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serted in the under part of the coverand it would be as difficult for a fpiing pellicle of ice. All these filaments der's web to be formed, while the enlarging by degrees, and new ones wind was breaking and blowing the being constantly added, at length by threads that formed it, as it is for the their union form one folid mars. frost to send forth its filaments in the From hence we may see that fuids proper order for the general congela. freeze alway's at the top first, and not tion of a river. In very great frofts at the bottom, as some have imagin. however, rivers themselves are fro ed.

zen. I have seen the Rhine frozen at Before the congelation, and while one of its moft precipitate cataracts the fluid is congealing, a number of and the ice standing in gtaffy columns air bubbles continually rise to the like a forest of large trees, the bran furface, where they escape; and the ches of which have been newly lop more flowly the congelation is formp ed away. ed, the more slowly do these bubbles But though the current of th come up. The swifter congelations Atream oppoies its freezing, yet a gen however, confine a great quantity of tle and hot wind frequently helps i these air.bubbles before they have forward. Farenheit assures us, that time to escape, and the ice thus quick pond which stands quite calm, ofte ly formed, always contains a much acquires a degree of cold much bi larger portion of air than that more yood what is sufficient for freezin flowly produced. For this reason, yet no congelation eprues. If the swift congelations produce ice, flight breath of air happens in such which, containing great quantities of case to broh over the water's su air, wants that evenenefs of its con- face, it stiffens the whole in an i texture, which is remarkable in the ftant: The water, before congelatic ice which has lers, and it thus le. and in its liquid ftate, finks the the comes more opake. ft resembles mometer very low, which shews i broken chryftal, while that brought excessive degree of coldness. T on by flow congelation is perfectly moment that by the air or any oth smooth and transparent like glars. agitation, it begins to congeal, t • Huyghens, in order to try the thermometer rises to the ordina force, with which ice would expand freezing powt. The causes of itself, when confined, filled a cannot, there are inscrutable in the prere the sides of which were an inch thick, Aate of philofophical experiment. with water, and then closed the In general, the ice of northern mouth and touch-hole, so as that gions is much frarder than that of none could escape. The inftrument more fouthern clintates, and thou thus filled, was expored to a ftrong it contains no air, yet its contextur freezing air. In less than twelve much ftronger by reason of the gre hours the ice within was frozen, and er degree of cold by which it is ci began to dilate itself with such force, gealed. The ice of Spitsbergen a that it actually burft the piece in two the Greenland seas, is so hard, t different places. Mathematicians it is very difficult to break it with · have calculated the force of the ice hammer. In our own climates, ' upon this occafion ; roch a force they may in general form a very juft o say would raise a weight of 27720 jecture concerning the duration pounds. From hence therefore we frost by the hardness of the ice. need not be surprized at the effects of in the beginning of the froft the ic ice destroying the substance of vege- more hard and refifting than it y tables, trees, and even splitting rocks, ally is, the froft will continue long when the frost is carried to excess. proportion. A machine might w

Freezing is carried on much more a little ingenuity be made that wa expeditiously when the water is at discover this hardness with suffic

reft, than when it is in motion. It is prec lion.... During the hard fron • easy to align the cause of this; as the 1740, a palace of ice was built at ice is carried from one surface to ano. tersburg, after the most eleganti ther by filaments, the current fis ftill del, and the justeft proportions destroying them as soon as formed; Auguftan Architecture... It was

feet long and 20 feet high. The ma. They sometimes Atrike in the same
terials were quarried from the surface manner the philosopher and the pea-
of the river Neva, and the whole fant, the boy and the man. Hence
food glistening againt the sun with the faculty by which we relish such
a brilliancy almoft equal to its own. beauties, seems more akin to a feeling
Tojocrease the wonder fix cannons of of sense, than to a process of the un-
ice, two bombs and mortars, all of derstanding; and accordingly from an
the same materials, were planted be. external seu re it has borrowed its
fore this extraordinary edifice. The name ; that sense by which we receive
Candon were three pounders, they and distinguish the pleasures of food,
were charged with gun powder, and

having, in several languages, given Ered off ; the ball of one of them rise to the word taste in the metaphopierced an oak plapk at fixty paces rical meaning under which we now ciftance and two inches thick, nor consider it. However, as in all subdid the piece burft with the explo jeås which regard the operations of fon.

the mind, the inaccurate use of words (To be continued.)

is to be carefully avoided, it must not

be inferred from what Thas been said, • M. de Mairon differt. sur la

that reason is entirely excluded from

the exertions of tafte. Though taste, Glace, part 2. sect. 3d. chap. 3d.

beyond doubt, be ultimately found-
ed on a certain natural and extin&ive

sensibility to beauty, yet reafon as. An El ay on Taste. fifts tafte in many of its operations,

and serves to enlarge its power. From a new Work.

Tafte, in the sense now explained, is TASTE is the faculty which is a faculty common in some degree to

always appealed to in disquifi- all men. Nothing that belongs to tions, concerning the merit of dif- human nature is more universal than Course and writing. There are few the relish of beauty of one kind or fubjects on which men talk more other ; of what is orderly, proportiloosely and indiftin&ly than on taste; oned, grand, harmonious, new or lew which it is more difficult to ex• {prightly. In children the rudiments plain with precision, and none that is of tafte discover themselves very more dry or abstract.

early in a thousand inftances; in their Tafte may be defined, “The pow fondners for regular bodies, their ad1r of receiving pleasure from the miration of pi&tures and ftatues, and bezoties of nature and of art.” The imitations of all kinds, and their forf queftion that occurs concerning Atrong attachment to whatever is it is, whether it is to be considered new or marvellous. The most igno21 an internal sense, or as an exertion rant. peasants are delighted with bal. of reason ? Reason is a very general {ads and tales, and are ftruck with term ; but if we underftand by it, the beautiful appearances of nature That power of the mind which in in the earth and heavens. We must Specelative matters discovers truth, therefore conclude the principles of and in practical masters judges of the taste to be deeply founded in the huhtness of means to an end, I appre- man mind. It is no less essential to hend the question may easily be ap man to have some discernment of Iwered. For nothing can be more beauty, than to poffers the attributes clear, than that tafte is not resolvea of reason and of speech. But altho' ble into any such operation of reason. none be devoid of this faculty, yet It is not merely through a discovery the degrees in which it is possessed are of the undertanding or a deduction widely different. In some men only of argument, that the mind receives the feeble glimmerings of taste appear. pleasure from a beautiful prospect or the beauties which they relish are of a foe poem. Such objects often Atrike the coarselt kind ; and of these they an intuitively, and make a strong in- have but a weak and confused im. Pretion when we are unable to alliga pression ; while in others, tafte rises the reasons of our being pleased. to an acute discernment, and a lively

cojoyment

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enjoyment of the moft refined beau. and hard, he who has no admirati ties. lo general, we may observe, of what is truly noble or praise w that in the powers and pleasures of thy, nor the proper sympathetic se! tafte, there is a more remarkable in- of what is soft and render, muft ha equality among men than is usually a very imperfect relf of the high found in point of common sense, rea. beauties of eloquence and poetry. fon and judgment. The constitution The characters of taste when bra of our nature in this, as in all other to its most perfect ftate are all rec respects, discovers admirable wisdom. cible to two, Delicacy and Corre In the diftribution of those talents neís. which are necessary for man's well Deilcacy of Taste respects prin being, Nature hath made lefs diftinc- pally the perfection of that patu tion among ber children. But in the sensibility on which tafte is foupd distribution of thole which belong It implies those fner organs or pa only to the ornamental part of lite, ers which enable us to disco The hath beflowed her favours with beauties that lie hid from a vuls more frugality. She hath boih sown eye. One may have strong sensib the seeds more sparingly; and rea- ty, and yet be deficient in delica dered a higher culture requifile for talle. He may be deeply impresi bringing them to perfection. This by ruch beauties as he perceive inequality of tafte among men is ow. but he perceives only what is in so ing, without doubt, in part, to the degree coarse, what is bold and p different frame of their natures ; to pable; while chalter and simple nicer organs, and foer internal pow. naments escape his notice. In ers, with which some are endowed state taste generally exifts amo beyond others. But if it be owing in rude and unrefined nations. purt to nature, it is owing to educa But a person of delicate tafte bo tion and culture ftill more.

feeis strongly, and feels accurate Tafte sa moft improveable faculty,if He (ees diftin&tions and differen there be any such in human nature, & where others see none; the moft it receives its improvement from these tent beauty does not escape him, a two sources, first, the frequent exer- he is sensible of the smallest blemi cise of taste, and next, the application Delicacy of taste is judged of by 1 of good sense and reason to the ob. same marks that we use in judging jećis of tafie. Io its perred ftate, it is the delicacy of an external sense. undoubtedly the result both of nature the goodness of the palate is not tr and of art. It suppores our natural by ftrong flavours, hut by a mixti sense of beauty lo be refined by fre- of ingredients, where, potwithstar quent attention to the most beautiful ing the confusion, we remain sen fi objects, and at the same time to be of each ; in like manner delicacy guided and improved by the light of internal taste appears, by a qu the understanding. I must be allow and lively sensibility to its fin ed to add, that as a found head, ro most compound, or modi latent likewise a good heart, is a very ma je&s. terial requifite to juft taste. The mo. Correctness of Tafie respeitschi ral beauties are not only in them. the improve ment which that facu relves superiour to all others, but receives through its connexion they exert an infuence, either more the underfia uding. A man of near or more remote, on a great vz. re& taste is one who is never impo riety of other objects of tafte. upon by counterfeit beauries ; u Wherever the affections, characters, carries always in his mind that fai or actions of men are concerred (and ard of good sense which he emple i hele certainly afford the noblest in judging of every thing. He e subjeéis to genius) there than be cei mates with propriety The compa ther any juft or a ffeiling description tive merit of the several beauti of them, nor any thorough feeling of which he meets with in any work the beauty of that description, with genius ; relers them to their pro out our pofle fäng the virtunus affec- classes ; affigns the principles, as tions. He whole ears are indelicate as they can be traced, whence th

pov

power of plcafiog flows; and is pleas. fitancy and agitation, cried the youth, ed himself precisely in that degree in “No words; 'tis not a time: your which he ought, and no more.

money inftantly." "Hear me, young It is true that these two qualities of man, come on with me : 1, you see, tafte, delicacy and corre&ness, mutu. am a very old man, and my life of ally imply eacb other. No tafte can very little consequence; your's seems be exquisitely delicate without being far otherwise. I am named Sharp, correct, nor can be thoroughly cor- the archbishop of York; my carriage red without being delicate. But ftilla and servants are behind, but conceal predominancy of one or oiher quality your perturbations, and tell me what in the mixture is often visible. The money you want, and who you are, power of del cacy is chiefly seen in and, on the word of my chara&er, discerning the true merit of a work; I'll not injure you, but prove a friend; the power of correctness, in rejecting here, take this, and now tell me how false pretenfions to merit. Delicacy much you want to make you indepenleans more to feeling ; correctness dent of so dangerous and deftru&tive a more to reason and judgment. The business as you are now engaged former is more the gift of nature; in." "Oh! Sir,"replied the man, “I the latter more the product of cul. deteft the business as much as you; I ture and art. Among the ancient am (faultering) but. -but.--at home critics, Longinus poffelled most deli. there are creditors who will not ftay; cacy ; Ariftotle, most correctness. ffty pounds, my lord, would, indeed, Among the moderns, Mr. Addison do what do thought or tongue is a high example of delicate taste; besides my own can feel.” “Well, Dean Swift, had he written on the Sir,"resumed the prelate,“I take it on subject of criticism, would perhaps your word, and, upon.ny honour, if have afforded the example of a cor you will compose yourself for a day rect one.

or two, and then call on me at......, (To be continued.)

what I have now given shall be made up that fum ; trust me, I'll not deceive you." The highwayman

looked at him, was filent, and went To the Prioters of the Boston MA

off, and at the time appointed, acGAZINE,

tually waited on the archbishop, was Gent.

received, and by his almost unparalIf you think the following Anecdote

leled magnanimity, enabled just to of Archbishop Sharpe will afford

assure his lordship, that he hoped his any entertaioment to yourReaders,

words had left impreffons which no please to insert it.

inducement of want of money could TT was his lordchip's cuftom in his ever efface. Nothing more of him

journies, generally to have a fad. was heard for a year and a half, or dle-hor se attend his carriage, that in longer, when, one morning, a person case of satigue from fitting, he might knocked at his grace's gate, and with take the refremment of a ride. In a peculiar earneftness of exprefsion his advanced age, and but a few years and countenance, desired to see him. before his death, as he was going in The bishop ordered the firanger to this manner to his episcopal residence, be brought in ; he entered the room and was got a mile or two before his where his lordship was fitting, but had carriage, a deceatly dressed, well-look- scarce advanced a few fteps before bis ing young man on horseback, came countenance changed, his knees totup, aud with a trembling hand, and tered, and he runk, in an instant, alfaultering tone of voice, presented a most breathless on the floor. Proper piftol to his lordship's breaft, demand means to revive him were used, and, ing his money. The archbishop, at length on recovering, he requeft. with great composure, turned about, ed his lordship for an audience in priand looking fedfaftly at him, desired vate. The apartment being cleared, that he would remove that dangerous “My Lord," said be " you cannot Veapon, and tell him fairly his con have forgotten the circumstances at dition. "Sir.... Sir..." with great hee! such a time and place; God and gra.

titude

titude will never suffer them to be 10. One half a musical ioftrument, obliterated from my mind. Io me, and one fifth of a point of the compass my Lord, you now behold that once repeated. moft wretched of mankind, and now,

• MYRA. by your igexpresible humagity, ren

A solution of the above is requel. dered equal, perhaps superior in hap

ited piness to millions of mankind.---Oh! my Lord (tears for a while preventing bis utterance) 'tis you, 'tis you that have saved my body and soul, An Enigmatical Bill of Fare for 'tis you that have saved a dear and

Chriftmas. much loved wife, and a little brood

1. Three hundred weight of iron. of children, whom I tendered dearer 2. The chief end of a quadruped than my life ; here is that fifty metamorphos’d to a Mhell hla. pounds ; but no wbere, dever shall í 3. An unruly member, garailhed find a language to teftify what I feel with a blow. Your God is your witness, your deed 4. A favourite game,garnited with itself is your glory, and may heaven. perpetual motion. and a thousand bleffings, be your pre

Vegetables. Sent and everlasting reward. I was

5. The support of Ecclefiaftical the younger son of a wealthy man; Power: your lord thip knew him, I am sure.

6. Musical motion. My name is

; my marriage

7. A character in grammar. alienated nis affe&tions, and my bro

8. Colours. ther withdrew his love, and left me 9. Plants preserved. to sorrow and penury. My diftres.

Deserts. ses---but your good heart already

10. Acids. knows them. A month fince my

11. Nonsense. brother died a batchelor, and inter

12. Scourges. tate ; what was his has become mine,

13. Couples. and by your astonishing goodness amo

Drink. I now at once the most penitent, the

14. A common labourer. most grateful, and most happy of my

15 A conveyance for the dead. species.”

16. The luftre of precious stones.
17. An engine of cruelty.
18. A ghoit.

MYRA. An Enigmatical List of Towns...

*** We are much obliged to our 1. Three fourths of a well known

correspondent Myra, for her Enig

matical Bill of Fare ; but as the jofood, and twenty hundred weight. tended it for a Chriftmas Dinner, we 2. Torn in peices, and the defira.

have reason to think some of our ble part of a hog.

Episcopal Readers would wish for a 3. Three fourths of an insea, part

better one. of the human body, and what we all

.do.

4. A serpeprine letrer, and a letter used in abbreviation, any thing, and Upon a Boy and Girl, both off revers’d. 5. A royal martyr, and a large

beautiful, except that each piece of ground

bad but one eye. 6. Three fifths of a beaft of bur. DLANDE puer. Jumen apod ha. den, and a passage over water.

B bes, concede Sorori, 7. One half of an early fruit, a nu. Sic tu cæcus Amor, fic crit illa mérical letter, and a large collection

Veous. of water.

8. A large hammer, and a cave. +++ A Tranlation of the above is

0. A woman's pick name, and the requested. forñ syllable of a puke.

Poetical

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