to give no encourage the second child, and presided at the meilt to any youth, however amiable, table ; for his wife had been dead awho has not already fortune fuffic.ent bout a year. Her lors was not yet for o inaintain a woman genteely i and gotten. The boys indeed wept not ; loung men are laughed at as fools, but a tear frequently flood in the eye vien they prefume to fall in love, of Maria. She was indulging her tlore iney have acquired, at leafi, a gries, when I ectered her father's on petence. Prudence is the per. house ; for me had just received a etual theme of praise. It is a virtue Terter of condolence from a friend in idend, which deserves commenda. Europe, which brought freth to her no; but it may nevertheless, I con mind the virtues of her parent. olve, be carried too far ; and, by. There is something in female affli&ti. ming to preserve a person from em. or. ro inexpr-libly tender, that it arrafsments, may render him com. cannot fail to touch any heart, which etely wretched for life. But my is not entirely hardened. It touched cart throbs, with too much anguim mine Had'a smile brightened the
rearon upon the subje&t: I will re face ol Maria, I believe I should have te my flory.
been proof against her charms; or
leaft, the first impreffion would not her my fifter, and the acknowledged ave been so lafting.'
me her brother, When her father introduced me to The vacation being finished, I was er, Maria attempted to be cheerful; obliged to return to my ftudies. But ut without success. In a few mi. I did not leave Maria, till I told her, Dres, nowever, the defifted from the in the presence of her father, that I Etempt; for in voluntarily, I know would write to her, and that she must 0; bow aor why, my tears began to write to me. Her father, I remem. Ow; and her father, taking up the ber, looked gravely ; but he made no etter, and reading some lines, found obje&tion. jiníelf also affected. Maria now Nothing is more frequent in lovers ave way to ber sorrow. I beheld than complaints of absence. Every ser; and compaflion and love at once ftep I took from Maria brougat a de. Dok poffeffion of my soul.
gree of pain with it ; but it'll plea. But melancholy did not predomi. Ture predominated. My mind was Bare in the heart of Miria. No; at filled with romantick deliriums, times the was sprightly andgay.She had which were more delicious than any received a large portion of her father's pleasures I had ever enjoyed.' wit, which was readered Aill more But I find that I am going into too pleagog than his by the peculiar minute a detail. Let me say then, delicacy and felicity, which always that the fame, which was kindled in diftinguithed it. I had been in the mybreast, continued to burn with inhouse but a few hours, when her creasing ardour for upwards of three cheeríuloers returned, and her wit years. Maria did not endeavour to broke forth in fashes of light, like the quench it. I had frequent opporbeans of the sun after a fhower in tunities of seeing her. What we sup.
pored at firit to be friendship was now Sweet girl ! with what pleasure did known to be love. I lived but for I hear; with what pleasure did I view her. We had the same sentiments, her! Her form was fine ; her face, the same pleasures, the same pains, not beautiful indeed, but marked and, in fine, the same soul. Did not with one intelligence of an angel. Her heaven behold with complacency a Dyes! it was a long time before I congexion, which was formed by navuld discover their colour ; but I ture, by sympathy, by virtue ? parceived at once that they shot forih Our paffion was soon too visible Sace, beniguity, and love. Her not to be perceived by the family of voice was liquid and melodious. In Maria. Charles wrote me upon the the evening the sang in concert with fubje&. He informed me, that his Caarles, her eldeit brother. Iliften. father began to notice it, and that it ed all ear, ail rapture ; and the con gave him uneasiness. I was deftitute quest was completed.
of money, and without any immedi.. Five weeks palled away in a dream ate profpe&t of acquiring it ; my faof joy. Towards the end me was ther of a decayed family, and though feasible that I was never happy but in a gentleman, yet poor ; unable there. her presence ; and the did not com fore to afliit me. It was imprudent mod me to retire. She was not yet in a young fellow of twenty, but a fixteen, aod had never loved ; I had year out of college, to be engaged in a jult compleated my seventeenth year, courtfhip. He would ruin himself, Though my accomplishments and vir and he would ruin the obje&t of his tues were pot equal to hers, yet in affe&ions. Come respects I resembled her. Like I was alarmed with this letter. My her I was fimple and innocent in my breast became the seat of misery. I manners. I was gay and cheerful; flew to Maria, and found relief. She and like her I delighted in tears. She assured me, that in cerelted motives was fond of mofick ; and I played weighed not with her. She was hapupon the fore. Without declaring py in my affe&tion, and she wanted no my paflion, or indeed without know more. Heaven, the said, would in ing that my heart felt any, I called time reward my merit with a fortune.
If it did not, the would live with me will never love. I will live upon the in poverty, in wretchedness. But, idea only of Maria. I will never see Frank, the added, why need you be her. Gracious God! The shall not to anxious ? You are always looking be mine. She Mall become the wife forward to the nuptial day. We can of another. be happy as lovers for many years to I wrote to Mr. Andell, and gave come. I am your friend; what can him a candid account of my deteryou desire more? The flame which mination. He returned me a very animates our boloms, is pure and vir favourable answer, and permitted me tuous. Can it be rendered more de- to come to his house and take my laft lightful, Believe me, I will never farewell of his daughter. I went, and marry any person, whom you do not he received me with a smile. You point out.
now conduct, said he, like a young One year more passed away, but man of prudence. You were a fool not in so continued a stream of happi. ith boy, Frank, to fall in love, before ness as the foregoing ; for it was fre you were settled in any kind of bu, quently interrupted with the disquiet fiaels. Believe me, your puerile paf, occasioned by her fazher's coldness. fion can easily be conquered. This gradually increased, till at length He had scarcely spoken these words, he sought an opportunity to come to when I flew to Maria. I informed aa open rupture with me. The effect her that I was determined to be was an absolute prohibition from via wretched ; for so prudence required: firing any more in his family,
that I intended never more to see her; In the mean time I received a very and I, berought her to marry one of harth letter from my father, who, those gentlemen, who desired to ob. living in a diftant part of the conti. tain her hand. She heard me with the nent, had been but lately made ac- scorn of female dignity. But dignity quainted with my, amour. He con was soon melted into tenderness. We demned in very severe terms the im embraced each other in the most par. prudence of my attachment, and told honate manner. We wept. And I me that I had tried away that time, was just beginning to curse prudence which ought to have been devoted to in the bitterness of my soul, when my ftudies.
Mr. Andell entered the room. ReI began now seriously to refleå. I tire, young man, cried he ; a&t worwas conscious that Maria's image had thy of yourself. Maria, he bids you very often obtruded itself into my farewell : he parts from you forever. mind, and deftroyed every scientifick I obeyed his commands, and hal. idea. And though I had paid as much tened to the place of my habitation. attention to my books as Atudents in There I received a letter from my general, being by a virtuous passion father, ordering me to come to him preserved from gaming, drioking, and immediately ; for he thought proper the usual vices of youth, yet fill I that I should ftudy under his eye. I might have read more, had I follow. was gratified with the summons; for ed the guide of prudence. This re. I hoped that absence and distance flection ftung me. I wished to be emi. would assuage the anguish of my mind. nent. I adored Maria ; but I panted I had been but a few months with for fame.
my father, before I heard that Maria From that moment I determined to was married. She was inducfacrifice my love to prudence, and ed by the solicitations of her pato my regard for Maria's father. He rent to give her hand to Mr. Price, a was a worthy man. He had treated young gentleman, who lived in the me with great friendship. I thought neighbourhood. He possessed an easy it bare and ungrateful to deprive him fortune, was induftrious, honeft, and of his daughter again it his consent. worthy. My fondoess for Maria and When I had formed this resolution, the return which it had received, my soul was elevated with a consci. were not unknown to him. But his ous digaity: I called myself a hero ; feelings were not lively, nor his delibut I was a hero in the agonies of cacy extreme. He confided in this death. I will be great, cried I. I maxim, which Maria's father had