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focial duties, countera@ing the com- preferable to a barbarons governmon bonds of alliance with our species, ment; and far more defirable than and checking the source of our molt the tot of flaves. sefined satisfactions.
The kind Creator has closely conThere is in the fouls of men, a cer- neded our intereft with our duty, tain attractive power, which infenfiand made it each man's happiness to bly leads them to affociate, and con- contribute to the welfare of all his cert the plan of mutual happiness. If fellow citizens. But ftill the noble any thing be natural tous,it muftbethat motive to a generous soul is that pafsion which conduces to the prefer- which springs from the unselfish apa vation of the species. But nothing petite of diffusing the joys of life to fo manifeftly contributes to that end, all around him. There is nothing as this combining principle of fellow he thinks so desirable, as to be the jothip, which muft therefore be as cer- ftrument of doing good ; & the farther tainly derived from nature, as the it is extended, the greater is bis delove we bear to our offspring, or that light, and the more glorious his cha. which we have for each other. The rader. Benignity to friends and republic is, as it were, one great fami- lations, is but a narrow spirited qually ; we are all children of one com- ity compared with this ; and permon mother, our country; she gave haps as frequently the effe& of ca us all our birth, nursed our tender price or pride, as of a benevolent years, and fupports our manhood. tem per. But when our flow of good In this light, therefore, our regards will spreads itself to all the society, for her seem as natural as the im and in them to diftant pofterity ; planted affection betwixt parents and when charity rises into public (pirit, children. It is then from the very and partial affe&tion is extended into frame of man, that the sense of a na general benevolence, then it is that tional brother-hood rises, and a pub man thines in the higheft luftre, and lic is recognized by the fuffrage of is the truest image of his divine Mavoerring nature.
ker. Whenever, therefore, this uniting But notwithftanding all that has inftin&t is obftructed in its operations been said in favour of this affection, by the unequal indulgence of private laudable as it is, we are not, however, affe tion, the ballance of the paffions to forget, that it may be lo condud. is deitroyed, and the kind intention ed as to become a very criminal of the Creator no less imprudently passion. If any associated body, ap. than impioufly perverted.
prehending themselves superior to Pablic good is, as it were, a com- their neighbour.ftates, fhould, for mon bank, in which every individu. that reason only, invade their rights, al has his refpective share ; and con this would be to undermine the very sequently, whatever damage that fur foundation of society and consequent. tains, the individuals unavoidably ly an unjuftifiable enterprize. Does partake of the calamity. If liberty true patriotism inspire such condud ? be deftroyed, no particolar member Does the love of our own country cas escape the chains. If the credit teach us to aggrandize it by the ruof the affociate body Gink, his fortune in of another ! Undoubtedly not ; Enks with it . If then we have a true and if we think at all, we muft allow affection for ourselves, if we would such attempts utterly repugnant to reap the fruits of our industry, and the fundamental law of universal charajoy our properties in security, we rity. Hard would be his fate, who Duft ftand firm to the cause of public thould be commanded to such a servirtue. Otherwise, we had better vice, and glorious the triumph of his Teturn to the raw herbage for our foul, if he resolved to decline it ! food, and to the inclemencies of the In vain would he call in the example open sky for our covering ; go back of ancient Rome, for his encourageto uncultivated nature, where our ment ; for after all the extravagant wants would be lewer, and our appe encomiums bestowed upon ber patritites less. Such a situation, not witt- otism, we shall scarce be able to clear Kanding all its incoavenie ac ies, io far it from the imputation of fagrant im
piety, piety. " Rome, early possessed with very. The liberty we con tend for, is the bigh fanaticism of diftin&ion and not the licence of a few to tyrannize empire," declared war against. man over muhitudes; but an equal freekind; and out of that feverith fond dom to all so far as is confiftent with pers for renown, laid desolate all good order, and the peace of governthe known world. Their possessions, ment.. their habitations, their paintings, their sculptures, all their riches were the spoil of injured nations. Thus
On INDUSTRY. they erected to themselves an empire, as vnwieldy as it was unjust, on the F it be true that nature hath given Quins of their fellow creatures. What 1 pothing to man but what requires Then are all their beautiful leatures labour and industry to get, doubtless and pompous declamations on the it should be the effort of every one, love of their country? What their fo to labour that they may ob. Jaboured orations in praise of liberty ! tain. Those who neglect their ocIndisputable proofs indeed of their cupation, or refule to labour, will lose eloquence; but not so of their hu- the reward. manity. If the language of benevo. Of all the virtues which adorn and lence were to conftitute the character, beautify the characters of a mao, you muft allow it due to the Romans; none rets it off to a greater admiration, but if actions are to ascertain the or ought to be more valued by us, rights, we fhall find it a difficult talk than industry. For it is that alone to make good their claim, though we which makes she artificer and labourwere masters even of their owo elo. er as useful and valuable as any memquence. Lonk into the city, and be- bers in society. hold the inhabitants ; there will you As providence hath allotted to men find this celebrated freedom spread- diff:rent ftations and conditions of ing itself only among particular bran- life, and assigoed them different gifts ches, and giving a few the licence to and talents to profit with, and differtyrannize over an infinite number of ent occupations and employments for miserable slaves, rendered more the good of the whole ; to be diligent wretched by having always before and induftrious then, in the several their eyes a disagreeable subject of provinces in which he hath placed us comparison. Look into the pro-' is a duty we owe to ourselves, that we vinces, and you behold scenes of the may become serviceable to mankind, ut moft barbarity and horror.
and at the same time merit their efNow and then, it is true, you see teem. the conquered enjoying a little ease The cares and anxieties of the poder a humane governor; but in world are often alleviated by the hand general, their oppressions were intola- of Industry. For only let us suppore bie, and their whole adminiftration that we have in ou! view a cottage no better than a course of hoftility where Contentment and Happiner and plunder. Nay, in countries take up their abode, and Industry i where they were called in to rescue its porter. Let us now take a survey their allies from the invasion of ene- of the family, and see what its mem mies, it was their praAice to turn a bers are employed in. The fir teinporary deliverance into a perma. objet that presents itself to us, is th nent tyranny. For these reasons, it aged Father, (who by an industriou bas been jully said of them, that they hand has brought up the family, nov made an idol of Rome, and then, with able to afliit nim) giving orders to ini fword in hand, commanded alt nati. fons to go to cultivate his few acres a ons to fall down and worfhip the ground, on the produce of which image which they had set up.
perhaps, depends the maintenance.c It is our felic ty that we are not his family, while be, an enem members of such a fociety. We live to idleners, employs himself a in a nation which drew not the home. The next in view is th word for conqueft, but for justice, Mother, no less attentive in her dut DoL to introduce, but to prevent fa. than the Father, who, after haviat in order the house, now employs' An Esay on Love and Marriage: . her daughters in their respeaive callings of the day, while the per I Know not whence it proceeds, forms her derestic duty in providing that women are su apt to take for her family. But what a change amiss every thing that is said in dispamall we find, when our speculative at ragement of the married ftate; and alibnsion is drawn afide to its neigh ways consider a satire upon matris bouriog cottage, where pothing but mony as a satire upon themselves. discord and animofities are to be seen, Do they mean by this, that they are and where no proper regulations are the parties principally concerned, kept go, and no government or obe- and that if a backwardness to enter dience to be foond, but allibertines i into that fate should prevail in the in a word, industry is thut out, and world, they would be the greatest ideaers, anarchy and confusion, bear (ufferers? or are they sensible, that the (way.
the misfortunes and miscarriages of The effeats of idleness often prove the married itate are owing more to fatal io inconsiderate youth, and those their sex than ours? I hope they do who appear lovers of it must, doubt not intend to confess.any of these i wo less, be enemies to induery ; but let particulars, or to give such an advanthe scene be changer, let us see youih tage to their adversaries, the men, as (pontaneously opening its inclination even to allow them to surpelt it. to the embraces of it, and giving it I have olten had thoughts of comthe rule over idlepers.
plying with this humour of the fair When the seeds of industry are well fex, and of writing a panegyric upon sownia the mind, and its inclination
marriage; but, in looking around for well cultivated by attentive labour
materials, they seemed to be of fo €75, it is like a field, although barren,
mixed a nature, that at the conclusie neverthelers by labour and persever.
on of my refe&tions, I found I was ance, it will abundantly repay theia
as much disposed to write a satire, bours of the hub andman.
which might be placed on the oppoFrom the admirable lesson which
fite pages of my papegyric; and I am on pives us in the fable of the afraid, that as satire is, on molt occaAnts aud Grashopper, we may learn
fions, thought to have more truth in never to lose aoy present opportunity
it than panegyric, I should have done of providing against the fuiure evils
their cause more harm than good by aod accideors of life. Fur as the
this expedient. To misrepresent lommer is the reason of the year, in
facts is what, I know, they will not which the industrious and laborious
require of me, I must be inore a turbandman gatbers and lays up
er friend to truth than even to them, such fruits as may supply his neces
where their interests are opposite. fit:es in winter; so youth and
I Mall - ll the women what it is our manhood are the umes of life which
sexs complains of most in the marriwe mould employ and bestow
ed ftate ; and if they be disposed to in layiog in such a flock of all kinds
satisfy us in this particular, all the of necessaries, as may suffice for the
otter differences will be easily accraving demands of helpless old
commodated. If I be not mistaken, aze
it is their love of dominion which is Other arguments sure are not want. ing to point out further the necessity
the ground of the quarrel; though it of industry, lince it has been already
is very likely, that they will think it in a sufficient manner shewn, that laa'
an unreasonable love of it in us,
which makes us infift so much upon bour and preseverance are our only
that point. However this may be, companions through tie vious and
no paffion seems to have more influtugged paths of this lise.
ence on female minds, than this for N.
power ; and there is a remarkable in. Itauce in history of iis prerailing
in above above another paffion, which is the ter to do, in a fate where the female only one that can be supposed a pro sex had once got the fuperiority. " per counterpoise for it. We are told I know not if the ladies derive That all the women in Scythia once any thing of this humour from the conspired against the men, and kept Scythian females ; but, I muft conthe secret fo well, that they executed fers, that I have often been surprized their defiga before they were furpeet.. to see a woman very well pleased to ed. They furpr.zed the men in drivk, take a fool for her mate, that the or asleep, bound them all in chains ; might govern with the less controul; and having called a folemn council of and could not but think her sentithe whole fex, it was debated what meots, in this respeå, ftill more barexpedient fhould be used to improve barous than those of the Scythian wothe present advantage, and prevent men abovementioned, as much as the their falling again into flavery. To eyes of the underftanding are more kill all the men did not seem to be valuable than those of the body. ebe relife of any part of the assembly, But to be juft, and to lay the blame not withi anding the injuries formerly more equally, I am afraid it is the received ; and iney were afterwards fault of our lex, if the women be lo pleased to make a great merit of this fond of rule, and that if we did not Jenity of theirs. It was therefore abuse our authority, they would neagreed to put out the eyes of the ver think it worth while to dispute whole male sex, and thereby refignit. Tyrants, we know, produce reforever, after all, the vanity they bels ; and all history informs us, that could draw from their beauty, in or. rebels, when they prevail are apt to der to secure their authority. We become tyrants in their turn. For muft no longer pretend to dress and this reason, I could with there were Mow, say they ; but then we Mall be no pretensions 10 authority on either free from Ravery. We ihall hear fide; but that every thing was carried no more tender fighs ; but in returo, on with perfe& equality, as bet wixt we fall hear no more imperious com two members of the same body. And mands. Love muft forever leave us ; to induce both parties to embrace but he will carry subje&ion along those amicable sentiments, I hall de. with him.
liver to them Plato's account of the It is regarded by some as ap un origin of Love and Marriage. lucky circumstance, fince the women Mankind, according to that fanci. were resolved to maim the men, and ful philosopher, were not, in their deprive them of some of their fepses, original, divided into male and fein order to render them humble and male as at present ; but each indivi dependent, that the sense of hearing dual person was a compouna of both could not serve their purpose, fioce sexes, and was in his self both hur it is probable the females would ra: band and wife, melted down into oni ther have attacked that than the living creature. This union, ni fight : and I think it is agreed among doubt, was very entire, and the parti the learned, that, in a married ftate, very well adjusted together, since ther it is not near so great an inconveni rerülied a perfeå harmony het wix ence to lose the former sense as the the male and female, although they larter. However this may be, we are were obliged to be inreparable com told by modern anecdotes, that some panions. And so great was the bar of the Scythian women did recretly mony and happiness flowing from it Spare their husband's eyes ; prefum. that the Androgynes (for fo Plato ing, I suppose, that they could govero calls them) or Men-women, becam them as well by means of that sense infolent upon their prosperity, and as without it. But fo incorrigible and rebelled against the gods. To puni and intractable were there men, that them for this temperity, Jupiter coul their wives were all obliged, in a few contrive no better expedient, thau ti years, as their youth and beauty de divorce tha ma'e part from the female cayed, to imitaie the example of their and make two in perfect beings of fifters; which it was no difficult mat the compound, which was before si
perfet cerfed. Hence the origin of men mitive ftate, that they proceeded on iad women, as distinct creatures. But their work with wonderful roccers for not withitaading this division, so live- Come time; till at laft, from many ly is our remembrauce of the happi. unlucky accidents, diffention arose pels we enjoyed in our primæval betwixt them. The chief coupsellor Haie, that we are never at rent in this and favourite of Hymen was Care, fituation ; but each of these halves is who was continually filling his pacontinually searching through the tron's head with prospe As of futuriwhole species to find the other half ty ; a settlement, family, children. which was broken from it; and when servants; lo that little else was rethey meet, they join again with the garded in all the matches they made. greateft fondoers and sympathy. But On the other hand, Love had choren it often happens, that they are mifta. Pleasure for his favourite, who was ken in this particular ; that they take as pernicious a counsellor as the for their half what no way correl- other, and would never allow Love ponds to them, and that the parts do to look beyond the present momennot meet nor join io with each other, tary gratification, or the satisfing of as is usual in fractures. In this case the prevailiog inclination. There the union is foon diffolved, and each two favourites became, in a little part is set loose. again to hunt for its time, irreconcilable enemies, and loft half, joining itself to every one it made it their chief business to undersaeets by way of trial, and enjoying 'mine each other in all their underpo reft, till its perfe&t sympathy with takings. No sooner had Love fixed its partner thews that it has at laft upon two halves, which he was cebeen successful in its endeavours. menting together, and forming a close
Were I disposed to carry on this 'union, but Care infinuates himself, Aion of Plato, which accounts for and bringing Hymen along with him, the mutual love betwixt the sexes in diffolves the union produced by Love, fo agreeable a manner, I would doit and joins each half to some other by the following allegory.
half, which he had provided for it. When Jupiter had separated the To be revenged of this, Pleasure male from the female, and had quell- creeps in upon a pair already joined ed their pride and ambition by lo re- by Hymen ; and calling Love to his vere an operation, he could not but affiftance, they underhand contrive repent him of the cruelty of nis ven- to join each ball, by secret links, to geaace, and take com paffion on poor halves which Hymen was wholly unmortals, who were now become in acquainted with. It was not long be. capable of any repose or tranquillity. fore this quarrel was felt in its perni. Sach cravings, such anxieties, such cious consequences ; and ruch' comneceilities arose, as made them curse plaints arose before the throne of Jutheir creation, and think existence piter, that he was obliged to summon itself a punishment. In vain had the offending parties to appear before they recourse to every other occupa him, in order to give an account of ition and amusement. In vain did their proceedings. After hearing the they seek after every pleasure of pleadings on both sides, he ordered fense, and every refinement of reason. an immediate reconcilement betwixt Nothing could fill that void which Love and Hymen, as the only exthey felt in their hearts, or supply pedient for giving happiness to manthe loss of their partner, who was so kind; and that he might be sure this fatally separated from them. To re. reconcilement should be durable, he medy this disorder, and to bestow Jaid his ftrict injunction on them never some comfort, at least, on human to join any haives without consulting race in their forlorn situation, Jupiter their favourites, Care and Pleasure, feet down Love and Hymen to collect and obtaining the consent of both to the broken halves of human kind, the conjunction. Where this order and piece them together in the best is ftriativ obferved, the Androgyne manner poffible. These two deities is perfe@ly restored, and human race found such a prompt disposition in enjoy the same happiness as in their mankind to unite again in their pri- primeval ftate. The feam is scarce