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" displeased with myself; for I see one of the best models we have for " more of my own charader.". preaching. We muft not indeed con
Duriog the period that preceeded fider him in the light of a perfect orabe restoration of King Charles II. tor ; his compofition is too loose and The Sermons of the Englim divines remiss; his style too feeble, and freabounded with Icholastic caruiftical quently too.flat, to deserve that high tbeology. They were full of minute character ; but there is in some of bio divifions and sub divifions, and scraps sermons so much warmth and earneftof learning to the didaatic part i butness, and through them all there roas to these were joined very warm pa so much ease and perfpicuity, such thetic addresses to the consciences of a vein of good feore and fincere piety, the hearers, in the applicatory part of as juftly intitle him to be held as emithe sermon. Upon the restoration, nent a preacher as Bngland has propreaching affumed a more correct, and duced.
si polished form. It became disenicum. ii In Dr. Barrow, one admires more bered from the pedantry and scholar. the prodigious fecundity of his inventic divisions of the fedaries ; but it stion, and the uncommon ftrength and threw out also their warm and patbe; force of his conceptions, than the letic addresses, and established itself licity of his execution, or his talent in wholly upon the model of cool repron, Leompofition. We see a genius far ing and rational inftruction. As the furpaffing the common, peculiar indiflenters from the church continued deed almoft to himself ; but that ge. to preserve somewhat of the old train Dius often Mooting wild, and unchar of preaching, this led the eftablished itised by any discipline or ftudy of clergy to de part the farther from it. - elaquence. Whatever was earneft and passionate, I cannot attempt to give particular either in the composition or delivery characters of that great number of of sermons, was reckoned enthufiaftic writers of sermons which this, and and fanatical ; and hence that argo: the former age have produced, among Thentative manner: bordering on the whom we meet with a variety of the dry and un perfuafive, which is too ge molt respectable names. Weand in their nerally the character of Englithi (er- com pbation much that deserves praise ; mons. Nothiog can be more correct 5 a great display of abilities of different upon that model than many of them a kinds, much good sense and piety, are ; but the model itself on which wound divinity and useful inftruétion ; they are formed, is a configed and ! though, in general, the degree of eloimperfect one., Dr. Clark, far, in- quence bears, not, perhaps, equal ftance, every where abounds in good proportion to the goodness of the fense, and the moft clear agd accurate inatter. Teasoning; his applications of , fcrip- pic, Bihop Atterbury deserves being tore are pertinent, his style is always - particularly mentioned, as a model of perspicuous and olten elegant; hein- corre&t and beautiful flyle, besides fructs, and he con vinces ; in what having the merit of a warmer and then is he deficient? In nothing, ex. more eloquent ftrain of writing, in Cept in the power of interefting and some of his sermons, than is common. se zing the heart. He shows you what .ly met with. Had Bishop Butler, in you ought to do ; but he excites not place of abftra& philosophical effays, the defire of doing it ; he treats man given us more fermones in the frain as if he were a being of pure intelleA; - of those two excellent ones which he without imagination or passions. 7-has composed upon felf-deceit, and Archbishop Tillotson's mannor is more upon the character of Balaam, we free and warm, and be approaches would then have pointed him out as Dearer than most of the English di, distinguished for that species of cha: -vides to the character of popularraderiftical sermons which I before [peaking. Hence be is, to this day, recommended.
The Free Republican..
tained its present Aate of perfection . . Nomber 1. Stina
by effecting a proper balance of pow. - HE several governments of the
er ; or, unless, by a superiority of. T Vorted States of America are,
force, one of the conteoding parties perhaps, tüe first in the world, whose
had subdued the others, and thus ren; existence commenced from a conventi,
dered the goveriment an absolute
democracy, aristocracy, or monar*on of individuals, altuated by their · voderstandings, to form a social com ,
chy. In the other nations of Europe,
who were under the feudal admini• pa&t for the security of life and the
Atration, the onhappy people, after i blefliogs that attend it. Every nati
suffering the severeft convulsions, have on, of which hiftory has furnished us
all been obliged to surrender the dear, with accounts,' have had their confti
eft rights of humanity, either to the **tutions eltablished either by compul.
absolute controul of an hereditary nókon, conqueft, accident or intrigue, • Hence has arises the great variety of
bility, or that of a monarch.. forins in which the kingdoms of the When we take a view of the several
earth, bave been governed, and hence nations of Europe, examine the forms • also thore frequent revolutions, those of their several governments, and the
internal feuds and convulsions; which adminiftration ef tbem ;,when we read . have. rendered the world a continued the pages of hiftory, and learn, that
'fcene of devastation and bloodthed. both the worst, and the best of them • The kingdom of Great Britain, whose have been brought to their present
constitution in its present form has Aate, by the destruction of millions of 1. been Ayted a model of perfeAtion, in the homan, race, we cannot but be
the eleventh century resembled a mi- impressed with the warmest sentiments litary, rather than a civil eftablish of gratitude to the Supreme Governor ment. It was then governed by the of the universes that it has been our feudal syftem carried to its utmost ex lot, peaceably to form a system of jutent of severity.. But the great ob- fil-prudence, son those principles of
jedts, which the desire of happiness freedom and equality, the enjoyment, · "urges, den to pursue, being conftant, of which whole nations have bled to ; lyspotted, with by the Lord Para.. obtaio..N
o s, midi • mount and his ipfamous tools, a sense. It has been said, and perhaps with
of common danger uniting the views truth, that all goverpments incline to i of the Lords and Commons, drew' decay, and that the moft free must • forth, under ihe dire&tion of the Earl end in tyranny. This observation
of Leicefler, in the reię n of Henry the, will be acknowlodged to be at least third, such exertions; as checked the founded on ptobability, when we rigor of the feudal adminiftration; & in contemplate the rise and fall of ancitheir consequences gave a deadly blow ent nations, and compare them with to that prolific parent of discords, jea- the origin, progrets and present ftaté
lousies, ignorance, usurpation, tyran of the modera. Civilization and cor..ny and every other fpecies of human ruption have ever been found to ad.. 1 wretchedness. From that time, when vance, with equal Ateps, A nation,
the people,' at the invitation of Lei- . therefore, as it encreases in age, muf center, urged to the measuré by ne- increase the power of her magiftrates, ceffity, became a branch of the legi. . as the only resaurce for controuling Nature, to the reign of William and the multiplied vices of the people. Mary, the Kings, Lords and Com;. Hence a democracy has usually been mons were conftantly ftruggling for succeeded by aristocracy, and arispower ; the unequal division of which tocracy by a monarchy. But though
among the contending parties being. it may be impossible to prevent the - ing their discordant interests into ex free republice of America from finally
ercise, rendered the nation a conftant meeting the face of the other kingscene of murders, diffentions and ci., doms of the earth, yet it is undoubt. vil wars. They probably would have edly in the power of the citizens of continued in Britain uptil the present them to place the sad catastrophe at a day, unless the government had ob distance. And, if it is in their pewet,
it would be a facrilegious contempt of Governments are divided into three the noblert gifts of Heaven, to be in.. species, the Republican, Monarchical attentive to chore measures, necessary, and Despotic. A Republican Goto eifect ro great a purpose. What vernment is that, in which th, body, thea is to be done? This is a quer or only part of the people is poffeffed tion addrelied to all, and to which of the supreme power. If the Body, Patriocilin and Religion demand a 'the government is called a Democra. maply and deliberate attention. No cy, if a Part, an Aristocracy; a Mothing is more true than that civil and, narchical Goveroment is that, in religious tyranny are twin monsters; which a single person governs by fixand that he who dares surrender his ed and establ shed laws; a Despotic, political liberty, dires in contempt of that in which a single person directs his God, to submit his soul io a. every thing by his mere will and caMackle
price. Each species of government, The inhabitants of the Common says the great ?Montesquieu, has its wealth of Massachufetts, in their de nature and principles ; the former is claration of rigbts, have explicitly " that by which it is conftituted ; the, aoswered the qucftico I have asked. «latter, that by which it is made to They say, "a frequent recurrence to " at " The Nature of a Government
the fundamental principles of the is known by its form ; its Principles, “ conftitolion, and a constant adher. by comparing the end or object of all rence to those of piety, justice, mo. civilinftitutions with the means of ob« deration, temperance, industry and taining that end, or in other words, 1* frugality, are absolutely neceffary with the nature or form of the ga
to preserve the advantages of liber- véroment. This comparison or apa "ty, and to maintain a free gavern. plication of the end to the means, "ment. The people ought confe- will liew the only way in which the i quently to have a particular atten. end is to be obtained ; or, which is the " tion to all those principles, in the same, the principles of the govern* choice of their officers and represen- ment. "tatives, and to require of their law. It has long since been determined * givers and magiftrates an exact and by the learned and the virtuous of t conftant observance of them in the every pation, that however different "*. formation and execution of all laws conftitutions may have taken their ** pecessary for the good administrati rise, however different their forms "on of the Commonwealth." If this may be, or by what means foever answer is a juft one, it is the indispea. they may subrift, there can of right fible duty of every citizea of a free re. be no other obje&t of their administrapublic, to make himself acquainted'' tion, but the good of the governed. with the end and design of civil go. The pride of fome despotic princes vernments; the principles of the le- have founded their right of governveral species of them ; and particolar. ing, on the immediate appointment Jy with the nature and principles of of the Great Lord of creation ; and free governments; and what measures taking subterfuge behind that darling ought to be pursued for their good niaxim of tyranny, that the King 'adminiftration. At a time when our can do no wrong, to promote their Commonwealth is but in its birth,and own emolument, have involved their when it ought to be guarded with pe subjects in every species of wretchcoliar attention, reflections on these edness and distress. But in this enfubje&s may not be uninteresting lightened period of the world, a Divine This fentiment has induced me at Pight' to create misery, and thware this time to make fame observations the end and design of creation, is conupon them. Should they be judged. fufion in language ; the assertion of by the Editors of the Boston-Maga. such a right is blasphemy, and deserves Zoe, to be founded on truth, and de- the fevereft deteftation. Whether, serving the public eye, they are re: therefore, the government be a mo. quested to give then a place in that narchy or a democracy; whether it useful Pablication.
be an ariftocracy, or composed of all
the the laws and the example of the great where a fupreme, legislative, jadicial Monarch of the Universe, binding and executive authority. The differalike the Prince and Peasant, indispen- eat manner in which tbis fupreme fibly require of thole in whose hands authority is placed, and the different is its adminiftration, to promote in eve- teoures by which it is held, constitutes ry instance the greateft poffible good all the variety in tbe forms of civil of its subjects.
governments, that have ever made, Creation and the government of it or can make their appearance upon is perfeâ ; because he, who adminis the theatre of the world. When this fiers it, is a Being of infinite wisdom, power refts in the hands of one mang goodness and power. Deftitute of ei. independently of the people, it is callcher of these attributes, or were they ed monarchy, when in a few an aril. not absolutely balanced and equal to tocracy, when in the citizens at large, their end, the governor and the go. united by the social compaa, it is vernment would be imperfect. Hence Atylod a democracyit may joftly be inferred, that those, who govern their fellow mortals, to govern them with fitness, must posters
Urit me Glyceræ nitor not only power to pursue the best . Splendepuis Pario marmore putius : measures, but wisdom to discovery
Urit grata Protervitas, and goodness to lead to them. If
Et Vulius nimium lubricus aspici. the Prince be pofleffed of a sufficiency
Hor. of pover, and without it government T HERE is nothiog in wbich met of no kind can exift, and be deftituie
I more impore upon themselves , of eit lier wirdom or goodness, he is
than in matters of Love. No rooder ungualified for his office. If he be ig: has this paffion kindled in any great norant, though he be good, the indis. degree in the heart, but the eyes of cretion of his measures muy involve rearon are put out,a cloud bangs upon timrell and his kingdom in ruin. If the intellect, and darkness invades the he be not ignoranty yet, should he be whole roul. The lover immediately 2 bad man, with his knowledge and apprehends-things in a different manhis power, the happiness of the sub- ner from all the reft of the world. He jeå muß yield to his interest or his enjoys a thousand delights, and suffers ambicion. From there oblervatione a thourand inquietudes which have no 1( 16 plain, that the Prince, or thosc, origipal but in his own imagination ; who administer a government, muft and his life glides a way rather like a have, united in them, wisdom, good vifionary exiftence than a reality. ress and power, in order to effe& the The fair charmer of his affections is happiness of the subject, the great no longer a mortal ; nor can be perand only proper object of civil society: roade himrell that the lovely form is When a sufficiency of there is posseflect Aesh and blood, but a refined compoboth in kind and degree, the govern. Sition of an ætherial and angelical naroent, of what species soever it may ture. It would be an unpardonable be, is then in its utmost ftate of per. crime in him, to conje&ure that her jection ,
eyes were any other than two suns, Civil power naturally divides itself, which can, as the power that governa into three diftinct branches, the legi d hem, pleares, either give the day, or lative, judicial and executive. There. leave the hemisphere to perpetual three branches, in a fate of nature, night and horror ; either fmile (erent lovereignly in the individual. In renely as a summer morning ; or a Rate of civil society, they are in raise a tempeft in every faculty of his most instances surrendered into the mind. He affures himself the fyrens tands of the government, whose warble in her voice; the graces move Kreveth isever in a ratio to the indi- : in her steps; the zephyrs flutter u pon vidual's loss of his natural sovereign-, her fan ; her air is something more ry and independence. In all govern. , than humane ; and her features are at ments, thereforethere mut be some leaA Aushed with divinity. In. Mart
from the moment a man commences that are indeed very ridiculous. If a lover, he refigns his vaderftanding, lover is so imple as to compliment and ftarts up a knight arrant ; while his mistress into a Deity, the presently his miftress at once looses the won an convinces him of the presumption of in the goddess.
the mortal, who dares approach her It is my defigo in this paper, to without à due veneration : And it reduce the men to their reafon, and thould seem ftrange, that after he has the ladies to tbeir proper species. In adored her as a divine,he should wonorder to compass my intention, I derat her inhumanity. When he tells Calt thow some of the di consequences her, her eyes are killing, the takes of this way of thinking and acting, care to prove his words for him: And is regad both to the male agd , fe- as soon as ever he begs in a most hummale world.
ble manner, that at least she would let So long as a man indulges these him enjoy a compassionate look, or idle dreams, it incapacitates him for her unkindness will certainly break a all happiness, except a few imaginary heart already wounded; the instantly pleasures,wnich are vofatisfyingintheir frowns upon him, and with great tranDatore, and fleeting in their duration.' quility sets about the experiment. It His mind is in a continual mutation ; frequently happens that the cringing and every little accident will fatter of the man, renders the woman too his expeditions, or.quench bishopes ; imperious to be born with. A man inflame his defires or roure his jealous of a philosophical conftitution, when íy. If his fair siniles upon another, it he sees his miftress thus haughty and Ists him a low'ring with envy and re contemptuous, afferts his liberty,and seetmeat ; and nothing will more leaves the nymph to look out for anoeffettually fting his brains, than a ther of a more fervile fpirit, to wear piach of his mifrers's snuff offered to the chains of her tyranny and trihis rival. Does she give her hand to mph. I once knew a gentleman who any one else ? his own hand trembles ; made court to a woman, in this moif the accepts a nose-gay from his an-' dern polite manner, which had no vetagonift, the perfume immediately ry desirable conclufion. Madam, says takes away his breath; and whenever he, “it is my bigheft ambition to belae (peaks kindly to his friend, a sud. come your slave." Who can blame den filence reizes his tongue, and his her it upon this the managed with Ears dearea with faintness. Besides ; suitable authority? She bridled up her this amorous difpofition is a great head, and with a commanding accent. error in the politics of the man, as it ordered him upon his knees to ask puts him opon doing those things pardon for his unsufferable arrogance ; which have a direa tendency to de.. when upon his smiling, the arose in Aroy his schemes. It gives him a great wrath, called him insolent Jackfawning behaviour, and makes him ad a-napes, and beat him out of doors beneath the dignity which would with a broom.flick. Otherwise recommend him. Indeed, to a woman of discretion, and a gene
This kind of addreffing the ladies
has a very ill effe&t upon their marri tous temper, this would be very far
ages, inasmuch as it often influences from creating any difefteem of the
them to a wrong choice. The man feat'eman who addreffes her ; fince it
wbo has his heart overflowing with is only the respeat he has for her,
tenderness for a dear creature, canoot that forbids him to ad before her with his usual freedom. But as there
caress her with that gallantvyand blan
dishment he is master of to another. are few women of that character, fo
Let his air be ever so fine, her presence it hands as a maxim, That the more
awes him; let his eloquence be ever the lover allows, the more the miftress
so flowing, at her appearance he is fi will allume.
lenced. But on the contrary, a man If this method of amour is disad.
who loves but indifferently, can mainvantageous to the men, it is co less
tain all his graces, and by that meang fo to the ladies themselves. It puts
is able to carry an undiscerning wo. them upon a thousand little tricks,